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* 100 (w, 284). To Mr Oalibutt, April 16, 1S60 . 198* - 

101 (5, 46). Oheke to Booer, May 11, 1660 . . 194* 

102 (1, 8). Sturm to Asobam, Sept. 6, 1660 . . 196 
108 (8, 1). To Edward Baven, At WilL Eland's, Lon- 
don, Sept. 17, [1660] . . .207 

104 (8, 2). To Edward Bayen, Sep. 21, [1560] . . 209 
106 (8,8,&L,49). To Edward Baven, Antwerp, Oct. 1, 

[1660] 210 

106 (8,4,&L,69). To Edward Baren, Cologne, Oct. 12, 

[1660] 218 

107 (6, 46). Martin Buoer to Sir John Cheke [Cam- 

bridge], Oct. 21, 1660 . .214 

108 (8, 6). To Sir John Cheke [Aogsburg], Nov. 11, 

1660 216 

109 (6, 1). Sturm to A8cham,Stra«bourg,Kov. 18, 1660 222 

110 (1, 4). To Sturm [Augsburg], Dec. 14, 1660 . 224 

111 (8, 6). To Martin Bucer, St Qeorge*s Monas. 

Augsburg, Jan. 7, [1661] . .220 

112 (6, 49). Peter Martyr to Martin Buoer, Lambeth, 

Jan. 10, [1551] . . . .232 

118 (3, 9). To Sir John Oheke, Augsburg, Jan. 14, 1661 235 
114 (8,7). To LadyJane Gray, Augsburg, Jan.18, 1551 239 

116 (3, 8). To King -: . . .242 

'-116 (b,1,&l,69). To Mr Edward Baven, Augsburg, Jan. 

20, 1551 248 < 



117 (1, 6). To Sturm, Augsburg, Jan. 24, 1561 . . 271 

118 (5, 21). Brandosby to Ascham, [Louvain], Feb. 8, 

[1661] 274 

119 (4,76). The Princess Elizabeth to Edward VI. 

Hatneld, Feb. 2, [1551] . . . 27(5 
« 120 (E,2,&L,57). To Edward Kavon, Augsburg, Feb. 23, 

1561 27H — 

121 (5, 2). Sturm to Ascham, Strasbourg, Marrli 17, 

1561 2H0 

- 122 (e,3,&l,60). To Edward Raven, Augsburg, May 14- 

18, 1651 281- 

123 (3, 13). To Froben the Printer of Basle, Augsburg, 

Juno 10, [1661J . . . . 2HH 

124 (3, 14). To Francis Alan 21)0 

125 (6, 8). Sturm to Ascham, Strasbourg, June 16, 

1551 292 

126 (1, 6). To Sturm, Juno [July ?] 18th, 1561 . 21)» 

127 (5,4). Sturm to AhoIiuiu, Strasbourg, July 0,1651 2iH> 

128 (1, 7). To^tunn, Aug«l)urg, Aug. 21, 1661 . 207 
121) (6, 17). Toxites to Asehani, Strasbourg, Aug. 23, 

1661 . . . . . . 2l«) 

• 130 (k, 4). To Edward Haven and William Ireland, 

Aug. 31, ir>5l 301- 

131 (1, 8). Asclmm to «turni, Augwburg,Scp. 27, 1661 303 

-* 132 (W, 273). To Sir Thomas Snnth, [1661] . . . 300 « 
-^133 (B, 5). To the Fellows of St John's, Oct. 12, 1551 307 - 
^134 (ji, C). To Edward Rnven and William Ireland, 

Nov. 17, 1651 31 5 V 

135 (1, 9). To Sturm, Halle, Jan. 29, 1652 . . 31H 

136 (2, 60). To Bishop Day 322 

137 (5, 5). Sturm to AHcljnm, Strasburg, Jan. 30, 1562 324 

138 (5, 18). Sleidan to Anehnni, Trent, Feb. 28, 1662 . 326 
-189 (E,7,&M,1). To Sir William Cecil, Villach, July 12, 

1562 328 - 

^^140 (E,8,&M,8). To Cecil, Spires, Sep. 27, 1552 . . 330 •" 
« 141 (h). To Sir Kichard Aloryson, Oct. 1, 1552 . 334- 

142 (1, 10). To Stunn, Spires, Oct. 20, 1562 . . ::;;7 
^ 143 (R,9,&M,6). To Cecil, Spires, Nov. 28, 1662 . . .111'- 

1 44 (3, 12). To Ilubert, Bruhseln, March 6, 1653 .oil 



-^46 (e,10,&m,77). To Cecil, BruBsels, March 24, 1553 .849-- 

146 (5, 7). Christophorson to Ascham, Louvain, Ap. 

23, 1553 865 

147 (5, 8). Sturm to Ascham, Strasbourg, May 9, 1553 857 

148 (5, 6). Brandesby to Ascham, Mechlin, June 11, 

1553 869 

149 (3, 10). To Sir William Cecil, Brusnels, June 7, 1553 360 

150 (3, 11). To Sir John Choke, Brussels, July 7, 1553 863 

161 (5, 20). Cisner to Ascham, Heidelberg, July 18, 1653 867 

162 (5, 22). Brandi8bytoA8cham,Meohhn,July 18,1553 870 

153 (5, 9). Sturm to Ascham, Strasburg, July 22, 1553 871 

154 (6, 19). Hubert to Ascham, Heidelberg, Aug. 9, 

3563 873 

155 (5, 14). Nannius to Ascham, Louvain, Aug. 18, 1563 877 
150 (5, 10). Sturm to Ascham, Strasburg, Sop. 17, 1553 878 

157 (5, 11). Sturm to Paget, Strasburg, Sop. 17, 1653 . 879 

158 (3, 18). To Bishop Gardiner, Oct. 8, 1663 . . 381 
169 (3, 19). To the same, [1563] . . . .386 

160 (3, 20). To Sir William Petre, [1553] . . .386 

161 (3, 21). To Lord Paget, London, Nov. 14, 1553 . 388 
1G2 (3, 2G). To an Eminent Lawyer, [1553] . . 391 

-103 (a, 2). To SirWilliam Petre, London, Dec. 25, 1653 393- 

%.164 (A, 1). To Bishop fiardinor, [end of 1663] . . 396- 

165 (3, 23). To Bishop Gardiner, London, Jan. 1, 1554 399 

166 (3, 22). To Lady Clarke, [London], Jan. 16, 1654 403 
— 167 (w, 271). To Lord Chancellor Gardiner, Jan. 18, 1554 405 — 

168 (3, 27). To lladcliffe, before Palm Sunday, [i.e. 

March 18, if in 1564] . . . 409 

169 (3, 28). To Two Young Men, Brothers . . .410 
-170 (w, 274). To Bishop Gardiner, [About April, 1554] 412- 
-171 (w, 276»). To Sir Willlnm Pawlctt, [June 18], 1654 . 413 " 

172 (5, 12). Sturm to Paget, Strasbourg, June 23, 1664 414 

173 (3, 65). To King Pliilip, [London], Aug. 11, 1564 ib. 

174 (3, 24). To Buris Secretary, London, Aug. 21, 1564 416 
^176 (w, 275). To Lord Chancellor Gardiner, End of 1654 417 - 

176 (4, 46). To King Philij), [London], Nov. 8, 1554 . 419 

177 (4, 44). To the same, Nov. 20, 1654 . . .420 

178 (4, 43). To the same, Nov. 23, 1654 . . .421 

179 (1, 42). To the same, Deo. 14, 1664 . . .422 


Limx VA( 

180 (4s 46). To King [PhiUp] 45 

181 (4, 47). To the nme, [1555] . . . . 4S 

182 (3, 30). To John, Dominio, and Mabel Yahane . 42 

183 (3, 29). To Peter Nanniui, Palaoe at Weetminster, 
Feb. 10, 1555 . . . . . 4S 

184 (4^ 41). To King Philip, Feb. 22, [1555] . . 4i 

185 (4, 39). To Andrew Bylde, AprU 2, 1555 . . 42 

186 (3, 15). To Francis Duaren i 

187 (8, ]7). To Doctor Cole 4^ 

188 (8, 16). To Sir William Petre, [April 7, 1555] . 4: 

189 (a, 8). To Cardinal Pole, April 7, [1555] . . 4^ 

190 (4^ 88). To King PhiUp, July 15 . . . .4^ 

191 (1, 11). To Sturm, areenwioh, Sep. 14, 1555 . 4^ 

192 (5, 48). Sir John Cheke to Queen Mary, Tower of 
London, July 15, [1556] . . . 4^ 

198 (4, 49). To Hieronymo Prioli, Doge, and to the 
Senators of Venice, Palace, London, 
NoF. 2, 1656 4^ 

194 (4, 75). To Pope Paul IV, Palace at Westminster, 

i May 21, 1557 4J 

195 (3, 31). To Antony Bum, St James's Palaoe, Sep. 
22, 1557 4J 





C— TO Me CALIBUTT, (w, 284). 

Sends him Wyatt'g letter to read, and reqoesti that it may be 
sent back. April 16, 1550. 

HINGS aptly spoken or wittily written, because 
you can both aptly judge when you read, and 
do also like when you hear, marking it well in 
others, and using it much yourself, therefore 
I send you by this bearer a letter, written by 
the worthy Wyatt purposely to his son, yet fitly to all 
others that list to take pleasure in reading, or profit in 
following these few lines of witty counsel leading to honest 

* As the discovery of so many new letters has made the 
first volume of this work much thicker than is convenient, it has 
been thought fit to divide it into two parts. But the figures, 
which denote the paging and the order of the letters, run on in 
one ntries through the whole volume. 


life. AnA m t W« lw»^ UtfmfU'A io f^A ym l*^t hy 
futifrff; t/y mu^ t/]rir«r^lfMi?MV, yt^ \iy ill (ifmpttrty Uf ^^m^, 

dM m<j*i ffH^f^ffm, Up ^^ ywi ir» « rfc»if« *ff/rir>j(mj( t/; 

WMlfcjr f^^mpHftf fffM,V,,,,t, mul nlnff tlw«! fiprin^ fffihf, 
yfsur liftoff rw iw/ir Uf im fair, ikft»ke<l lie (ifnU Awl ihf^tifmt, 
1 #ftrr»/l ym imitmA in YftAtt^n iHU^ Mr nif^l of f/rtMfd 

fiKfi in ymr inmri, m iUni turn mtf rt^mim tm jftur i^ti 
•0 t^ Umimwi ihff mniU^f itMi iiw fmr httsU f^mttMhn^ in 
wimA l*/jrpft ntfif p^fffW fftrih t/iih« pU^niy (4 kw^h truh h% 
1 ymr frimd httfa ofim winhtd, unA iUmp^hi c.n.r ii»i^|ii 

ttknAiy mmnif i«lwj nn ytmr iwS^/^^tmi A*Ah )tu\ ym. 
Afi/I i\tm f \M jfiu f»ttmfi\\ in Chmi, dfrnirin^ yon Ut 
reml ifi(^ ihin kdft«rr diligenil/^ unA M;fid ii Ut mf. fii^nin 
trUfMtty,Hmi t mny i^Uft^ ii n%Hin fmihUtWy Uf my frmiui 
of wium I hml ii, Kmt »ffe<^j//mii^ frif^iA, 

iUfth A%KAM. 
T^ my gtfmi ffUmA, tHr JCtlwMit CuUbuii, 

(;i,--^;jiKKB TO iwcm, (r,, 45> 

(kmipmUiUUm h\m ihui hi$f hmMt i# trntUfff tiwl w*fn» him ntii 
Uf nirniti ii Ujtf mmh* "Mny 1 1^ iftUf. 

\mir.o Hiw carUiiimo, Dfmmt Mariim JimtirOf 
pffife^iMori ih*^obgko.^-AnAiti U, firntioTcm ii^§#j 
(tuiinmf (ii oniuisin mj^riiuAinin hn^nort^n qustt 
Ui ti4iniitirHi ftfpulnum annfi. ih m ^pMt,nmtU^ 

^m^AitiUmnmt cfMi ^ inniu niH^tnUuMnp. m*nhi frriptiii, ^ 
mi mmmn iunm %nm\A(^Anm in c/^l^ftii) id hhmnAnm 
ef/ftfirmiiYii* He(l tide hi; Ui nini\» wamiiu m\io pm^ 

1550.] ascham's letters. 195 

beat, et plos soscipias qoam irobecillitas Taletudinis tuae 
ferre possit. Ita est laborandum ut non quam cito sed 
qoam dia hoc efficere possis oogitetur. Illud Pauli 
oXv^ 6\iy^ XP& quam late pateat scia, et quam in omnes 
actionea vitse diffundi poaait. Hoc apud te facio, quod ut 
aliis facerem nunquam impetrare a meipao poteram, ut 
remiaaior et temperatior in nimia hac tua ac pene in- 
tolerabiii oontentione mentia aia. Magnitudo enim illiua 
intenta supra vires frangit corpus, et minus habile ad 
mediocria curanda fiacit. 

De Sleidani caussa et casterorum sic habeto. Ddmi- 
nas Caktuariensis benevolus, sed tardus est caussarum 
patronus ; et in hac re opus est consiliario re{<i0| idque ea 
animi magnitudine, qua par est ad honestas caussas cum 
moderatione et judicio suscipiendas : si quanito tiicatpia 
prsBtervolat, facilius quseritur quam invenitur. Ego hor- 
tari Cantuariensem non cesso et quod p/eeterea possum 
efficio. Bene vale. Grenuici, 1 550, XI Maii, Ed. Sexti 
quarto. Tusp dignitatis studiosissimus Joannes Checus. 

}\Dffero Jichamo Joannes Sturmius S, P, — Vide, 
mi AscHAME, quid epistola tua effecerit. In 
libello meo, quem de oratorum converaionibus 
con feci, vpovt^iavtioa ry 'EXi^aS^^y ry iffiirkpg. ; 
ut quoniam oratorum artificiosissimam et pre- 
tiosissimam telam potest retexere, judicet etiam de hoc 
opuscule ; quod levi et denso filo lucubratum est. Opi- 
nor enim Penblope8 Uomericse telam recte cum poetarum 
▼ersibus et oratorum compreheusionibus posse comparari. 
Quorum utraque non solum componi debent, sed etiam 
dissolvi atque immutari et dissui, quoties emendari posse 
videantur : ac certe in setate juvenili et sexu foemineo. 

196 abcham's letters. [1560. 

prseseriim puellari, quss potest esse honestior occupatio ? 
Quffi exercitatio liheraliorP Quae consuetudo suavior, 
quam styli, et compositionis, et orationis purse, ornatss, 
perfectae, consummatse, ad quam enitimur atque contendi- 
mus. Quia vir literatus es, et bonus et dignus glorioso 
illo cognomento, boo est, quia evangelicus : quae omniB 
non apparent solum, sed elucent etiam in epistola tua : 
nihil puto affictum in tuis Uteris esse virtuti et laudibus 
puellw principis atque regiee stirpis. Sed quid in nostm 
temporibus magis optabile accidere mortalibus potest* 
quam ex principum virorum familiis et ex nobilitate, 
utriusque sexus oriri ingenia, quibus literarum studia pla- 
ceant ; qui eas oolant, qui coudiscant, qui et earum et 
rerum et artium doctrinam consequantur ? Ergo beatiores 
hoc geiiere bonorum Angli, quam Oermani : apud quos in 
nobilibus paucissimi sunt, qui ad suum ordinem literarum 
putant insignia pertinere. Quum istic plerique onones no- 
biles vel enitantur, ut literati sint, vel si sero id intel- 
lexerint, tamen ad se nunc spectare suosque arbitrentur. 
Quamobrem spes jam data est, quod laudem, quam antea 
sibi arrogavit semper Italia, et post Italise Gallia atque 
Germania eemulee vindicare conatae sunt, earn sibi deincepa 
Anglia cumulatissime queat assumere. Et quale domi- 
cilium quondam Athenis et Ilomae, de quibus duabus civi* 
tatibus scribis, dicendi et sapiendi magistri habuerunt* 
tale iisdem nunc sit in Anglia constitutum; ut vester 
populus, quorum virtutes imitatur, eorum etiam comparet 
decus et gloriam. Sed ut ad te, mi Aschame, veniam, 
nescio tibi ne magis gratulari debeam, cui Deus talem 
dederit discipulam, aut ELiZABETHiE principi ; cui talem 
magistrum atque artificem: certe utrique et gratulor et 
gaudeo, et felix illud biennium judico, quo tu docuisti, et 
ilia didicit. Nunc etiam tibi ob istud otium tuum laetor ; 
^uod Ebyaudus rex tibi et concessit benigne, et liberal!- 

1550.] A8CHAM*8 LETTERS. 197 

ter est largitus. Bequirunt enim nostrorum studiorum 
rationes otia negotiosa et negotia otiosa : nam in laboribus 
otiari et in otio laborare vulgo videmur. Cseteri enim 
homines quum venantur, quum piscautur, quum fabricant, 
occupari creduntur laboribus. Literati quum scribunt, 
legunt, commentantur, pro otiosis habeutur ; quum tamen 
vitam ingenii laboribus aoxiam atque sollicitam agiteiit, 
non penculorum metu, aut laborum vexationibus, sed sus- 
ceptione atque cogitatione rerum maximarum et immorta-' 
Hum. Sed quia otium tibi summum datum est, ejus etiam 
ad me fructus jucundissimus atque uberrimus perveniet. 
Promittis enim mihi in tua epistola multas et frequentes 
literas ; quas avidissime expecto, quum propter amorem 
erga me tuum quem ex Uteris tuis perspexi, tum prsecipue 
propter doctrinam et artes duas : in quibus ego annis jam 
muitis etiam versor ; unam disserendi, alteram dicendi. 
Utrique enim et dialectici et rhetorici esse volumus ; sed 
tu es, ego vero ut sim nitor et elaboro : et profecto absque 
eloquentiffi ope, obscura et sordida est dialecticorum pro- 
fession et hsec ipsa eloquentia absque disserendi doctrina 
iuflata tumet, et errabunda vagatur, nihilque via et ratione, 
nihil artificiose efficit. Itaque idem tuum et meum est judi- 
cium, idem volumus, idem sequimur, idem consectamur : 
omnibus etiam idem studium suscipiendum est,qui in literis 
vivere et ex literis laudem assequi concupiscunt. Verum, 
ut ad epistolam tuam revertar, fuit ilia mihi jucundissiroa, 
tum ob signiHcatiooem tuse erga me benevolentise, tum quia 
multa nuntiat de regno vestro, quod semper nobilissimum 
et munitissimum muitis aetatibus habitum est ; de rege, de 
quo pneclara et certa est prudentise, clementie, religionis 
spes concepta; de Ouilielmo Paqetto, cujus ego pro- 
bitatem et moderationem consiliorum et humanitatem 
('aleti ante annos quinque coguovi ; deCHECo et Smitho, 
qui nobis a muitis sunt prsedicati; de Joanne Mason 

198 ASCHAM's LETTEB8. [1550. 

quern Montius nosier magna benevolentia ooroplectitnry 
et laudat mihi seepenumero, quoties ego Pagetti memini ; 
de Haddono procanceliario Testro, quern tu cum supe* 
rioribus componis ; de nobilitaie vestra ; et de iis, qui in 
Galliam cum tribus Testris legatis profecii sunt ; postremo 
de domina Elizabetha, qui locus quo fuit prolixior 
quam reliqm, eo ego longiora legendo requirebam. 

Hffic inquam, omnia fuerunt juenndissima, verum ubi 
mihi tantum tribuis, quantum ego minime possum ag* 
noscere, ibi pudorem, ut Horatii utar verbis, incussisti, 
propterea quod priestare non possum doctrinam et judi- 
cium, ita ut tu mihi ascripsisti. Ubi Tero petis, ut Pha» 
donem Platonis, ut Abistotelis libros de ammm, et ut 
ejusdem rhetoricos libros Latine interpreter et explanem : 
item ut Demosthenis et iBscHiNis adversarias inter se 
orationes convertam ; ut promissos a me de Latina loquendi 
ratione libros divulgem, non tarn laborem fiigio, qui sus- 
cipiendus esset, quam in suscipiendo audaciam, et diml- 
gando temeritatis atque arrogantise suspicionem, qu» me 
superiore anno ingressum in hoc curriculum quasi reTo- 
cavit. Statui enim Abistotelis rhetorieos libros per* 
petuis explicare disserentium sermonibus : quorum aliquam 
partem librario dederam, sed mutavi sententiam ; primum, 
propter earn quam proposui caussam ; deinde, quia alia 
^usedam intercedebant, quse me ab institnto sunt dehor- 
tata. Yeruntamen cogito hac hieme resun^re eoe, et per* 
ficere quod est inchoatum, si Titam Deus et potestatem 
concesserit. iBscHiNis ct Demosthenis orationes meis 
interpretor auditoribus ; sed ita, ut magis in explicandia 
illis quam convertendis sim occupatus. Satis enim mihi 
est, si sententiam explicem, et verborum vim atque potes- 
tatem ; reliquum quod laboris est, id in arte demonstranda 
coQsumitur; ut inventionem intelligant, ut divisiones, ut 
partitiones considerent, ut collocationem ; ut argumen- 

1650.] ASOHAII'S LETTEBS. 199 

tandi modos; ut conolusionum formas; nt ornamenU 
aenteniiarum ; ut qusBstionum infinitaram eiornationes, 
ut finitarum expeditiones, ut in utrisque amplificationes ; 
ut in omnibus conversionum genera ; ut principiorum et 
mediorum, et clausularum connexiones et numeros. Du- 
plici hoc labore meo hiemali contenti esse debetia ; et tu, 
mi optatissime Asohaiib, qui petis, et Bucebus qui tibi 
cohortator fuisse videtur : de PJkadaneei Abistotslis di 
€Hima libris aliaa, quuni erit otiuoi, si vita suppetat et si 
potero. Nou enim si in Oorgut quedam obsenraTi, quae 
ad dialecttcoruni pertineant officios m, idcirco etiam in 
Pk4sdone aliquid elaborare possum, quod perpetuam ora* 
iionem habeat, et quod liieratorum bominum aures aoi- 
mosque non of endat, neque si rhetorica iatelligo, et for- 
tassis prodere in iucem aliquo modo possum; idciroo 
grairissimam tUam disputationem de vita, de roortCt de 
animorum immortalitate, de bonomm yirorum iritali obiia^ 
de clarissinionun horainum semptterais prsemiis, de fleter- 
nitate rerum potero disserendo atque seribendo sustinoe* 
Quod tamen libros de Latino sermoae requiris, in eo me 
pereelluisti; promasi enira eos ante annos aliquot, sed 
fateor plane, etiaa si ingenio possem, tamen noo possum 
fiftcultatibus, ut ex me sepe Bccebvs andifit. Qaaatum 
enim est? Ejusmodi opus elueubrare ; ex quo breri earn 
lacultatem consequare, post pneoeptionum perceptionem, 
at quodcunque eogitatione compleataris, id etiam oratione 
poseis Latana exprimere ; non solum nt pura ea sit, sed 
at elegans, «t omata, ut decora ; et exempla in prompta 
habeas, que res quibus sint et verborum et sententianim 
omamentis expoliende ; eaque omnia non solum congeata, 
aed etiam distineta lods et disposita habeas. Tale opus 
quum eogitatione inehoatum, eommentatione demonstratum 
atque pereeptum babeam, tamen facultatibus iroperfectum 
eum aliia jaoere patior, dum oompellar : tametsi satis me 

200 ASOHAM's LITTZB8. [1660. 

gymnnsium nostrum eompellet : tamen quia compellit, non 
cogit ; satis me hominibus facturum puto, si in reliquit 
officiis non sim desidiosus. 

Jam quod de Auoustino scribis, laudo judicium tuum: 
et tuarum literarum in eo loco humanitate et amore de* 
Uotor : etiam ego sane huic theologo pree cseteris pluri* 
mum tribuo : propter doctrinam ; docet enim omnia, 
concludit acute, refutat argute, nihil nee in proponendo, 
nee dividendo, nee argumentando, nee expediendo peccans. 
8ed ego quum meos ad orationis cultum adbortor, non 
solum rerum considero doctrinam, sed earum etiam oma- 
tum atque tractationem, ui illos dicendo superiores putesi^ 
sed AuousTiNUM doctrina, veruntamen illos etiam eruditoe 
et literates, itaque prineipio anteponendos. Etenim diligen* 
ter etiam atque etiam in sermone Latino et Greco tradendo 
cavendum est, ne scriptores dicendo inferiores, propter 
rerum tractationem Ciceroni et Demostheni ceteris- 
que melioribus scriptoribus anteponantur. Omnibus enim 
scientin sapientieque nomcn gratum et dulce est : res vero 
Ipsa non solum optata, sed etiam salutaris. Nam nee 
soribere quisquam aliquid potest, nco loqui aut dicere, 
quod sit preclarum, qui artcs et disciplinas, et qui rerum 
cognitionem nuUam comparavit. Ergo qui hoc judicio 
prseditus est, et hac inopi facultate nititur, eum nee in 
eloquentium, nea disertorum, nee Latinorum sive oratorum 
sive scriptorum sive artificum numero habendum puto: 
et cujus inflata verbis tantummodo oratio est, non solum 
auctorem ineptum, sed etiam hominem stolidum existimo. 
Quamobrem, sive Lonoolius, sive Sadoletus, sive Bem- 
BU8, sive NauoebiUS, sive alius quisquam vel Italus» vel 
Oallus, vel Germanus, verba eorumque ornatum oaptavit» 
res neglexit, quod tamen hi minime feocrunt : sed si quia 
esset, eum laudandum non censco. Nam quid ego do 
BUDAO excellenti doctrina viro dicamP qucm tametsi 

1550.] asoham's letters. 201 

amemus atque defendamus, tamen sunt nonnulli, quibas 
ille in aliqiiibus libris magis verborum, quam rerum 
seotator esse videatur. Non igitur in optimis, sed in 
deterioribus sive scriptoribus sive oratoribus ponendum 
puto, qui verbis, non rebus ornatum orationis constare 
credit. Sed hoc in primis considerandum est, omnibusne 
temporibus quidvis legere liceat, an sit in temporibus, et 
eetatibus, et fncultatibus aliqua distinctio. Homekum 
Oneci suis adoiescentibus ediscendum proposuerunt ; po- 
terat illud fieri absque incommodo, propterea quod una 
cum materno quasi lacte imbibissent patrium pueri ser- 
monem. Komani grammatici etiam Viroilium auis 
acholis explicabant, nihil periculi eratob eandem caussam. 
lidem Eomani de principio Homerum interpretabantur ; 
nihil fuit incommodi in lingua aliena; Latine omnibus 
tum loquentibus BomsB civibus ; et idem Grseci facere 
poterant, si hie iis placuisset sermo. Sed quas utilitates 
ad lingu«B informationem atque puritatem puer accipiet, 
ex Catonis DislichU, ex Aquinate, Qersone, Coc- 
CA P Paucos nominavi : ex his quamplurimi possunt alii 
ejusdem gregis considerari, non quod virtuperem, sed quod 
ad id quod volumus non sint idonei. Sed addarous etiam 
his barbaram turbam grammaticorum, dialecticoruro, medi- 
corum, theologorum, philosophorum, quibus sordida puris, 
utilia spinosis fuerunt potiora. Quorum pars se adhuo 
magna tuetur in sophistarum nostri seculi coUegiis, quee 
de sua adhuo barbarie tanquam de Palladio aliquo atrociter 
pugnat. gregem venustum 1 religiosam conspirati- 
onem 1 in qua vinci gloriosum est, turpissimum vincere. 
Quis status literarum, quis religionis esse possit in hac 
sermonis et lingusB et orationis foeditate ? Quis enim non 
aspernetur in iis si videat oris sonitum, verborum defur- 
mitatem, sententiarum sordes, opiuionum ineptias, ani* 
morum pertinaciam, consuetudinem illiberalem, mores 

302 AtOUAll's LETTKRt. [1550. 

pere{(rinot? qui barbariem liberalitati inipoiueruoi, qui 
artet et diiciplinas oorruperunt, qui hiatorias foDdaniiiti 
religionem et c«remoniat, non solum orationia putido ge« 
nere, led etiam iroperitit opinionibus rerootia ab omni 
conseniu doctrinfR, et obicuranint altercando, et defen- 
dendo iuquinanint. Hine proponendi pueria, et honon 
acriptit imbuendee mentet adolescentum, ut pro puria fcedat 
pro I^tinia barbara, pro perspicuia obtcura, pro compo- 
aitii diitoluta in civilatibua audiantur? Quod igitur 
Judicium facimua in maliM, cur idem non retinebimua etiam 
in minut perfectis minuaque consummatia? At rerum 
atiidium verborum temper priettantius habitum eat. E^ 
plane eloquentia oflflcium, rerum primum, pott verborum 
curam tuacipere. Vitiosum enim est, dicere quod avit' 
inane ait aut atultum. Venintamen quoniam ab orator«3 
non modo aapientia, verum etiam verborum oniatua reqni- 
ritur, separcmua ista duo, qua natura ca^teroquin con- 
juncta hflBrent. 8apientia jubet quoerere quid dicaa; vt 
verum, ut probabile, ut certum, ut acutnm, ut diaciplina- 
bile, ut condusione perfectum. Quid ornatus P ut aigni- 
ficans, ut sonans, ut plenum, ut concinnum, ut ornatum, 
ut illustre. Hed si sapientia jubeat, ut ornatua rationem 
non habeam, puritate contentus sim, relic|uum ornatum 
non aiTectem, liberari me patiar magnis laboribus, aummis 
curia, diuturnia vigiliis. Si vero etiam ut puritatem ne- 
gligam, certe iati sapientiee, quamvis provida sit, non ob- 
temperabo. Bed ai respondeat, magnum esse proHlituni 
esse doctrina, sed prwclarum ad eandcm dicendi rationem 
et eloquentiam adjungero, et utrumque ab optimia potiua 
quam infcrioris ordinis auctoribus condiacere, optimeque 
labores in consummatissimis consumi, tum ego aapientifla 
consilium tanquam oraculum divinitus datum sequar. ISoa 
igitur ego auctores pueris cxplicari principio volo, et eoa 
in exccrcendi cousuetudiue primos legi, qui ad doctrinam 

1650.] ASOHAII'S LETT£R8. 2 OS 

adjunxerunt eloquentiam : non qui doctrina contenti, elo- 
quentiam vel contempserunt, vel ad eum non potuerunt 
aspirare, et quo magis prope aliquis ad perfectionem ac- 
cedet, eo plus eum tempore ordineque antecedere placet, 
et in exemplis anteferri. Hsec me caussa movit, quamob- 
rem Auoustino Chrysostomum anteposui, non quod 
AUOU3T1NU8 non tapientior, aut non disertus : sed quia 
minus disertus quamCHRYSOSTOMUS, etis tamen eruditus 
atque dootus. Chrysostomo primum temporis et lin- 
guae non doctrinsB et ingenii, locum tribui ; quum tamen 
huio ipsi Chrysostomo multos alios anteponam. In 
dicendi enim studio non solum barbaros omnino fugere, 
sed ante bonos etiam meliores semper oportet prsecedere. 
Sed fortassis parum candori tuo oonfidere videbor, qui heec 
tam sollicite excusem: veruntamen, quoniam permagni 
referre puto quo unaquseque ordine legantur ; visum fiiit 
etiam hie meam tibi exponere sententiam, a qua te etiam 
non arbitror esse alienum. Feci etiam eo libentius, quod 
tu dulce nomen pacis esse dicis in tuis literis, et rem 
ipsam salutarem. Scio quo in loco Cioero idem dicit et 
iisdem verbis sentit, cujus loci formam hie conatus sum 
exprimere, ut tecum ludam (&t}ropticwc. Et nisi caveas, non 
hinc procul sumpto exemplo rursum ludam, si prius de 
domina Elizabrtha quod volo et quemadmodum V0I9 
repetam. Non enim oblivisci possum, quod ad tantarum 
rerum de quibus soribis disciplinam etiam dicendi artem 
conjungat, eamque exercitationem colat, quoe quum maxime 
huno sexum deceat tamen a plerisque omnibus aspemata 
jacet. Sed recte secum cogitat : si enim corporis forma 
in virginibus puellis jucunda est, cur non orationis vere- 
eundsB, pudicee, purse, pulchrse P Deinde ceetersB virginum 
exercitationes, nere, texere, acu pingere, communes sunt 
nobilitalis et obscursB stirpis ; sspeque ignobiles mulieres 
nobilibus artificiosius laborare videmus, orationis autem 

204 18CIIAM*8 LETTEB8. [1560. 

elegantiam in nobilitatis velle doniiciliis babitare et pree- 
cbiris familiis : et ut vestitu atque ornamentis, sic etiam 
aermonis suavitate nobilcs ab obscuris differre. P^terea 
base ipsa, quas sunt nobilium feminarum pretioesB vestes, 
gemma), anuuli ei ornatus reh'quus, fortunsB esse iantum, 
et in detcrioribus naturis saspe affluere : at oris clegantiam 
et Tocis formam non posse ab animi pulchritudine segre- 
gari, atque id signum esse excellentis ingeuii, nobiiisque 
uaturte : ac divitiarum insignia et ornatus, domi solum 
iilustria sunt : vox vero artificiosa posteaquam semel 
audita est, s«|>e ad exteras gentes atque uationes volitat, 
iliisquc est admirabiiis. Quo magis ego douiinic Eliza- 
BETHiK industriam probo : qua; efficiet, ut puellanim vir- 
ginum et fccmiuarum nobilitas, non solum generis auti- 
quitate, sed etiam doctrinas et sermonis elegantia ait 
eestimanda. Krgo liuic ego convenienter libellum misi. 
Ineptum eniin est in divulgandis libris, eos appcllnre qui 
ignari sunt eorum qua; traduntur: aut qui cadcm non 
maximopero amant. Et quoniam pro se liber loqui non 
potest, est cnim indisertus, tu ei deprecator sis, quotiet 
peccabit, et ubi non peccut, coniniendator, et in utroque 
patronus, piffiserlim propter Edvaudum regem ; cui etiam 
exemplum uiitto, ut tripurtito defendatur patrocinio ; pri- 
mum tuo ad dominam Elizabetuam, deiude hujus ad 
fratrem suum Edvaudum rcgeni : qui si sua auctoritate 
patronus summus esse velit, quis meo libcllo beatior? 

Quantum ad me attinet, maximo opere vellem AngUas 
placere; amo enim gentem banc propter religionem, 
propter famam talis ac tanti regis, idque in bac aetate ; 
atque utinam, quam reiigionem rex primis annis didicit et 
concilium ejus concordibus sententiis conslituit, eam pos* 
ait et tucri et defcndere et stabilire, ut non oppugnetur. 
Quanquam id ad Dcum (gusquc providentiam et numen 
pertincat, sed id quidem rcliquum est, ut quod institui 

1550.] ASOHlll's LETTERS. SOS 

absque perturbutione aliqua non potuit, neque sine roetu 
periculorum retineri potest, id ecclesiasticarum pecuniarum 
dispensatione, et morum disciplina, et religionis doctrina, 
et judiciorum snnctitate, et ordinum confirmatione atque 
dignitate corrigatur atque ornetur. Sed minus jam timoris 
est, in hac concilii constantia, quod de religione decrevit, 
quod earn instituit, quod edictis stabilivit. Ut autem 
idem permaneat, dum regnum atque religio requirit, et ut 
rex nulla frangatur temporum intemperie, id summis votis 
a Deo patre omnium mortalium, et Chris ro omnium 
hominum servatore precandum est, in quo negotio et qui 
in concilio regio versautur, laudandi sunt, et rex arhgendds 
ad constantiam altitudinemque animi, ut neque eoncilium 
8ui decreti pcBniteat, neque rcgem tsedeat periculorum 
quae impendere videntur. 

Tribuenda igitur non solum pietatis et religionis et 
literarum laus est iis, qui auctores fuerunt prsBolarse 
emendationis ; sed etiam fortitudinis, qui non exti* 
muerunt ea pericula, qu» propter prudentiam ventura 
providebant, propter religionem conteronebant. sanctam 
curiam, qu» honestatem atque religionem utilitatibus et 
▼itSB otio anteposuit 1 Nati in hoc homines videntur, ut 
Auglise nomen renovent, ut in hoc regno angularis ecclesi» 
lapis locum suum rursus occupet, et refugium sit non 
solum nunc recipiendis atque defendeudis : sed brevi etiam 
emittendis atque ornandis angelis et nuntiis otii» literarum^ 
religionis, dignitatis in republica Christiana. In impietate 
enim status rerumpublicarum instabilis : in religione 
firmus solet sperari. Etenim nulla conversio regnorum, 
nisi post religionis contemptum atque fcodationem est 
metuenda. Illorum igitur incerta respublica est, qui in 
turpitudine vitae, etiam religionis atque doctrinse purita- 
tem et sanctimoniam formidant. Qui vcro baec suscipiunt 
et colunt et defendunt, hi cum nuUo alio statu commu- 

206 AiCflAif's htmun. [1550. 

tare rempobHcam poMoni, ni«i cam diriiio ei coelesii^ in 
quo perpetoA sit ei ftempitenia felkritas. Nam ho^ 
vitse non solum reges, ei piiiunpes, et magitiratus cadud 
et bref is ffifi sunt, sed ipsse etiam urbes ei respublieaa 
atquc regna breri moftiento floreniia claraque, ei coDaps* 
dirutaque oonspicaniur. Hmc leiernitaiis felicilas bonornm 
virorum id omnibus ordinibus fiuis, in bac eornm pmmi* 
consiiiuU suni. Quse nisi essent, quis sapiens in 
maximis laboribus, ei summis perieulis, telii pro pairki 
sese de^otere, ei pro religione mortem oppetere ? Quann 
obrem sapienter consuluenini prudentissimi tiri, quod id^ 
sine quo respublica nulla siabilis esse potest, patri» 
reeuperamnt : at quod posteris suit optare debaisseni, kl 
ipsi suo periculo eonstituerunt, £i suam ipsi retigponem 
atque pietatem pairi» cum periculo priestare mahieruoi ; 
quam eam posteris absque pericalo oommittere* htee 
laus quoris iriumpbo prttckrior esi^ quia mm emde^ 
bostium comparata est ; sed pietate atqne religione m^ 
titur ; quse non bostium sanguinem, sed citium suofam 
sanctimoniam requisirit ; qute non no^as res affectant^ 
sed amissas restituit, Postquam enim decretiiio de 
religione fuit, pax cum Galliarum regno consiiioia est ; 
morum ei titse leges promulgate snni ; emendata titem* 
torum bominum gymnasia, appamii mrsus TeritMia lax, 
ei etangelii lumen. Itaque de bis bonornm f ira r um 
sermones nusquam silebunt, dum bomines emni qmhuM 
cara religio est, ei jucnnda foriium rirorum memorku 
Quanquam bujus facinoris tel poiius sapieniiff^ lana, etiani 
mtdto maxima ex parte ad serenissimum regem ItttrAMDvn 
pertinet ; in quo nisi senaius animadr ertissei simnl eam 
setate, et prudentiam ^us ali ei grat itatem creseera ei 
religionis cupiditatem studiumque confirmari, idernqod 
appetif isse ei posiulasse, majore cum pericalo snscepiaaet^ 
id quod institnit atque decretii. Quodrca^ omaibiit 

1550.] aschah's lbttsks. 207 

re^ ordinibus gratulandum est; regi, quod id quod 
voluit consentientibus omnium in ooncUio senteadis 
obtinuit ; Concilio, quod rex idem Toluit, et quod inteUigit 
nihil posse constitui sanctius ; et populo, quod, quoniam 
re^s atque seoatus auctoritas intfiroesait, non popukii 
motu sed reipublicse voce actum videatur, siquidem pars 
populi melior exoptavit ; omnibus ordinibus, quod bae 
coi^'unctione animorum, dissidia non sint extimesoenda ; 
sed pax atque concordia reflorescat, leligio Tera reccdatur, 
evangeiii vox salutariter resonet, et Ch&isti imperium 
in regno Anglite auctoritatem summam habeat. Use 
commoditas, imo hsec regni gloria tollere ex animis 
omnium metum debet, et regem arrigere ad amplificandam 
banc gloriam, et senatum cohortari ad fortitudinem ; et 
populum ad charitatem et observautiam excitare : ut et 
regis auctoritas, et senatus consilium, et populi placitum : 
quasi propugnaculum existet, contra dolum et insidias et 
vim communis Dei hostis, a quo vinci non possumus, 
dum pnsstamus constantiam, nam si moriendum erit, vita 
mjrtalis cum immortali mutabitur : si vivemus, quid 
praeclarius quam in hac vita propter religionem coelestem 
vitam reprsBsentare ? Longius evectus, Aschame, sum 
quam volebam ; excitatus epistola tua. In qua jucundius 
mihi fuit regis atque sororis laudes cognoscere, tametsi, 
eas ante a multis audiveram: quam accipere Caium 
Cjssarem quem antehac non ita in nummis videram. 
Sed tamen gratum munus, et quia a te missum est ; et 
quia vetustum, et quia ejus imago, qui cum fortissimis et 
peritissimis et fortunatissimis imperatoribus belli gloria 
potest comparari. Yale. Argentorati, Nonis Septembris 
Anno 1550. 

cm.— TO EDWARD RAVEN, (8, 1). 
Sends this letter by John Day — alludes to some jaotura at 

208 A»CH All's LETTERS. [1550« 

Cambridge which would somewhat embitter bii jounej 
otherwiie likely to be pleaaant. 

At Will. Eland's, London, Sept. 17 [1650.] 
'\onjunctimmo amico Edvardo Raveno iuo, S, P, 
in ChrUtoJem, — CarissimeEDYAEDE Eayene. 
Quanquam Joannes Dae us noster instar 
muitarum literaram esse potest, tamen quam 
sciam quam carse tibi nostrae liters sunt, nolui 
committere, ut ttm idoncus nuncius sine meis ad te literia 
Cantabrigiam proficisceretur. Suavitates itineris mei, 
quod alioqui jucaudissimum erit, nonnulla acerbitate ilia 
quam feci Cantabrigise jactura permiscuit. Nee tantum 
vexat me fortunse invidia, quantum etiam nunc pungit 
amici quidem, sed Bon eo modo quo ego soleo et tu facia, 
miRAVENE, amantis nimis supina incuria: saluta tamen 
Barvicum, et Babyiouh meum, quem amo ex animo, el 
quern puto nonnihil commoveri bac mearam rerum 
angustia, in his potissimum meis temporibus, &c. Nisi 
Baryicus scripserit ad me ssepius, Yerebor ejus a me 
alienum esse animum. Utor bono et valde bono domino 
et optima domina. Proxima Veneris Deo volente Tamesio 
conscensuri sumus. Literas Yestras ad nie perierendas 
curabit Stepmanus Halesius, qui duxit sororem 
MoRYsiNi; domus ejus Londini in eo foro est, quod 
8loke9 vocitatur. Gulielmus meus Irlandus novit ubi 
habitat. Scribatis sspissime, longissime; quod ego 
etiam facturus sum. Saluta diligenter Martinum 
BuGERUM patrem et prasceptorem meum colendisumum. 
Die illi me fideliter egisse caussam Joan N is Sr.EiDANi 
cum domino Morysino quem facile Yideo plurimum 
favere Sleidano, et illius scribendi instituto : sed Bruno 
ille nescio quomodo multas dubitationes multis bonis Yiris 
injecit. Audivimus CifiSAREM in animo habere, restituere 
in pristinam dignitatem ducem Saxonise. Quum aliquid 

1550.] ASOHAli'tt LSTTEE8. 209 

certi, etiam in itinere, ad mauus meas pervencrit, id 
accurate ad dominura Buoerum scribam. Vale, cari«- 
sime: saluta univcrsum ccetum nostrum, Joannem 
Barnes, et uxorem, etc. optimam inatrem tuam, «t 
lectissimam sororem. Ex aedibus Gulielmi Elandi, 
Londini, XVII Septembris. 

CIV.— TO THE SAME, (3, 2). 

Had embarked at Billingsgate, after hating sat nine hours Ihe 
day before with Sir John Oheke, and was now writing from 
Gravesend. Sep. 21, [1650]. 

idem, — S, P. in Chris to Jesu, — Carissimc 
Ravene. Hoc vicesimo primo Septembris in 
festo divi Matthsei, bora undecima antcmcri- 
diana c portu Belini solvimus. Heri salu- 
tabam domi sum summum amicum meum 
JoANNEH CuECUM : Londini enim nunc valetudini servit. 
A meridie fere nos duo inter nos soli variis sermon ibus 
tempus traduximus usque ad horam nonam. Multas res 
ad religionem, ad aulam, ad rempublicam, ad Acadcmiam 
pertinentes tractavimus. Statum et disciplinam collcgii 
Divi Joannis mirifice approbavit: cigus, credcmihi, est 
studiosissimus. In eo sermone omnes nostros Pilkin- 
TONos, Levbros, Wilsonos, Elandos, etc. singulos 
nominatim commendavi : omnibus prodessc, nemini 
omnium nocere studui. Te unice, mi Edvarde, hoc est, 
suavitatem morum, ingenium, prudcntiam, diligentiam, 
judicium tuum, quo amicos soleo modo, commcn(iavi, et 
quodammodo ejus fidei trndidi. Caussam tuam cum 
LucASio illo universam explicavi, et statim recepit su 
facile te expediturum ab eo negotio. Audacter igitur, 
nomine mco, adeas hominem, et caussam tuam explica, &c. 
Ab Augusta, Patavium et Venetias expeditissima ratio est 
mittendi et literas, et quasvis alias res. Scribam, Deo 


210 asouam's letters. [1550. 

volente, snppius, quod spero vos etiam facturos. Graves- 
endn, XXI Scptembris. 

CV.— TO Tir?: SAME, (3, 3, and L, 49). 
Describes his journey— Canterbury— loes the place where Becket 
was murdered — tlio embassy is escorted to Dover by Arch- 
bishop Craninor— Dover Castlo — All sea-sick but himself 
and a young man — Calais, Graveling, Dunkirk, Bruges, 
Antwerp. Antwerp, Oct. 1 [1660.] 

)\iflem. — S. P. in Christo /^«m.— Suavissime 
Edvakdb lUvKNR. Piitriic mete recordatio 
mihi carissiina quidem est : sed tuno consuetu* 
diiiis omni huniunitate, benevolentia, et officio 
plenissimoc, ncscio quomodo, inihi carior 
existit. Ab hoc jucundissiino itincrc meo duas aut tres 
horas facile pntercr ine abesso, et in cubiculum meum 
domi Caninbri^irc includi, ut in sinum tuum, prtesentibut 
carissinjis mcis riLKiNTONis, Leveris, Klandis, Wil- 
S0NI9, BeI8, Wrioiito ct Washintono, oinnes Buavi- 
tates itincris mei infundcrcm. Vigcsimo primo Scptembris 
pervcnimus Gravcseiidain, faventc quidem Neptuno, sed 
sublrata Iride : vii^csiiriosecundo, lasso ct brevi equo, sed 
longo itincrc, tt via hitosn, ('antuariam pervcnimus : ea 
nocto lautissinie nccepit nos humanus ct prudens vir 
JoANNKs Halesius. Ego tantum desceudo ab equo 
meo, et statim confero me iu amplissimam Christi 
ccclesiam ; pcrscrutor omnia Vetera monunicnta, epitaphia 
Henri CI Quarti, ct Kdvabdi nobilissimi principis filii 
KovARDi Tertii, locum ul)i occisus fuit Bekettus, et 
omnes fere abditos rrccssns &c. ; doindc bibliopolas adco, 
tiiiii ofticinas aurificum : post intucor situm, niuros urbis, 
intcrea inter dcambulandiim, diligentcr advcrto mores, et 
nnivcrsum habitum populi. Constitui enim, carissimc 
Edvardf, quocunque ivero, cujusvis civitatis invisere, 
quantum facere possum, tcmpla, monastcria, ct in his 

1550.] asgham's letters. 211 

vetustissima monuraentn, bibliopolas, bibliothecas, auri- 
fices, fora, muros, castella, portus. Et has res nuno non 
brevibus Uteris, seel longo sermoni reservandBe sunt, etc. 
Vigesimo tertio visimus reverendissimum Cantuariensera, 
deducit ille nos usque fere Doverum. Castellum illic iu 
altissimo et prseruptissimo promontorio situm est, quod 
ab usque Gallia, ab usque Flandria prospici facillime 
potest. Videtur imperiose quidem, non universo mari 
solum, sed ipsi Gallise quoque minari. Quum sumus in 
medio f reto, ipsa tellus Anglise sublimior est, Galliae multo 
humilior. Castellum Doveri refertissimum est monu- 
mentis longissimsB vetustatis. 

Vigesimo quarto trajecimus fretum, reliquo comitatu 
nostro gravissime laborante ex mari, quum Domimi 
MoRYsiNA parum, ego solus cum quodam nobili juvene 
TuYMLiB/EO ijincolniensi, nihil acerbi passi sumus. 
Vigesimo quarto, et quinto Caieti reficimus nos : ego 
statim circumeo omnem ambitum oppidi, adverto situm, 
vires, portus : viso Uiscbank et Newncam bridge, duo 
fortissima munimenta, et eminus video Arde, Ginnes, 
Hammes, et omnem situm sic illius regionis, ut nuiiquani 
e memoria mea excidere possit. 

Vigesimo sexto Septemb.: et si tu nunc vis, suavissime 
Edvakde, comitari me in Flandriam usque Antverpiam, 
(provided always that Washington be your lacquey) in- 
spice chartam meamGalli8e,et perpetui comites nobtiieiitis. 
Primum Graveling veuimus, quod oppidum initium est 
Flandriae, separatum ab Anglico solo solum fluvio, distat 
a Caleto novem miliaria. Ea node mansimus in Dun- 
kcrk piscatorio quidem oppido, sed quod magniiicis 
ffidifitiis conferri potest cum uUa urbe in Anglia, et illic 
scdulo a nobis perquisitum est, num domina Mobysina 
fuerit necne domiua Mokysina, quaui aiebant se expec- 
tare. Vigesimo scpiiino Ncwportum venimus, quod non 

212 ASCIIAM's LBTTZBt. [1650. 

(•('(lit Dtinlcirko; opportunitntc poriut excellit* Tigetiroo 
()(!t;ivo \\r\n(\n amplisiimnrri iirbem venimut inndctn, ned 
decern inilinria tarn Uiionn, via, 8ili vocatur, tit ttiperet 
»iilvc»trcni Cnntiam. Ki in hnc urbe licjcrcit mihi diutiun 
tnorari, mi JIavknr, molcntufi cnnem tibi longo fiermone, 
longe supcrai Londinnm. Vigesimo none, (/alftim re* 
nitnuDf obftcurum ]o(;um : do quo nihil soribanif quia ism 
male illic accepii sutnuHf nam in ocreh pcrnoctabam et 
Bept. tricc»imo Antvcrpiarn Ycnimu«, I)ii boni ! non Bra- 
baniiff), mmI ioiiuHtnundiditiiisimum emporium. Hplendida 
magniftcnque ntnictura nic eminct, ut eo m(jdo nuperet 
reliquan omnefi urbcfi ({uan (;go vidi : qnmnadmodnm aula 
Divi JoANNis ihcatrali moreomata post natalem fieiptam 
MUperat. £t bic nunc numuii »ani quidem et Imti, Deo 
Hint gratiaj. Antv(;rpia non recipit edi(;ttim (JMnKUin de 
immuiaii(;no rcligionis. In tota fere Viand ria, tarn pingui» 
et craMhun papixmus est, ne dicam pucrilifi, ut «i is in 
Anglia, qui maximo et favere vidctur, Itic adesset, facile 
respuen;!. Oipkinub mens ostcndit mihi indiccm novorum 
librorum, et illic Sturmium da pHriodU, vi SrimMiUM in 
Rheloricam AttisTOTKLis : libros non vidi,et (pmnlum desi- 
derabam tu conjicerc poles. Audio uxorem Hijckki in 
Anglia esse, puio illam hab(;n! litctras ad mc a Sturmio ; 
recipe, scrva, mittrj si potes, scd rescrvato exmnplo. 
Bcribam nivcrrendinHimo pnlri mco Domino Bucero, 
quum ad manus mens alitpiid pcrvenrrit, quod intervenii 
ilium scire. Saluta eum ofTiciosishimc, ct carissimum 
meum pRMHEaUM, qui quotidio vorsatur in mfnnoria mea, 
Bakwicum, Joannbm S(;AitLKT, familinm HnrncHianam, 
omnes nostrates. Quuin omnes dico, n('min(!m cx(;ipio : 
•ed de omnibus nominatim (pian(jun tn non scribo, cogito 
indies, semperque cogiiabo. H(;rib(t quns litcras rccipis a 
me, (juo die, ct a quo loco. Vnle in (/hrifiio. Anivcrpitii 
in Brabantia, primo Oci(;bris. ViAiv.x R. Aschamus. 

1550.] aschah's letters. 213 

CVI.— TO THE SAME, (3, 4, and l, 59). 

Describes Ghent, Maohlin, Brussels, Cologne— is on the point of 

embarking on the Rhine for Mayenoe. See the subjects of 

this and other Latin letters from Germany, described in a 

long English letter (oxvi), which is a sort of journal of 

Ascham's travels. Cologne, Oct. 12, [1550]. 

)\idem, S. P. in Christo Jem. — Carissime Ed- 

VARDE. Si scirem Thomam Leyerum meuin 

apud Yos esse, has ad eiim scriberem : scri- 

bam enim ad vos, quoties uUus inihi ob- 

latus fuerit tabellarius : sed nullam oUovoitiav 

expectate; singula turbate in literas meas inferciam. 

Antverpia non literis, sed longo sermone describenda est ; 

tot res dignissimsB occurrunt in eo oppido, quos fusissime 

ad ignem problematarium depromerem. Hoc primum 

accipite. Edictum CiESARis de religione in inferiori 

Germania, jussu ipsius C^saris irritum factum est. 

Tertio Octobris Antverpia profecti sumus Macliniam, 
urbem quae Londino vix comparari potest ; Nordovicum 
longe superat : et hoc in loco mecum mirabar, quomodo 
tantus numerus homiuum, qui habitant frequentissimi 
Brugis, Antverpia, Gandavo, Maclinia, et Bruxella ali 
possit : hse quinque urbes, altera ab altera ad duodeci- 
roum lapidem sitae sunt. Si quinque Londina in tantas 
angustias collocarentur in Anglia, exhaurirent statim 
regnum nostrum. Et pecudes et pecora rara hie cernuntur , 
si Flandriam, Brabantiam, Leodiam, et Geldriam circum- 
spiceres. Sed mirari desino : nam ad panem fere nihil 
adhibent prseter olera et herbas. Brabantia quidem, et 
potissimum Leodia, et Geldria, bonitate soli, et larga 
ubertate frugum longe lateque patente, non quemvis comi- 
tatum AnglisB, sed ipsum agrum Cantabrigiensem sequant 
et superant. Magna vis olerum diligenti cultura crescit 
in omnibus locis : nuuquam famem sentiunt hie homines, 
si non deficiantur fnigibus. 

214 ascuam's letters. [1550. 

Maclininm vepimus: in suburbano monasterium amplis- 
simum est, non otiosarum, seel gnavarum nonuaram : 
mille et sexcentee sunt in eo loco lineis vestibus faciendis 
victum quaeritantes; nubunt et exeunt quum volunt. 

Quarto Octobris, quod mibi jucundissimum fuit, vidi 
MaclinisB in sedibus Cresaris nobilem ilium Landgravium 
liessse, quern Hispani male tractant. Singulis diebus, 
bora octava antemeridiana, landgravius distribuit pauperi- 
bus 4 stivers, i.e. 6«. Sd. : tunc opportune ilium con- 
templatus sura. Sed avocor a scribendo, quum vix unius 
diei iter explico. Quum scribo, videor inter vos versari, 
O amicissimi : et propterea scribo libenter, et frequenter, 
et fuse : nullum diem itineris mei prsetermittam. Itaque, 
in proximis Uteris a quarto Octobris, reliquum iter meum 
persequar Coloniam usque, ubi bsec scribo, ubi Billicvs 
est, quem vidi; et audivi Justum Velsium legentem 
Mhica Abistotelis Grsece. Sed dominus Moeysinus 
avocat a scribendo : nam navis parata in Rheno expectat 
iios, qua ituri sumus Moguutiam. Yos omnes literis 
meis libenter saluto ; quotidiana memoria jucundissime 
colo, et vestris precibus me commendo. Nihil dum mihi 
in toto itinere <ecerbum fuit, nunquam defatigatus, omnia 
compavata sunt ad summam jucunditatem. Scribite. 
Valete in Cliristo Jesu. Saluta reverendissimum patrem 
Dominum Buceeum, Pemberum, ornatissimum Had- 
DONUM. Coloniae, XI I Octobris. 11. Aschamus. 


(6, 46). 
Sends this letter hy his own servant, with two copies of Sturm's 
book, one iu vellum that had been blotted in binding [the 
ink being still fresh] the other in paper unbound. 

fOambridge] Oct. 21, 1560. 

1560.] ascham's letters. 216 

^larUsimo viro. Domino Joanni Checo, patrono 
mo mmmopere colendo, — Tanclem, ut potui, 
perturbate et incondite nbsolvi quae de resti- 
tuendo apud iios Christi regno institueram^ 
Bee minus sordide fiunt ea descripta. Studium 
meum et conatum S. R. M. commendabis : veniam turn 
audacisB mese, turn ineptise ab ea mihi impetrabis. Statu- 
eram autem hsec commenta tibi primum hie exhibere, 
verum quum jam tandem expectationc adventus tui sumus 
frustrati, et quum ob negotia mea famulum meum deberem 
mittere Londinum, opportunum existimavi ad te per- 
ferenda et haec mea scripta et iibellum Sturmii nostri, 
binis exemplaribus : quum enim membranaceum ex nondum 
siccato atramento fuerit Argentorati inter compingendum 
commaculatum, misit ad me ilie chartaceum, quod hie 
curarem compingi mundius. Id quantum prsestari a 
Remiqio meo typographo in liac instrumentomm inopia 
potuit, confieri curavi, pro mea opera: tam abest ut quic- 
quam debeas mihi curare praemium, ut satis superque 
praestiteris amicitise officium, si veniam mihi impetraveris, 
attamen quum eum famulum qui mea descripsit non ut 
decuit, sed ut potuit, nunc dimittam in Gailiam, ita ejus 
parente poscente, nee possim eum qua velim benignitate 
dimittere, quamque probe meruit suis fideiissimis per 
omne tempus morbi mei et alias ministeriis. In addu- 
cendam enim reliquam familiam meam, per uxorem meam, 
et eidem alterum parandum hypocaustum permultum 
insumpsi. Si queas omnino commode, et citra ullam 
petacitatem, munusculum aliquod ei quo vei vestem emat 
impetrare, ego quicquid id fuerit ei Lutetiam bona fide 
mittam, nee est opus properato, hac in re. Dimittara 
ilium ut admodum gratus sit. Si contingat te impediri, 
quo minus ad nos venias, famulus mens qui haec praesen- 
tavit, Cantuaria, quo nunc fert quasdam ab uxore mea 

210 Afl()fUM*S MSTTKNU. [1550. 

tiWninn pDllciMf rnvf^rNtin dn tn rnNpon«o nppctlitblt, «ed 
iititmrii vcninHi prrnmMmfiitritm ritim httio loliolit) tuuii 
ndvrniupi. Dotiiirnm JmuN t(i, honoiiiMimnm tixomn, 
ftlliim, ri Uu)n omuvn iprrvnt, di fnlirnn rdlnint ]H)r ottitilM. 
XII Ciilrtid. NovnttibrU 16&0. Drditiinimui tibl M. 


CVIir.— TO Hill JOHN CIIKKK, (8.6). 

Hpi4it1i< of iho \mt)\n ntid lctiiurt<H, roinii ntid ihltif^n )i« Mw ill 

Atitwitfp, l^iuvnlti, Ool<i^«ii— n Vf«ry yii)uHbi«i Hcbrnw M8.— 

grrni pxtimttiiiurtt (if ilin t<ttitmiitijr— npIiii for oopiM of Oli«k«'f 

book on {ironoun(iinf((imik,ihiiilir* trmj^ mnkeii known— ipcflki 

of \m wnrii (»f inut(t«^| iind \w\iw to |(ri noine from ih« ]Pritf 

OfMM Kllxfthrih, from iho ])tinh(t«N of Nuflblk, whoMf ioa 

Lord 01iMrl(«ii lio rmiglii Intii jrpnr | /.#. lOiUl, from Ui« Dttka 

of HufTolk, whom h« tnughi wrliinic, nnd from thit two Mttf* 

qniMp^. [Augsburg,] Nor. 11, 1550. 

^;^*r«* AticAamuHf domino Joanni Ckeoo, 8,P, 

in (;hmio Jfnii, — (.Jlnrinnimo tir. Lilwntnr, 

orobro, prolixo unriburmn nd ii^, tit t^tino iriinni 

poni nbiiionnm tttmirnm nx An^liii, Mingulorum 

iti^r diontm ob ornlon tibi proponcrntn, niii ie, 

Inf^rtidifi tioniriM {\\\un\ nndtnrutn bivium rrnim iip«oiA« 

iortim, tntti trtaarum innniuiii rngttniionum jtidtccm con- 

hiiiunro |Hirtbfiri(M)r(^iri. Hi mrmn U) non nohitn Krnviutn 

rrrum tnotmtnrnin nxprrinrr, urd bonmi dtiim quoiidinno* 

rum morum ootntitcmorniiotin nlitjuiuido dnlnntitri, prolixuii 

iiopo enm poiurfim. Hod rptom(idr)nitTi(|un inribntn, credOf 

oantrntiH nsso vi<i, pi volo cf^n (juoqun, tit nt jiidimum in 

iTio poiiuA ct tfUnpttniap in ninii litnriii ddnidrrrs, qunm nut 

* At Oio pnd of ihiiv Uittnr in iCUtob in tliim tiote, on i»iigo4.f*&. 

lilbroQ quoi mitto nt^mo, t)\n\ qui (l(i(K*H|iAlt ei dominufi rcftrun 
MnH'^r, legii, qui ^tinm rndmn mmntm opt At i itn non dubiio If- 
gf^ndoM II n«min(t, nisi qui «os U^oiuri «int mio ot ecaloaiitrtim com- 

1350.] JLSCMJkM** ZXTTfXlf I ' 

voluntatem aut iM^^%nucuat»»aat ;nnrMu*niUtfft X>z.yK>sik- 
igitur in omnibiu mg^ lasise» iii«t tMU^^^uii vcr.xax. \rtuatt 
incedentium, sed Uf«irB.rriv.n «unuutk^nt immuwTiK ^ks^. n^ 
gercntium. Qxuuwp^Xb iivt auv'a^ inn -intuiivi^ suoitit ^ 
abutar quia ret wx txik^iak iMt* suii&K «Mt ii&rme. tiMK V: 
scire multum Vjh biiKTis»^ rs:^-'itu«a : < "JMXKt uulm f^ 
sunt minimae*, toMXimMt^ xutKa'jKs^vt^. «iiv» ut <kui^iiiii»:il «iv*: 
ad rem ei pubiicaixu «t prisituot: iierutimiMj^; uiot nc .ttwuicfc 
meas penrenire poii<«u£ii« ^ttit$ ik'Jit ei^ikt «: uiii^E»ntM^ 
adverto. Moiuua^Bru^ i«si::>i»« iuiJiituLtM^u^; x&ivtvvt ^. 
libros ei Duinm'j«« <cj ji>.<ii» ^^ d^jruiuit icitn^inmt utt^tjuvu!^ 
simis et elegaonilj^ixuif tt omuicuv., uruiuu. uitMrvt,. ilivci^a*^ 
nam, ct sitoi, ttructurai*, murvfc^ rirw^ ^Jtriut,. « <mm^ 
circumcirca Urraruxa^ an^jUKrujitt op^jKVXuuruivtt m: ycx-r 
lustro, ut harum rtrtuo <x«iJuu(t«u^xaiU^ni«Wk^ uui juu«tt^ <iv^ 
tationes libere dejxm«« «ttddiw, rix ^tnuv ^uivuruttt 
dierum potuen't exk»unre. fawt nir^^ iivv ittf^ «<I i^ 
nunc scribo, dum tu n^xufuK«« ttusum jMrixMn^M fttf<jkutMttu 
me sequi roaluem. 

Gcrmaaia^ ot omtMs vrxamt istkng^r^ ul Mtuoi ^ivtutitMUt 
inferorum, ut t^o pUtm pfrspk^, mihili x^juxm^v «u«tr' 
catonira excepto, omnlbtu tuodi* ixi£xu» let id^^^i^^tttk 
est : in quam turpis«ima iUnuMwe Iksdt tl ^^rdiuMt iJJ.uirM})> 
itiundans, jam stagoare r'vknim. Asttt/trym: rid; ^Sfm^ 
tneniarios in Timaum Flatoyu^ msd L«t«w Ju<mud«. Li^ 
vanii fuiinus, sed non diulkw qaam pnuudii M^yar^Amb 
postulabat: audiri iameo mit^grum Iktsoju m trjiini^ 
coUegio insigncin ut illi putaot irtntm Tuf/itMi^KU hkX* 
DIUH profitentem Tyrannum SoFflocu»; MiqtitiiiM usA m 
omni nostram pronuntiatiooem. bi bk eum Cakiu^ kmn^ 
tro, aut Lofanium cum Cantabrijpa cfjtiftsrmiiir, fhm^ 
friget. Colonise audivi JcsTUic Vel«ii;ic Ari^immsmu 
olim, nunc metu factum Herodtaaum, ttordkuUm ikntcn: 
Ei&ica Kri^toteub : probare, noo admirari potoi. Audivi 

218 ascuam's letters. [1550. 

eodem die dominum Alexandrum Blancartum Canneli- 
tarn prslegentem Acta Jpostolorum : iosignis est papista. 
Yertit nonnm epistolam primi libri Cypbiani pro oblatione 
in gratiam defunctorum. Doctior et pejor habetur ipso 
Everardo BiLLico, qui illic publice profitetur Genesin : 
sed eo die non legebat. Ego adivi monasterium Billici : 
tantum vidi hominem ; fingebam mihi nllntum esse, ilium 
habere certos libros divi Bernarui nondum impressos. 
Hoc feci, ut aliqua ratione provocarem hominem ad pri- 
vatum colloquium, ut perspicerem ecquid haberet ingeuii : 
sed distentus negotiis, ut servus aiebat, tunc temporis 
vacuus esse non potuit : ego rcjectus in aliud tempos, 
rejeci ipse quoque superbum pnpistam. Multas bibliothe- 
cas perlustravi, non vidi tamen unum insignem librum. 
Spira; est ut ferunt insignis bibliotheca rcferta priscis 
Latinis Grreois et llebraicis libris. Qui praefuit abfuit : 
sin vero non, omnia perlustrassem. Gavisburgi, (hoc op* 
pidum abest novem millinria (icrmanica ab Augusta) 
adivi rcdes JudoDoruni, ubi multi habitant : libros vetus- 
tos llebraicos permultos eleganter scriptos habent: emere 
unum non potui ; tamen experiebar. Vidi quoque vetustos 
nummos elegantissimos ; emi duos, Neronem et Augustum. 
Vidi quoque vctustum Hebraicum nummum aureum elc- 
gantem elegantissimis Uteris Hebraicis : emissem, si in 
pretio fuisset ullus modus. II sec urbs Augusta habet 
instruct issimam bibliothecam, et plurimos Grsecos prisoos 
et Hebraicos. Qui prsesunt, seposuerunt ad numerum 
sexaginta optimorum librorum, ne CifiSAR aut CsBsariani 
illis auferant. Habent integrum Chrysostomum Grsecum 
et alios insignes. Honestus vir promisit mihi se cura* 
turum ut ipse viderem. Religio Christi haud aliter 
floret AuousTiE, prsesente CiESAKE, quam tua pronuntia- 
tio floruit Cantabrigise furente Wintonienst. Gaudent 
omnes nostri, et ego quoque congratulor : sed vereor ipse, 

1550.] ASCUAM's LETTEftl* i\9 

De Cjesar, dum prsBsens cum dolo {amlt§ «»! in mu^^ 
religionis, absens facilius, sine $mpmoti& frm^ (/tt*m§ 
Tires polilicas, ub lapsu politioi corn»ii dutm f^if^/ 
Sed est iu ccclis, qui nngclis suis mumlMif m^^it t&^i^^tm 
psalmi, &c. liamburgus, Brema, ei pfAmmum Muii^ 
burgus animo, calarao, et gladio uVipm^mfi M^v4^td, 
Yidi confessiouem Magdcburgefi^etfi. Argmtrntium HM 
hoc est. Si superior magistratus tim «rx«rrc<fii in ^uMOm 
contra jus aut naturale aut divitium^ Ikri Uim ittf^jhfi 
magistratui resislere. Urbem Mas^debor^orti^^^ ^ tmi44m 
laudo, banc ^koiv tamen ipse noti prohoi n»m hin^ ^«t«» 
motus facile exorirentur. 

Hunc librum vix bic parabiWm Amtff iitA miHf^< ^ 
multas alias tractaiiones miermhikfi^ H mimphfffUam 
etiam ad te mitterem, nisi nperM^em (Uf%iPiM Um^ 
omnia tibi curavisse. Wittenberga etim MtiLii^^^Md^i^ 
et Lipsia cum Camehabio reprehtrnhnim bk m umHk 
bonis viris, quod doctrinam inUrmi^iiemtt «i mimpUWmtiti 
admittunt. Joachimus CkUi^UAUitn mttiifm^. k^AU^ 
Lipsise, proximo superior! anno« peifodii m$itf*fjf» n^'^h^^'^m 
hoc tempore in religiooe. Qatim nOfiuid mfii^ 4if^ ad 
religionem sive ad reropublioim §p^^€i»m^ ftd mtm^.'^ imm 
pervenerit, fuse tibi perscribam omtm ^ nune f}^t*ifUm, 'm 
nostro primo ad? enta, nee mttiiM, me tft^p^^ t^^; mkit 
habeo quae scribam. Mimm rercy miUi^ iu kv^ UA^)^ i^mt&^ 
nullum tale visum est, qa«i» (imjmo4^ Afjiftim^^ h^^M^ 
noster impensanim mafgniiudtM^ fhr» ffrnd ■■ i^m k^ 
recentissimis diebus, immen^OM f^mndnm k f^tm^ VJA^^ 
larum crescunt pretia et Anp^im it^y^^n^ jmH p^m^, 
Dimensum regium noiri, n^p^^^^^m M^rtfrnf* yct^f^i . 
proTisio diligens, moder»t*o mfttM ^^^^riiibt^r > ^m; im^^ 
superant expensa, io hoe muUifi^m tmit^f^m mmp^^mtm^ 
undique nee optoaio e&ttfim:uiium^ «i £^i^ t4J im^mi^^i^* 
pecunis Tim exhaurirt et uhwAiPf^ ^"^$$$1, tUtf^fM:^ tm^ 

220 ASClIAM't LETTEUt. [1550. 

abundo Ituic rei providcaltir, pertimeHOondum nni, nc brcvi 
neccNsario oxrircMcai itju» libcralitat, Um% tandem occluM, 
non tino oli(|un ruipublicm rrpreheniiotie, (lUfn domi »ein- 
por fuit nnmxin ctnn nmxinia »ua laudo. Ncquo ista 
dnotUa in illo iolo hwrcbit ; ptfHingct etinm ad cow, qui 
propter pnrcm prudcnitinm ct cruditioncm limilia princi- 
pum nof(otiii dcincctpN sunt obituri : hoc tu fucile Judioio 
tnnlimare potet, at opportune etiam in loco convilio juvaro 

(ieoRuiua WhretL/«U8 non if^notnn tibi hio propo 
habitat : rerum vi luarutn dives ei Gcnnonicnrum pcritui, 
Anglorum omnium in bnc ntgiono negotiin ct commodit 
tarn commodus, ut co commode (larcro non t>0Mint : cupit 
CISC icrvuii r(t((i4i) miijcUatiN, nco lucri contpcndium ex 
Anglia qutvrit Hcd commcndationi* tcNtimonium ex patria 
potcit. Iluttc cjuw pontulntionem, nmjori voluntute quam 
nec(tH«itntc intititiitnmi Doniinun Iloii»/«u», novi, aedulo 
illi (nirubit impetratum. JuntinRimtc tnnum rationei lunt, 
quamobrcm optarcm ut hoc b(tnc*ncium ille tibi, non alter! 

Pridic illiufi dici, quo I^ondino doniinim Irgatun pro- 
fectun vMi, cum «crinon(tut in cubiculo tuo Jjondiiti mccuni 
dc vera rdip;iono vi ntctu Hitidiorum rntiono inHtituinti, qui 
nunquam milii cxcidttrc potcMt. Vuhttninitcr gnudebam 
tarn familiiiram tibi cnMo Drmomthicnkm : aujimta yiCaciii- 
Nia int<ir nc wtpl wapawpufdilac contriirim orntioncu ni tu 
l^atine vertcre*, rem tuo loco, Mtudio, ing«nio, judicio, 
fucuUati apti««imam Ntmciprrci. J)icm()ntiikni ct Cick- 
KOM.Cirwco) ctLatina) liugims nd pritn*latiim imitiitionem 
maximam luciim adferren. Etiam pronuntiutio tun, no 
diutiuM d(!litci»cat in Anglia, «i niittcrcn nd mc cxcmplnria, 
f'fUccrcm ut brcvi in couupcctu hominum prodirct: nee 
dubito, quin opera ctinm JoANNiaBTUUMii uti jmnim nd 
cam itluvtrandnm. 8i de me quoque nli(|uid audire vIn, 

1550.] ASCHAx's utmis. 2i£ 

profectio hacc vchementer pbodt» ct ia ioca skml ptodtttsoae, 
nihil wagis placet quam coDsudLiMio \att yr^'ifiitt^ t:^ 
cum domino meo siiaf issiine Qtor : eBJasdOByt xaniiiQBiss et 
eo sale humanitaiia spard, ct his praAealiafe boos ^jbl 
insigncs, ac si dbpuUiio aliqoa aediiait^ eoiaceflCioiQies 
tam argiitae, cum viribus etiam et »erm^ «qpiib«» aceedu; 
multiplex renim scieotia, meawrwiqpae m. «& <^ ica at 
studiis divelli sed in siodiis jaa deaui Tmn^ rJijKir. Jid; 
quod multo Terius bitri diooitti^ qi&ain pMt ^fci^r^ssum 
domini Hobbjei, plnscdom odi nucxi^ of^mum ^jx^sc'ie 
GnecsD linguas scriptores not i^ta boa jiisaesia scun^tac 
conferemus. Utor domino ea kuaaajute tt a^/erjux^nce^ 
quam tu mihi ssepe predkare iC/e:^: a>ceuiattt «g^i ;^ 
aliqua, qain multo prior ei expeditior rftiiji^ tfiaem i>Lidju» 'a 
dando beneToIentise quam m<« in rDgaaiii&> fersftRM^. 
£t quanquam hoc tfaeit judtcio, »pool^^ tt ge&i>» «»0i» eonr 
movet tameu muUum ei toa tiommatdsttkk mtsL (QfDWMi 
igitur tua caussa factum eat, 3&!eiLi^ matao akk^mi »gxf 
ficatione memorin id libi quoooe srassat ease. QftnoL 
dominiis raeus ^ ideal me Tebemeseer ^eJeeSaori xtma^ 
versu serundi opens Hoxcai^ U6jt ^^eSfjeei&r^ s^e ac& 
solum Italiam aditnnim, ^eid eai tt^sasi -rerjMfi^, <i^!a» 
videndi ilium ardoi^em la ipse iciiii 'kSieegud2i»ti» ^pr-:.-3:i 
Eui^rpen ct Folfmmiam W%,%oixm eiatrrasili, 'it ic* a^iUb 
neque laboris neque pericali meim rt3;ii.z^ pissait, A^ 
proroptum studium ei ToiafiU:eso t^^^trrC' tar^fsts^ tux. -^ 
robustum quidem, «ed labori«, ir'z^r^ tx^.c/r^ istiU fa*ier»^ 
quemf is potum et dbom ecm stluu etutT:^ i^vtioA. ^i a«j 
has opportunitatcs, cpe tua, ad apea x^^jct^ja t^yes.^piO'iZfdm 
abuti potuero, fhictam haj^s. isixievis ta 'jj»t x^ttpeaa per- 
ciperes. Nam pneter diiig«Atesi pTi^:3£yrs;iJia toccsosnevS^ 
rum conqui&itionem, adfenexa ad te, ctrto c^-±.U:sii £>£o 
sermone, pnesentem consiietniistfm, aiorw et £»cier3 eo- 
mm locorum, qnomm admiratigfte to sesper ieaehgf&. 

222 ascham's L£TTERS. [1550. 

In Anglia favent mihi nobiles multi, et nosti illudHESiODi 
tic fffuxphv fffiueptp^ &c. Non annuum quicquam, sed prse- 
sentem pecuniolam ad hoc iter posco. lUustrissima domi- 
na mea, non dubito, multum tribuet huic petition! mese. 
Doroina Suffolciensis, hoc proximo superiori anno, 
prolixe et large mihi poUicita est, quum aliquot menses 
dominum Cabolum Grsccis Uteris institui, et ad pulchram 
manum formavi : ejus liberalitatem ad hoc tempus et hone 
usum reservavi. Clarissimus etiam dux Suffolciensis, 
quum mihi favet, et elegantiam scribendi qua iile prsestat 
mihi quoque debet, hanc postuhitionem meam apud matrem 
adjuvabit. Largior mihi multum de utroque marchione. 
Sed taceant petacea literee, quibus pudor jampridem silen- 
tium injecisset, nisi eundi cupiditas erubescendi vere- 
cundiam et illis et mihi abstersisset. Sed spem mihi, et 
tua antiqua iu me benevolentia et mca petendi non inhonesta 
ratio auget. Prolixior sum quam in principio constitui. 
Si scire possim te has literas una cum confessione Magde- 
burgensi recepisse, paratius et aliis quoque temporibus ad 
te scribam. Vale, ornatissime vir, et me ut facis ama. 
Anno Domini 1550, Novembris 11. 

Sends a duplicate of his former letter to i^scham, which he had 
sent by the wife of Bucer —hopes to see him soon — has sent 
a copy of his work De PeriodU to tha Princess Elizabeth. 
Strasbourg, Nov. 18, 1550. 
pannes Sturm ius Royero Aachamo S. F, — Lite- 
rarum, Asciiame, qmis uxori Buceri ad tc 
dedi, exempluni quod curaram mihi dcscribi 
ad te mitto, quo videas epistolam tuam non 
loquacem sed eloqucntcm fuisse. Phtne enim 
mihi persuasit, omnes in te esse cas virtutcs, quarum 
indicia in ilia prieclara elucent; huuinnilateni, vcritatem. 

1350.] AacEUx'» Lrm%§, ii% 

judicium, doctrinam, amoTem etiam erga me ta^i^ij, ai^ 
quod nimium tribuis mihi ; in quo patiar a?noT?tm CTftc:tim 
esse, ut ne si ocolos aperiat, a me decerJat et tr;»»sf«^rat»ir 
in nlium. Cupio enim ab* te omniuo amari, et ^ok> 
utri usque epistolau testem inter q<» ex^tari^ perpett^tf 
inter nos caritatis. Itaqoe ntramqiie (IiraJ^J» lW3<w 
proximis diebtis. Sed qtiam male accvlit, qtsod rJom-m:r»» 
MouYsiNUs legatus re^ptis ad fio» noti r JeileitenI ? pro^p^ter 
conjunctionem nostram, pmpter iKcea^ito^liiMm reii^p(y^ 
quae est nostrsc ciritali ctua rei^^no An^ast ; pbfcf «nf»m 
religionis coosociatio in hominibtu falejv cJebet, ^mm 
tjuodvis aliud foedus. Declara»ftemt» eerte iK>r» fafiraltat^-* 
neque opes nostras, sed benerolentiam, et »ti^iam, rt 
observantiam, et reyerentiam qnam pr»»tare debemot. 
Sed tu promittis mibi in Uteris tuis de too adrento ; in 
quo fallere non debes expectationem nostram; inm ui 
quam creberrime scribas ri^Je ; nam etiam h\ yfA^uxm, 
Libelium de PeriodU mi« dominar huzxHtlttM^ sed 
desiderat patronum et commendatorem snom, hi quod ei 
de te persuaseram. Veruntamen ^atom foiMe mmio» 
audio domin« EhiZkBtrtlM, fortawi* quia la mihi 
aliquando tribuisti aliquid in ttii» ad earn sermGuibos. 
Regis non memini in pra;futione, ut nanc l(XjOontur ; fjos 
roajestati locum desi^avi in ArUtoieliciM meis dialoffUi 
in quibus stylum meum quotidie acao : ut si quiiJ po%%it 
contra barbariem in his o«tendat, quant ulum sit quod inea 
conficienda pos»it ; turn etiam in celebrandi^ amim, ad 
quos mibi tuus amor jucundissimu^ hospes, irno familiaris 
nunc et domesticus accessit. Vale, mi liooeKis AscilAM £ : 
vaiere etiam doniinum MoRisixuM legatum opt^i; ei 
Deum Cbristumque oro, ut valeat, onme9(pie vos iocolu- 
mcs et prosperos conservct. Argentorati, XVIII Novem- 
bris, 1550. 

224 ASCHAM'tf LETTER8. [1550. 

ex.— TO STURM, (1,4). 
Acknowledges the receipt of both hit letters bj Ihe hands of 
Christopher Mount — wishes that their letters should be 
printed on some spare page of Sturm's forthcoming work 
Uialogi Aristoielici—oonyer»tiiion with 8ir John Cheke 
about Edward VI — notice of his last Tisit to York when 
sent for to join the ombassj, &c. 

[Augsburg,] Dec. 14, 1560. 
^^\^i/eru9 Aschamui Joanni Siurmio 8,P, in Chruto 
Jenu. — Ulrasque litcras luas, optime Joannes 
Stubmi, et ftuperiores nonis Septembris, et re- 
centiorcs XV III Novembris ad me missas, 
tradidit mihi prudens vir, et nunc communii 
noster amicus Chbistopiiorus Montius. Summo gau- 
dio utrasque legi frcqucnterque logo, et ab eanim lectione 
nunquam disccdo, nifti novo; semper cumuktus accessione 
▼oluptatis. Laudem, quam tribuis mihi, ut alienam non 
agnosco, sed tanquam vestcm, mihi quidcm humauiter im- 
positam, sed parum congruenicm, libenter cum rubore 
exuo, judicium tamcn laudis, tnm laudati viri, in summa 
laude dcputo. Suavis cs in mco, ut tu dinis, crga te 
cseco amore, ctpatcris esse nrcum, nc, rI oculos uperiat, a 
te disceJat et transfcrntur in nlium. Cu;cus amor, mi 
Stukmi, vagus cat ct crrnt ; et quia diligit, non deligit; 
pncccps non constans e»8c solct. Sed mens in te tam 
oculatus est, et si vis tam Lynceus, ut nulla non teme, 
non Decani intercapcdo neicm ejus impedire possitf quin 
longissime penetret ct facile inc(mdatur ardore, ubi illu- 
strcs virtutis doctrintc(|uc faces prrctenduntur. Quod vis, 
titriusque epistolam in luccm upparcre, et testem cxstare 
pcrpctuEB inter nos charitatis, facis quidcm non plus, quam 
ipse cxopto, plus tamcn qtiam ego, vd a quoquam sine 
nota iinpudentioD, vcl a te sine suspicione iraprudentise, 
efflagitare queo, et quin tu me facis in)])udcntem, nisi ipse 

1550.] ASCHAM's LtTttM. ^-^$ 

aliter vis, et nisi ipsas liters jam m$d hitffmmfi mf^^6m, 
imprimis cuperem, at epiiitd» amirm ^i3^^p»fA?if ^^^v^m 
paginam occupareut ia dkkn^ itm AmiM^A»: ^ 
stulte hoc peto, quum ta fcb qnM ())(^^iidWiVM> ^ fM^imtUv^.- 
Haec tamen scribo, quia rerwr m Uupir» *u«*^ x^vi^ M^sWiPim 
sint et quodammodo asgre U^*$d^ ^ ^> iilW '^^ p^^^pfit,^ 
tar, cujus tam cupids, peij»ai^^ ^ w0>^nfii0¥4f^t^m (^.^t^eiig^ 
runt. Quanquam, qa<jd i^^Mmt^^ w^ &xMt^^ ^X!Mi 
sed perquam bilare« enicrt^ ^ m mi^oif'Jt^it^m^ "k^^t^Wi 
taaram ulla ratione admiUattttw. i^ 'B^^ tm/^ i^^:^^^^^^ 
in quarto, at loqanottfr, ttm^ m (Wtt^v^y t^>M (i^ to kv 
tuis scriptis, tgo magis w^fhmm^ :; <^ <>**U«'*v'vav i^ <Mit#<jP 
quum solertiam, torn ^t^aniimH ^<tmf^ ^^wIV"^. t^^^^ 
gaadio perfandebar, mi %nx^%%^ ^^mm <^^^ ;^ %,>m^ 
epistolae toae Uk^iuxi obi au.« ^ r^|^ Mc)^jj(^?^!(M A^avj^j <4Utti^ 
nan in AriitotelieU m«t» diahfin^ m <(^viilUi^ i^^ll^Vi^ M^^vt^ 
quotidie acao, ui fi quid ym^ mf^m lUvW>w M^ "i^ 
oatendat, tom etkm m «sMv^tAi((^ m^^^i^^ h^.^ ^:^\^ 
ref^ fads, optime %rttMt, ft««^ ilS ^^ &h^^m^fi^ ^,v^4^^ 
sed uniTerK) ejus i«f»*0^ WAt'^'i^^irm lliie<^>^ <^ i^vi'^^^ 
faetomses. }smai^^m^mS^^t^^^;v^tmfmffA»f^)m^ 

gubemaii, eoimih Mf:iiMu ^f^fimat. ^ ^fdim^ tU^vt^iitti; 'ij^]»^ 
nee mdioian itoqoMia^ mm u ^s^tem ^^■^'^vt^ ^Jf^i^ft)^»ii4 
formandom com^mm, t^m Ammf/ftM, ^^%^ffiiif^.- f^ 
dnUlety qnin htx he^ tm^ m m^^tmi^i fi^m»^ m^^^^^ 
uberrimam TdopCsiAtag f^mm mi^^nhn hkvS^ thit» ^^fAsi^-m' 
tan, in mnrcrrafii kii^^Mit^ (^ iva^pii|ld» JUi^>^ UmK^^ 
snms sis. £t qa»i^|«a(sa yrme^i^ m <^ <^ {Pir:«d^# 
satara, calcare sco egKt ad es^^c^^ik/Km em^^mu- Ae^f^^afytm 
ei prndeatis, in qiMm felidnitt^ ttfitt^vis^ t^i^Ummts^ 
soari ci fosa oniioiM: isa, ad id ae«siMi«»sdatay rd«ti «» 
applaasa yatdm \^masm iDm ennn»itew «K^^ii«ii^ 
laboiia iaroctWy ad wmcth b ^^tiifff smsi Mf ' 


226 ascham's letters. [1660. 

cepturus est, et nosti illud dulcissimum carmen dulcUsimi 
poetsB, quod frequenter ipse commemoro : 

Qui moiiet ut facias quod jam facis, ipse monendo 
Laudat, et hortatu coroprobat acta euo. 
Fortunam in principe noBtro ocquat natura : utramque 
tuperat virtus : sive, ut Christianum hominem loqui decet, 
multiplex gratia Dei, cupiditatc optimarum literarum, 
•tudio rectissimsD religionis, voluntate, judicio, et, quam 
tu in studiis unice laudas, constantia, wtatem suam miri- 
fice praecurrit. Et vix ulla felicitatis parte ego eum bea« 
tiorem existimo, quam quod Joan N em Checum, ad pree- 
daram doctrinam et veram religionem, adolcscentiao boa 
doctorem nactus sit. Latine iutelligit, loquitur, scribit : 
proprie, scienter, et expedite, et omnia cum judicio* 
Sialecticam didicit, et nunc Greece discit Aeistotelts 
Ethicen, Eo progressus est in Grscca lingua, ut in philo- 
Bophia CiCEBONis ex Latinis Gro^ca faciilime faciat. 
Pridie illitis diei, qua ex Anglia profectus sum, quum 
essem Londini apud D. Joannem Checum, et inter lo- 
quendum rogarem ab eo, quid esset, quod rex ethicen 
Abistotelis potius quam Institutionem Cyri perlegeret ? 
iile sapientissime et cniditissime, quod semper solet, ret- 
pondet, ut mens, inquit, ejus prius universis illis et infinitis 
virtutum vitiorumque preoceptionibus ac partitionibus 
instructa, drmum judicium adferat ad singula quotidiano- 
rum morum exempla, qua) in historiis iatissime sese fun- 
dunt. Et quia vix fieri potest, ut ingenii acies, in initio, 
dulcedine historiarum cmollita et obtusa, penetret in abs- 
triisas illas et reconditas, scd pernecessarias ad corrobo- 
randum judicium finitse qutcstionis comprebensiones . 
quanquam nullum prosceptum sine appositione insignia 
exempli tradi cupio. Quam felix Anglia sit ; mi Stubm i, 
quum principis ejus juvenilis ffitas, (nam nuper excessitex 
dedmo tertio anno) bac prsstanti prsceptione informetuji 

1550.] asoham's letters. 227 

nemo melius quam tu judicare potest. Brevi absolvet 
ethicen, quam sequetur Aristotelis Hhetoriga, ut non 
opportune solum, sed divinitus etiam videatur tibi oblata 
occasio hujus suscepti laboris tui. Credo enim ego, noa 
sine divino consilio factum esse, ut hscc summa majestas 
regia hac summa ingenii, judicii, doctrinscque tuse facul- 
tate excoleretur. Si plusculum otii mihi essct, longiorem 
tecum de regia nostra majestate instituerem sermonem, 
longiorem etiam de clarissima domina mea D. Elizabetha, 
de clarissimis dueis Somersetensis filiabus, et illis qui- 
dem optima literarum institutione foimatis. Duas tamen 
Angliffi feminas pra}terire non possum, nee a tc, mi 
Stuhmi, praeteritas esse velim, si aliquid cogitas de cele- 
brandis amicis in Anglia, quo mihi nihil exoptabilius esse 
potest. Altera est Jan a Graia, filia nobilis marchionis 
Dorcetensis. Quae quum aviam habuit Mariam Fran- 
ciae leginam, arcta propinquitate attingit regem nostrum 
Edvardum. Annum nata est decimum quintum. In 
Aula fui illi valde famiiiaris, et scripsit ad me cruditas 
literas : hac superiore sestate, quum amicos meos in agro 
Eboracensi viserem, et inde Uteris Joannis Checi in 
aulam ut hue proficiscerer, accitus sum, in via deflcxi Lei- 
cestriam ubi Jan a Graia cum patre habitaret. Statim 
admissus sum in cubiculum ; inveni nobilem puellam, dii 
bonil legentem Grscce Fhadonem Pl axon is, quem sic 
intelligit, ut mihi ipsi summam admirationem injiceret. 
Sic loquitur et scribit Greece, ut vera rcfercuti vix fides 
adhiberi possit : nacta est praeceptorcm Joannem Elma- 
rum, utriusque linguse valde peritum, propter humanitatem, 
pmdentiam, usum, rectam religionem, et alia multa rectis- 
simsB amicitise vincula, mihi conjunctissimum. Mihi dis- 
cedenti, recepit se Greece scripturam, si ego illam meis 
Uteris ex aula imperatoris scriptis provocarem. Expccto 
qnotidie Oreecas ejus literas : quum vcncrint, ad te statim 

228 abgham's LETTEBI, [1660, 

miltnm. Altera est Mildrepa Cecilla, quas baud aliter 
GiQBoe iutcllij^it et loquitur quam Anglice ; ut dubium 
esse poBsit, feiiciorne sit bao prsestanti cognitione, m 
quod nata sit nobili viro Antonio Coco et patre ejus, et 
prseceptore : qui propter singularem suam eruditionem, in 
crudiendo rege, Joanni Gueco socius adjunotus est ; vet 
potius quod nupsit Guilielmo Cecillojuveni quidem iUi, 
sed tarn senili prudentia, tanta Uterarum et rerum peritiA, 
et ea in rebus gerendis abstinentia prsedito, ut laudem 
iliam Bolidam et quadripartitam, quam Pebigli SBmulut 
. Buus tribuit Thucydidbs, [II, 60], TviUvai rd dkovrat 
ipfiflvtvtraL rd yvtudtvraf^iKSiroXif; tlvaifHal xpflft'drttiv fpti99iitVf 
buio communis consentiensque Anglorum vox impartlta 
sit. Post meum digressum ex Anglia prjmarius secretariuf 
regius faetus est, 

Vereor, mi Sturhi, ne prolixo meo sermone molestus aim 
tibi : sed quia nibii magis cupio, quam longissimas literas 
tuns, longe et ipse scribo, scripturus etiam longius, si otium 
mihi suppeditaret. Nam nunquam fui in vita mea minus 
otiosus, quam nunc sum. Nova quae bic geruntur, nemo 
certius, nemo opportunius perscribere tibi potest nostro 
ChbistophoeoMontio; et quotidie rogorogaboque ut tibi 
singula perscribat, nee ipse deero, quoties offeratur opportu- 
nus tabellarius, et ne in his gravissimis temporibus, leves 
et inanes literes meee ad te accederent, ecce tibi, sola 
Madelbuegus sic occupat nunc Augustes omnium homi- 
num suspiciones, rumores, sermones, colioquia, consilia: 
ut ceteris rebus omnibus, minimis, maximis, mediocribus, 
silentium fere iujecerit. De cujus urbis aut salutis spe 
aut interitus metu sic omnia sunt incerta, ut rumoribus 
yel cum dolo excogitatis vei sine auctore disseminatis im> 
plicata, ut ipse nihil habeam certi et explorati, quod scri- 
bam. De hac re certissimus sum, quod beec urbs nunc 
/est, et ab alienis pressa acriter, et a suis defensa fortiter. 

1660.] AIOHAH's LETTIB8. 220 

quU nee prece, ncc pretio, neo minis, nee metu impel) i 
potsit, ut earn doctrinam, ant omnino proditam abjiciat, 
aut foede vitiatam aceipiat, quam omnes bonii ubi ubi sunt, 
ex divinis baustam fontibus amplectuntur. Nee mirum 
66te debet, si duo ilii tricipites, Cerberus Komanus, et 
Oe^on Hispanus contendant banc unam urbem expugnnre, 
cujas si porta semol fuerit vel effracta vi vel resernta 
voluntate, patet statim aditus et Cerbero in totam Gcr- 
maniam, et Oeryoni in univcrsam fere Europam, ut nee in 
religione puritas, nee in rcpublica commoditas rcliqua 
esse possit, quoo non brcvi, aut iliius frocata babitu, aut 
istius oceupata raptu fuerit. Kcliqua negotia, Turcica, 
papistica, Cnsariana, diabolica, et Cbristinna in summo 
f ilcntio jueent. Brevi scribam de bis ctiam rebus, si quid 
certi ad manus meas pcrvenerit. Vale, doctissime Stur- 
Sf I, et me, quod facis, ama. XIY Decemb. An. Dom. 1560. 

Oiniiot write on important lubjeoti, •• letters are liable to be 
opened and read on thoir way. — Council at Trent will be 
returned on May 1.— Turks about to aiiail Hungat7— 
alludes to bis ill-trcatmont at tbe bands of lome of Eliza- 
beth's bousebold, wbich bo told Bucor wben be ritited bim 
at Lambeth, on bis flrit coming to England, [i.e, after May 
or June, 1640]. 

St Qoorgo'i Monai. Augtburg, Jan. 7, [1661]. 
TVnerando patri et praceptori, Domino Martino 
Bucerot S, 1\ in Christo Jeau, — Venerande do- 
mino BucEKE. Non oblivionc tui factum est, 
quod nondum literas a me ncceperis, neque 
excidit mihl quod dixerus ul)eunti ; preesentes 
prolixo poiliceri scribcrc, abseutes vero btatim et suam 
fidem et amicorum curam abjicere. Non sio fit, mi 

230 ASGUAM's LETTBR8. [1551 

BuGEEE : nam ex quo primum AuguBtam venerim, otium 
mihi non exiguum scd nullum est : tabellarius nullus datus 
est, nisi communis ille, cui aliquid committere nee possum 
nee audeo, et has inancs literas tibi scribere omnino inane 
esset, nisi significationem adferrent memoris et grati animL 
8i graviores ad te scriberem, pertimesco ne obiter per 
lectionem relevarentur. Excutiuntur hie tabellarii, et 
quicquid a quoquam scriptum est, illi periculo commissum 
est, ut aut intereat aut aperiatur aut intercipiatur. 8ed 
abutor hoe exiguo meo otio antelucano. Christi gloria 
hie Augusta) supra quam credi possit efflorescit, fructus in 
lucem uberrimos effundit. Ecclesiis prbtestantimn nihil 
frequentius, nihil ardentius, ministri sunt diligentissimi : 
popestantium contra nihil infrequentius, nihil frigidios. 
Concilium generale Trident! resumetur primo Maij. Bulla 
papalis missa est ad Csesaream majestatem. Begin aldus 
PoLiJS Cardinalis pra3erit, ut percrebescit fama, illi concilio. 
Hes Africans in magno motu sunt : nam quanquam 
oppidum quod Africa dicitur, foriiter expugnatum sii 
hoc anno ab Andrea Dorea, tamen post ejus digressum 
quum omnia illic essent pacata, ecce tibi praefectus oppidi 
Africa), ejectus per Doream, subito revertitur, et prester 
expectationem omnium occupat insulam larbe, et inter- 
fecit illius regem, amicum Csesari. Hie preefectus crudelis 
Turca, et infestus preedo atque pirata est, nee dubito 
quin Cffisar felicitcr fracturus sit banc insolentiam Turoi- 
cam. Majus tamen periculum imminet Hungari», quam 
Turca brevi, ut hie frequentissimus rumor est, adorietur. 
CfiBsarea majestas resiatet illi in Hungaria, ingentibus 
copiis ex Hispania, Italia et Germania collectis. Appa- 
ratus est in summa diligentia, et profectio nostra in majori 
expectatione : brevi movebimus ab hac urbe Batisbonam : 
hinc recta per Danubium Hungaram petituri, nisi forsan, 
quod quidam dicunt, per Saxoniam et Poloniam hoc iter 

1651.] ascham's lbttirs. 281 

8uinus facturi. Magdeburgenses ceperunt Geobgium 
ducem Mecleburgensem his recentissimis diebus. Ed- 
VARDUS Eavenus meus, quern juvenem unice tibi com- 
mendo, ostendet tibi literas, ex quibus elicere poles statiun 
illanim rerum. Clemens Alexandrinus imprimitur 
nuper Florentifle eleganiissime, \6yoc irporptirriKSe vpbc 
"EXX^vaC) Lib. 1, iraiddyuyod Lib. 3, irtpi cpwfidrwVf Lib. 8. 
Paulus Jovius Italus scripsit historiam horum temporum, 
duos tomos ingentes ad hunc annum. Est apud nos hie, 
dominus Curistophorus Montius, tui studiosissimus, 
auctor sum illi in dies singulos, ut diligenter ad te per- 
scribat omnem rationem horum hie temporum, habet ille 
miyorem opportunitatem, et nulla res est fere, quse non 
pervenit ad ejus manus. Spero me brevi longiores literas 
ad te daturum : si dabitur facultas, non deerit mea volun* 
tas, &c. Hogandus es, et mnjorem in modum, optime prsB- 
ceptor, ut aliquam curam mei, filii tui absentis, suscipias. 
Meministi quomodo olim, quum primum in Angliam vene- 
ris et Lambethi vixeris, ego ad te accessi : tum quidem 
ignotuB tibi declaravi, quam male tractarer, non a domina 
mea Elizabetha sed a nonnullis illarum ffidium. Eoga- 
bam te tum, ut tuis Uteris me reponeres in gratiam do- 
minflB mese, quee nulla mea culpa, teste Deo loquar, sed 
iniqua aliorum opera, nonnihil a me abalienata fuit. 
Ante digressum meum ex Anglia, adivi illustrissimam 
dominam; humanissime me accepit, et multo humanius 
me objurgavit, quod sic vellem cam relinquere, nee un- 
quam laborarem per uUum hominem, ut redirem in illius 
gratiam. Eogo te, optime vir, per omnem amicitiam 
nostram, ut Uteris tuis ad illustrissimam dominam scriptis 
significes, quantum laboravi ut hoc tu faceres, quod etiam 
opinor fecisses, nisi valetudo tum te impedivisset. Muni- 
tu8 sum, mi Bucere, optima conscientia recte factorum 
et diotorum in ilia Aula, et nisi pudor me revocaret, ex- 

232 AtCHAM'S LETTERS. [1661 • 

ponerem tibi, quam preeolaras res a me elarissima domina 
acceperit : hoc beneficium tuum in me absentem colloca- 
tum erit mihi et meis longe gratlssimum. Tu nosti qaod 
hoc beneficium olim Lambetbi abs te petebam, quseso 
inteliigam et ipse AugustsB, quam lirvxdc idem beneficium 
a te nunc repeto. Studium rfi diakXdrruv, ipsius Christi 
et ejus iraagini conformium maxime proprium. est. 8i 
fortuuatior aura favoris illustrissimee dominse mess hue 
usque perflaverit, eam tibi magna ex parte acceptam 
referam : inteliigam per literas tuas, quantum mihi in hac 
re tribues. Sermone literarum tuarum nihil mihi expec* 
tatius. 8aluta omatissimum Hapdonum nostrum : com- 
mendo tibi omnes Joannenses : et me, quod facis, ama. 
Yale in Cbristo Jesu. Augustee yindeUcorum, e ccenobio 
divi Oeoboii, postridie *Ewi^avilaQ. 


(6, 49). 
On church matteri, particularly the communion— The 4th aolio 
againtt Bithop Gardiner — Dr Smith'i book De Be Saera' 
tnentaria, Bucer died in 1661. Lambeth, Jan. 10, [1651.] 

^larUiimo ao erudiiimmo J), 2). Mariino Bueero, 
Theologia profeMori regio Caniahrigia: mihi 
plurimum observando, — Hoc tempore nil mihi 
potuit aut optatius aut jucundius evenire, quam 
ut censuram tuam viderem librorum sacrorum : 
quare quod eam ad me dignatus sis mittere, gratias im- 
mortales ago. Jam rogatus fueram ut ipse quoque anno- 
tarem quidnam mihi de eo videretur ; et quum propter 
ignotam mihi linguam fuisset data versio Domini Cheeki 
legends, ut potui ex ea coUigere, annotavi quee digna cor- 
rectione visa erant. Bed quia in versione mihi tradita 
complura deerant, ideo multa prseteriii de quibus in meis 


Ill Mm «. X fisvKF ^mr^jti*^ maaci Tsw^zrji: 

lUUBfBX Ml 1' lUU:*. SIXCiTna: «r. JUT. JfiiVt x^ 

HBBfsxiss: ii*. txamniniiEatt*: tt^iuuiuni x Tsor-^ 

kmoL Jttim. jttflisxK. ^um*. ju .qmmtinmtf!!! x sxaoir 
; jifltnuuHaBB;. uul x x*^ x in^. afifmn:. uuu: Ir. 

IC XL tf>M MTV* * fWn " yum ^ - ^iVSlftL flSSSlF tim^*^ 

sd ImnhimsIv fiSttx ^ir iH y— »*^ mr Ji^ txeuix vssrznusTt. 
Ttm^ fitter, xc ixmiL ttproiL, «: «iiux azx 
, cmoBfc ottf- jiC ccKBtmL LwTtTT neeeir- 
Hrio mnii i uim ir, «; disBsnr, «: j^aonan. L: suk 
■nrmdmn est, qutmioac a «infpf«x aegnx: venu ditsat 
gniTeiitiir, cui nuudntt mihiL sun: : qnimi maiUiic: ettdem 
repeiere ▼elint, qaiuD inter oommimicuidain in tempio 
▼innm in poculo defioere oontigerit, qunm homines, qui 
•diont et sacramenta summit, ilia jam audivehnt. Haec 
•ant qus patavi alici^us momenti, et cur omisehs non 
latig intelligo. In omnibus autcm qua; oensuisti emen- 
danda, tue sententio subscripsi, ct gratias Deo ago qui 

284 asgham's letters. [1651. 

occasionem suppeditavit, ut de bis omnibus episcopi p«r 
nos admonerentur. Conclusum jam est in hoc eorum 
coUoquio, quemadmodum mihi retulit Heverendissimus, nt 
multa immutentur : sed quennam ilia sunt quae consense- 
rint emendanda, neque ipse mihi reposuit, neque ego de 
illo queerere ausus sum. Varum hoc non me parum 
recreat, quod mihi Dominus Cuebkus indicavit, si nolue- 
rint ipsi, ait, efficere ut quae mutanda sint mutentur, rex 
per se ipsum id faciet, ct quum ad parlamentum ventum 
fuerit, ipse susb majestatis auctoritatem interponet. De 
WiNTONiENSi jam actio quarta in judicio habita est, 
neque dum respondet alio spectat, quam ut se a eontu- 
macia purget. Verba ejus a papisticis hominibus ut doota 
et acuta priBdicantur, a veris autem et sanis judioibus, 
vafra, et subdola, aliena a caussa, et ut uno verbo dioam 
sophistica : quod mihi etiam fit verisimile, quum ilium in 
rebus theologicis non aliter agere animadverterim ; venun 
quicquid fit, caussa omuino existimatur casurus. 

Qu8B de HoFPERo ad me scribis, non potuerunt non 
videri mira, certc illis auditis obstupui. Sed bene habet 
quod episcopi meas littcras viderunt, unde invidia ego 
quidem sum liberatus, et illius caussa sic jacet, ut melio- 
ribus et piis nequaquam probetur. Dolet, dolet, inquam, 
mihi gravissime talia inter evangelii professores contin- 
gere. Ille toto hoc tempore, quum illi interdicta sit con- 
cio, non vidctur posse quiescere : suae fidei oonfessionem 
edidit, qua rursus multorum animos exacerbavit. Deinde 
queritur de consiliariis, et fortasse, quod mihi non refertur, 
de nobis. Deus felicem catastrophcn non Isetis actibus 

Doctor Smithus quondam Oxonii professor, qui me de 
votis monasticis prseterita jam asstate lacessiviti nunc 
librum Anglice scriptum, contra Dominum Cantuaribn- 
SEif edidit De re Sacramentaria ; de quo, quum lingua 


mild sit xpmsL/BsaagL. ig'wa^ is* mmL. 

pnelo haoKfL axst saznx js:. ^ -ttuam -vjtu^naL- 

OpjuaqmoL ssbk ts- "^ aeroi »-: i:^ J2?*r*' i-q, . 

BCC XKIL tS. mlKS nr*" l«aefT - ^a!<»ss«. -.«ei:^ -eB^-^tjA. 
BUD I^. "ntSEIC 'CVr Tltt^-. Z, .lliC JUe^ jfaCr . jmrrvmS, 

pnxxv .'saiXL n ?r- r/:. iiiii. r-^^- ^^.'^ .mb*^ .u±^ 

286 ascham'i letters. [1661. 

a^l te missas vel tribus vcrbii compensare posfis : quail- 
quam non est ulla tarn prasseus amicitiro suavitas, quam 
absentis vel defensa salus gratis ofHciis, vel culta memorit 
crebris Uteris : et contra nihil acerbius illo hominum 
genere, de quibiis Cicero, quum provinciam procuraret, 
graviter conqucritur, qni absenti illi aut silentio ingrati 
aut reprehensione injarii exstitissent. Nos obscuri et 
humiles, hac parte feliciores sumus, quia ncc dolemus si 
prffitereamur silentio, nee timemus ne Indamur invidia : 
quos nee AxapiqiaQ scnsus multum movere nee ASuclac 
aculei aeriter pnngere solent. Cupio equidem ad te 
creberrimas prolixasque literas scribere; non facio, et 
certo consilio et justa de caussa : nam res gravissinue, 
qusB hie genintur, literis domini legati aut privatis ad te 
aut publicis ad regium concilium perscribuntur. 81 ego 
easdem res scriberem, et ofiicium mihi commissum pro« 
derem, et laborem quum mihi inanem, tum tibi molestum 
sumerem: sin alias res leviores, quotidianas, plateis 
jactatas, cum mendacio excogitates, sine auctore dissemi- 
natas adferrem, tuas dignitatis, prudential, judicii ratlonem 
habere non viderer. Prsterca otium mihi minimum 
suppetit, ut, si maxime voluntate id cuperem, minime 
tamcn facultate prsestarem. Nam dominus legatus, quum 
otium a publicis negotiis datum est, in peragranda Groeca 
lingua quotidianis et maximis itincribus utitur ; in nulb 
diversorio quiescit, ad nullum diverticulum deflectit, et 
jam incipit percurrere, propediem spero pervolaturus, ut 
nihil egisse se existimet, si reliquos Anglos in hoc cursu 
superct, nisi ad vos etiam aspirct olympiacos, quod facturus 
est, etiamsl caveatis. Ad hunc modum ego tempus 
traduco : aut studeo, aut cum domino lego, aut transcribo 
literas quas dominus ipse scribit in Angliam : rarissime 
proficiscor in urbem, sed omnem meam voluptatem ex 
domestico meo officio quasro. In omni officii genere, 

1561.] ASCHAlf's LETTERS. 287 

quod domino meo praestare possum, (nam quod non 
possum, exigere uti spero non vult) universam meam 
operam, diligentiam, observantiam, cum summa voluntate, 
Me, constantia exbibebo. Et quanquam hoc postulat 
ratio et honestatis mea;, et bonitatis illius, te tamen, 
ornatissime vir, veluti praesentem spectatorem factotum 
meorum omnium ob oculos quotidie propono, ut nihil 
absent commlttam, quod tibi prassenti non probarem. Et 
quemodmodum tua unius' opera hue missus sum, sic men 
in memoria semper inhserebit ilia Cioergnis sententia, 
" graviorem esse sponsionem alienee honestatis, quam alieni 
srifl." Neque quicquam mibi in hac longinqua absentia 
mea frequentius obversatur, quam ut assidue laborero, 
lit antiqusB tuae in me benevolentise aliquis indies novus 
cumulus accedat, etc. 

In Grasca lingua diligens sum, in Italica aliquis, in 
Latina nullus : nam usum habeo illius legcndae infrequen- 
tem, loquendae insolentiorem, scribendae rarissimum. Ad 
aliquot menses libcuter viserem Italiam. Quod scripsi 
ad te superioribus Uteris, aliqua utilitas hujus itineris 
mei ad te prascipue perveniret. Nam si me liberum, et 
integrum, non ad varias res distractum, ad notationem 
iemporum, locorum, rerum, et hominum apponerem, 
nullus esset reipublicas motus, religionis status, literarum 
progressus, morum et disciplinaD gradus, vicissitudines, 
ezpectationes, aperta consilia, secreta studia, quae uUo 
modo ezpiscari potuerim, quin tibi ea omnia perscribercm. 
Si ope tua opes mihi ad hanc rem suppeterent, hoc 
beneficium et hoc tempore gratum et in hac absentia mihi 
et meis gratissimum haberetur. Hasc postulatio mea, 
cum uno verbo tuo conjuncta, facile quod volo asscqueretur. 
Non sum tarn durus mihi, ut non sentiam, quid et ipse 
possim, quid etiam aliqui non possunt, quibus eximiae 
pnebendae ut nominantur passim tributao sunt, Frscfectura, 

ISS ascham's letteqs. [1651. 

ut tu scis, bibliothecae regifo mihi conceditur ; si liano 
jocturam alia doii coraponsct cotntnoditafl, possum ego 
meam deplorarc drvxiav : non possunt alii stiam cxcusare 
ABiKlav nisi alter alteruin circumvenire in nullo vitio 
ponendum sit. Multis nominibus amo Babtholomeum 
Traheunum, ct facilius paiiar tarn honcsti viri caossa 
prscdudi bibliothccam, inodo aditus uiihi patcat ud aliquam 
similem conditioncm. Si tu, optime vir, indigeres uUa 
opella inca, opinor nosti, quo animo, quo studio, in id 
totus incumbcrem : scntiaiii ct ipse quam fclicitcr trade 
et commendo incum ncgotium tibi : alium, qui bencvolentia 
plus vclit aut facultatc opportuiiius possit hoc mihi 
perficcre, nulhim habeo. Clkmkns Alexandrinus 
imprimitur Florcntias, irpbi" 'KWtivdQ \6yoQ trporpiirriKhQ^ 
Liber I, iraiiaywyb^ Libcr, rtpi cpwfidrutv, ImprcsBus est 
Borneo Theod. trtpl alptjtriutVf ct Ycnetiis nuper DioNis 
Ohrysostomi orationes (iroscc 80 : tractat insignia looa 
COmmunia iripl /)a9iX</ac» frXtoviKiaCt ^ipl vSfAOVf irtpl l9ovCf 
iripl TrlQtuc, nal mpl dmclaff, llanc olitn VCrtitCAMERARIUS, 

et alia sirailia ad usum civilcin nccoinmodata. Ilunc librum 
et reliquos mittcrcm libcntcr ad tc, si cotnmodc hino in 
Angliam dcfcrri posscnt. Joannes Jacodus Fuccarus, 
insignis nicrcator hujus urbis, curavit sibi ex Italia, ex 
Gallia, et Gcrmania transcribi clcgantissimo magnum 
numcrum optimorum Grn^corum librorum. Biblithccam 
nondum vidi : si vidcro, diiigentcr notabo si quid vener- 
andsD antiquitatis illic cxistat. Musculus superiori anno 
dedicavit ecclcsiasticani historiam rcgi(o mnjcstati : adhuc 
non intcliigit, an liber traditus sit. tii tu, Cioellus, et 
Cocus virtutis atquo litcrarum caussas in loco tucamini, 
opinioni omnium rospondebitis ; si in extremis literis tuis 
ad dominum legatum significes quod has meas receperis, 
gratum faceres ; sed longo gratissimum si antiquum bene- 
volentiam tuam exoptatissimis mihi semper Uteris tuis 

1661.] asouam's letters. S89 

agnoscere possim. Vale, clarissime vir. Augusteo, XIV 
Januarii, 1551. 

OompIimenU her and her tutor Ayhner on her knowledge of 
01 eek — names Elizabeth Astley and otlieri. 

Augsburg, Jan. 18, 1661. 
A, Clarmima domina Joanna Oraia. — In 
hac longinqua peregrinatione men, clarissima 
domina, emensus sum graudia locorum 
3 spacia, urbes amplissimas perspexi, mores 
hominum multorum vidi, instituta, leges, 
religionem, disciplinam diversorum populorum qua maxima 
potuerim diligentia adverti : nihil tamen in tanta rcrum 
Tarietate, tarn justam mihi admirationem adfert, quam 
quod hao proxima superior! ocstate oifenderim te, tarn 
nobilem virginem, absente optimo preDceptore, in aula 
nobilissimi patris, quo tempore rcliqui ct reliquas vena- 
tioni et jucunditatibus sese dent, offenderim inquam, 
& Zcv Kal 0tolt divinam Virginem, divinum divini Flatonib 
PAadanem Qrroce sedulo perlegcntem ; hac parte felicior 
68 judicanda, quam quod rrarpdOip fAtjrpdOtv rt ex regibus 
reginisque genus tuum deducis. Perge porro, ornatissima 
virgo, patrisB decus, parentibus felicitatem, tibi gloriam, 
prsBoeptori laudem, notis tuis congratulationem, omnibus 
ezteris summam admirationem adferre. 

O Elmabum meum felicissimum, cui talis contigit 
discipula, et te multo feliciorem, quee eum prroccptorem 
nacta es 1 Utrique certe, et tibi quo) discis ct illi qui 
dooet, et gratulor et gaudeo. Hoso verba Joannis 
Stubmii sunt ad me, de meo munere docendi illustrissi' 
mam meam dominam Elizabetham : sed ad vos duos 
Torius traduci possunt; vobis duobus hano felicitatem 
integram cedoi quum ego acerbam offensionem sine omni 

240 ascham's lettebh. [1661. 

caussa hinc exhauserim, unde tuavem laboris mei fructtun 
Optimo jure expedare debuerim. Bed intempestive refrioo 
asperitatem doloris mei, qui si Don prudentia mea, certe 
ipso tempore, callum sibi obducere potuisset. Hoctantum 
dico; dominam Elizabeth a if accusare non possum, qua 
usus sum semper optima domina, nee M. Astlaah 
quidem : sed si unquam in Elmarum meum incidero, in 
ejus sinum abunde meos omnes dolores effusurus sum. 
Duas res a te peto, mi Elmare, credo enim te has meas 
legere, ut tuo suasu et hortatione domina Jana Oraia 
ad me quam primum poterit Orascas literas scribat ; boo 
ilia rccepit se mihi facturam. Scripsi etiam nuper Joank I 
Sturmio, quod hoc ipsum ea mihi poUicita sit ; fac literse 
tuo; et illius advolent ad nos. Via longinqua est. Joakmis 
Hales lu 8 commodissime curabit, ut ad me perferantur. 
Si Orroce ctiam scribet ad ipsum Joannem Sturhium, 
nee to nee illam posniteret ilUus suscepti laboris. Alteram 
est, quod peto, mi Elmare, ut tu cures quomodo dos 
inter nos perpetuam banc vitam una traducamus. Quam 
iibere, quam suaviter, quam philosophicwc tum demum 
vivercmus ? Quid impcdiret, quo minus nos, exoptatis- 
sime IClmare, frucrcmur omnibus illis bonis quae Cicero 
nunc in ipsa extrema conclusione tertii libri de Mnibui 
hujusmodi vivendi rationi tribuitP Nihil in utraque 
lingua, nihil in omni temporum memoria aut ilia superiori, 
aut hac praisenti esset, ex quo non aliquid ad suavitatem 
Tita3 nostra; cxcerperemus, etc. 

De novis qua) hie sunt, clarissima domina, nescio quid 
scribam ; inanes liters essent qua; inania adferrent: et quod 
dc suis temporibus conqucritur etiam ipse Cicero, paulo 
gravior res nulla ad vos referri potest, "quee non in via per 
lectionem rclevaretur.*' Pra3terea omnia hsec loca et omnes 
hos scrmoncs occupant motus, strcpitus, ct rumores bellici 
qui plerique, ut sunt aut cum dolo excogitati aut sine 

1551.] asoham's letters. 241 

auctore disseminati, sic cum inani aut nulla delectatione 
ad Tos perscriberentur : nee tua multum interesse puto 
8cire. Generale concilium primo Maii Tridenti incep- 
turQm|: Eeginalduic Folum cardinalem Anglum, ut 
fernnt, prsesidem illius concilii futurum : prseterea, qui 
tumuUus fuerunt hoc anno in Africa ; quis apparatus belli 
fiat adversus Turcam ; et quomodo expeditio Cjssabis 
in Hungariam in maxima expectatione sit : cujus belli si 
non miles, certe comes ipse Deo volente futurus sum. 
Quid attinet scribere de obsessis Magdeburgensibus, et 
qaomodo hi ceperunt Dominum Mecleburgensem : 
et de universo illo motu, qui omnibus modis, his tempori- 
buB, miseram affligit Saxoniam? Hsec fuse explicare, 
qnsB coarctavi in has angustias, nee otium nee tutum est. 
In reditu meo, qui non longinquus est, uti spero, integrum 
mihi erit, coram de integro haec eadem retexere, et singula 
horam temponim fila longius opportune praesente sermone 
prodacere. Liberalitas tua, nobilissima Joanna Graia, 
prsBsenti mihi perquam erat grata, sed ea ipsa mihi absent! 
longe exstitit gratissima. Parentibus tuis nobllissimis, 
longam felioitatem ; tibi quotidianam tui ipsius in Uteris, 
in yirtute, victoriam ; sorori dominae CATHARiNiE, ut tui 
simillima evadat; et tantum £lmaro meo, quantum 
AsCHAlffO sue, ex animo quidem exopto. Et nisi vererer 
gprayare tantam dominam pondere levium mearum salutati- 
onam, rogarem te ut salutares meo nomine Elizabetham 
AtTLJSAH, quam quoniam fratris sui Joannis summi 
amioi mei in omni morum et suavitate et integritate 
similem esse credo, libenter diligo. Saluta quasso pro- 
pinquam meam Mariam Latin, et uxorem meam 
Alisiah, cujus dictum ssepius memoro quam felicius 
leqaor. Saluta etiam nobilissimum juvenem Garettum 
et Jaoobum H addon UK. Yale, clarissima domina, in 
CHaxsTO. Augustse, XVIII Januarii, 1551. 


242 ascuam'b letters. [1651 • 

CXV.— TO KING (3, 8). 

Written for the ambaaiador— apologize! for not appearing in 
person, on the icore of illneii brought on bj changing 

lluiirissimo, poientianmoque regi N. — Pro domino 
legato, — Explicare non possum, iUustrissimft 
rex, quanto hoc tempore in mccrore versor, 
quod, quum reliquis legatis integrum sit et 
pracsens suum officiam et suorum principuni 
erga tuam majestatem stadium declarare, ego solus tot 
difficultatibus cxclusus, sodium mearum commutatione 
subita, iutempcstiva, et inexpectata, inde febris accessionei 
turn Tia et per so satis longinqua, et nunc cccli aspcritate 
valde incommoda, his inquam tot difficultatibus exclusus, 
invitus prtcteriti officii rationem per literas excuso, quod 
ipse libeutius scrmonc coram prsostitissem. Hunc moB* 
rorem eegre dcponerem, et has difficultatcs gravius ferrem, 
nisi mihi cxploruta penitusque perspecta essct singulari» 
tiiee majestatis nutura, quas sic est et insita humanitatc 
imbuta et multiplici doctrina ornata, ut et velit propter 
summnm bonitatcm, et possit propter maximam pruden- 
tinm, baud alitcr officii! m, si recta voluntate instituatur, 
ac si fclicitcr pcrficiatur, aestimnrc. Studium et principis 
et patriuo mcoo erga te preDscns verbis non amplificavissem : 
et tamcn, quum tua celsitudo quotidie aliquid virtutis 
cumulo adjiciat, quomodo potest princcps meus non aliqua 
nova bcuevolcntioB accossione, novaquo indies admiratione, 
ct to ct tua suspicereP Adinirari volo; arctius copulare 
non queo vos duos principcs, qui tot vincrilis simillimsQ 
vitu3 rationis, universis nuturso, fortunae, virtutis, orna- 
mcntis, suuvitato eorundem morum, variotato multiplicis 
doctrinao, uno eodcmque auioro gormanas virtutis sic con- 
juncti cstis, sic inter reliquos principcs omnos clucctis, ut 
quum solummodo utcrquc uiiiqiio queat inviderc propter 

1551.] ascham's letters. 243 

vummam laudem, nou posset alter alterum non amare 
propter divinam et oonsimillimam Yirtutein. Quoties 
eogito de hao similitudine vestrorum morum, studiorum, 
Toluntatum, doctrinse, et virtutis, toties equidem exopto, 
ut quam opinionem virtutis utriusque vestri universi fere 
homines ooncipiunt, banc vos duos, in propinqua aliquando 
et mutua yitse consuetudine, tanquam in verissimo aliquo 
speculo cerneretis. Quum enim, etc. Longior fortasse 
et molestior sum quam par est ; sed ista commemoratio 
partis illius dulcis sermonis, quern tecum ipse praesens 
paulo fusiorem instituissem, tam mihi suaviter obrepsit, 
ut non tam nunc veniam prseteriti officii quam longius 
provecti sermonis his Uteris meis impetrare debeam : quam 
veniam si amplitudo tua mihi tiibuerit hoc tempore, alias 
spero, et id quoque brevi, quum valetudinis ratio id 
tulerit, et ex istis me expediero molestiis, quicquid nunc 
absens prseterii, non mea voluntate, sed certorum homi- 
num injuria, id praesens aut debito supplere officio, aut 
justa purgare excusatione, apud majestntem tuam Jaborabo. 
Deus largiatur tibi, maxime princeps, ut non tain hostes 
in preelio, quam teipsum in omni prudentiae, doctrinae, 
veraeque virtutis laude indies magis magisque superes. 

CXVL— TO MR EDWARD RAVEN, (e, 1, and l, 50). 
Datoribes his journey sinoe Oct. 3, 1550, and repeats in English 
many things, which he had already written in Latin. This 
letter is now fully printed for the first time from Lans. 
MS. 98. Parts of it are quoted in Tytler*s Hist, of England 
under Edward VL &o. An imperfect copy is found in 
Sloane MS. 4164. Augsburg, Jan. 20, 1551. 

Mr Edward Eaven, fellow of St John's College, 
in Cambridge, 8, P. in Chrisio Jesu. — Our 
journey out of England to Maclin in Brabant, 
I wrote unto you from Colen. Observe this — 
to write unto me how many letters ye receive 

ff0m mn i what Any i)my h$ wriUmii itnl ttfm wbtl fki^, 
I wftiUi utiUp ym tmr Mt#rii$ from ClmyMMmd, fftNi> 
iklUm, trtim Atiiwtrp, fr<mi C«lim) uud Hkk ii IImi ir^vl 
frmn ANtftuiiii [Augiilmfg], 

Am I wriiU in my lii#l l«ikr«, 8 CM* wd etmM to Mmrliii, 
I t«t4 y<m Hi liirK0 Wb of IIm) mWh^jt wiib 16 Immti^il 
Miimii mxi nSmi i\m Iitml((fiiv«, wli4mi w« mw prl«MM^, 
H« U tiMijr, m¥Mikiimfm\, ^mmMn% likit Mr Uifti/mwAT 
in ib« fftM9 { lt««iy, om^miwiimi \ vmi i^) i^t bimiwlf mil df 
pri«<>t^ woul^l tt^lit, if ilMi Km|><!ror wt/iikl tii4 bimi wiib 
Turk, i^ri;M<;b, KiiKktid, iiwii, ttml ib« DirviL 11i«» Km» 
|/i?ror ti<;r^ivlti^ bit bmiy b««4 wiib/mi cim«tiin«yji«mil«i 
bim ib<;r«;iirkr \ bin 0Wit CiirmttiiMi ii» ti in Miid, b« w«tt 

f'otMiimi, otMi iti ttll fofittt»«M| iMrr^l (rf bi» fritmki r«¥#- 
r^fiti;^ fH' bi« Um^ tMimtm\ tA i\m l£m|i«ror» b¥#d of ftlL 
iii) bntb hmt\ proffitriNi of biUt, «» il i» mid, by ibo 
Vtn%\mttitf ilmi if bo will (vulin^iU io bi» ]iro<;oo<Uii^<i| W 
i(o i»t lAr((0| io bnri^ nit <liK»itl«# ntd \\mmf nfntAUt ttiid 
mtm Um, Hill iiu«»wor w«m froiri ibo ftr»i bouri tml b 
Ailll, ibfli b^ wilt ifiki} ibo K)iif>«;ror for bin |(ritoi<nM »ort« 
rolf(ti lor J ; bui io for«Niko Ooil msA bi» ilooirino^ bo will 
Aovor do, loi ibo Kmt>on>r ilo wiib bi» ixxly wbiit bo will 
At MiM;lio wo Mttw M »iri»o((o bir<l. 'Hio Kmporor <lotb 
Allow ii H//. H'tltty, li if» milk'WbiiOi ^roMior tboti a MWim^ 
wiib II bill noioowimi Uko it f^^ti^hfA, bttving m ibrott 
wi'll nbb) io Nwiitb/Wi wiiliooi i^rb^f or iotiob of broiii^ a 
wbiU ponoy'bmf lA Ko((loo4l, i;»<f^pi your broid bo \AiH«t 
ilum your htPwUmvktfif of Hi Jobo'n bi woiit wiUiu|j(ly io 
m^ko ii« 'J'bo oyoi m« rml ah ttro, Atuii nn iboy Miyi ah 
bufulriMl y<?iirii oM. It waih w<mi in fAh%t)iiiUhn*% dAyn 
io fly wiib bim wbiiliorfK>ovor bo wont. 

• KliwiWr of ^iiotiy. 

1551.] ISCVAM't LITTEtl. S45 

4 Octob. we weit to BrusieU, twelve miles. In tlie 
oiidwi^ it a town called Vilfort, with a Dotablc tiron^ 
hold of the Emperor's in it. IVaitors and cotulemmMl 
persoM lie there. At the town's end is a notable solemn 
place of eiecution, where worthy Will. Tynda lu was un- 
worthily pat to death. Ye oaa match Brussels iu England 
Imt wiUi Loudon. 

The £mperor's palace ia overmatched with many of the 
king's houses in England ; it is built iair of free Htune by 
dnfceCHABLtsof Borgoyne that married Maegaejct, King 
Edwaed's the IV sister. The arms of Burgoyne and 
Bngl|ind be Joined together in every solemn work. This 
fwlaoe hath a park joined to it, with high walls of stone 
standing within the walls of the city, full of white bulU, 
full of trees, and yet no other the rest but fair walnut treeii 
4ind apple trees. 

ith Oet. We tarried at Brussels all the day : being 
Sunday, I went to the mass, more to see than for devotion, 
will aome of you think. The regent was with the emperor 
nt Augnata; but the French queen, the emperor's sister, 
was there : she came to mass ebd very solemnly all in white 
ounerio, a robe gathered in plaits wrought very fair as might 
be with needle white work, as white as a dove. A train of 
ladiea followed her, as black and evil as she was white. 
Her mass was sung in prick-song by Frenchmen veiy 
cunningly, and a gentleman played at the organs excel- 
lently. A French whipit Sir Joun liestirred himself to 
at the altar as I wished Patuick by to have learned some 
of his knacks. The mass was as hap was cut short ; for 
the queen came late and was not disposed to tarry long* 
The queen sat in a closet above : her ladies kneeled all 
•broad in the chapel among us. The regent of Flanders 
had left at Brussels a sort of fair lusty young ladies ; they 
eaae not out» but were kept in mew for fear of goshawks 

246 ASCflAM's LETTERS. [I55I. 

of Spain and France ; yet they came to mass, and stood 
above in windows, as well content to show themselves, as 
we to see them. 

They had on French gowns of black velvet, guarded 
down right from the collar with broad guards, one nigh 
another, some of cloth of gold, some of cloth of silver, 
great chains ornamented with precious jewels. On their 
heads they had glistering cauls of goldsmith work, and 
black velvet caps above, full of great agletts of gold, with 
white feathers round about the compass of their caps. 
They seemed boys rather than ladies, excellent to have 
played in tragedies. There was not one well-favoured 
amongst them, save one young lady, fair and well-favoured. 
The queen went from mass to dinner ; I followed her ; 
and because we were gentlemen of England, I, and another 
was admitted to come into her chamber where she sat at 
dinner. She is served with no women, as great states 
be in England; but altogether with men, having their 
caps on their heads whilst they come into the chamber 
where she sits, and there one takes off all their caps. The 
say given they depart. I stood very nigh the table and 
saw all. Men, as I said, served ; only two women stood 
by the fire-side not far from the table, for the chamber 
was little, and talked very loud and lewdly with whom 
they would, as methought. 

This queen's service, compared with my lady Elizabeth's 
my mistress service, is not so prince-like nor honourably 
handled. Her first course was apples, pears, plumbs, 
grapes, nuts, and roots ; and with this meat she began. 
Then she had bacon and chickens almost covered with sod 
onions, that all the chamber smelled of it. She had a 
roast caponet and a pasty of wild boar; and I, thus 
marking all the behaviour, was content to lose the second 
course, lest I should have lost mine own dinner at home. 

1551.] ASCHA11*S LETTERS. 247 

At after dinner Mr Barwice's brother, which dwells at 
Brussels with Mr Chambrrlaine, came to me, and gen- 
teelly led me to see the city ; for this ye most consider, in 
every town I came in, as leisure would serre, I went in to see 
all abbeys, friaries, churches, libraries, stationers for books, 
goldsmiths for old coins. I marked the manners, order, 
and raiment of each age : I marked the site, the buil^iing, 
the strength, the walls, the ditches, gates, ports, and 
havens of every town, and what opportnnities either bj 
water or land, each town stood by. 

These matters cannot be well packt^! up in a imal! 3eaf 
of paper ; but, if I were with you at a pn>blem £:«:, I 
would make you partakers of a great deal of my jotuni^. 
If I had had one Mr AILA^'D [EJajuT or Ed. Rate!C with 
me, to have used fineely the company of his legs, eyes, e&is, 
and tongue in this journey, I had seen and known both 
more than I do, or more than most part oi men do that 
have journeyed this way. Our young gentlemen care not 
for this knowledge. I do so more than most part of men 
do that have journeyed this wny. Onr young gentlemen 
care not for this knowledge. They were much desirous 
many times to go out with me, bat more desirons quickly 
to bring me in again; thus I stopped more by them than 
they. provoked by me left things I would gladly have seen. 
Vahane was little with me in our journey, but was ap- 
pointed to see our carriage safely conveyed. 

At afternoon I went about the town. I came to the friar 
Carmdites bouse, where Edward Billick was warden ; 
not present there, but being then at Cologne, in another 
house of his, I heard their even-song : after, I desired to 
see their libraiy. A friar was sent to me, and led me into 
it. There was not one good book but Ltra. The friar 
was learned, spake Latin readily, entered into Greek, 
having a very good wit, and a greater desire to kaming. 

248 ABCHAM'b LETTIRB. [1551. 

He was gentle and honest ; and being a papist, and know- 
ing me to be a protestant, yet showed me all gentleness 
he could, and would needs give me a new book in verse, 
titled De Rtuticitaie Morum, We saw the house, and 
should have drunk if the butler had been within. 

6 Octob from Brussels to Louvain, twelve miles. We 
came thither at eleven, and went away afore two ; and 
there to feed mine eyes and ears, I was content to leese 
[lose] my dinner. I went straight to Mr Braksbt's 
house, standing again the grey-friars door. He was not 
at home, but was ridden to Antwerp, to have conveyed 
my lord ambassador to Louvain, He left word, that if 
he missed my lord by the way, that I in any case should lie 
and use his house as my own, in his absence. His house 
is trim. I wrote a letter to him vrith his own ink and 
paper. He is loved with all, and regarded with the best ; 
nor doth not use the company of J. Clement and Eastall, 
which, to see a mass freely in Flanders, are content to for- 
sake, like slaves, their country. As we entered into our 
inn, the vice-chancellor, with his bedels, came out of our 
inn, the vice-chancellor being more like in apparel and 
port to our priest of Homyngshey, than to the comeliness 
of Mr Dr Parker, and the bedels more like Harrt 
Barber and Anoar, than Mr Adams and Mr Meyers. 

I went to P. Nankius's chamber, to have talked with 
him ; but he was either drunken at home, or drinking 
abroad ; for he was making merry, and would jiot be seen, 
as an English boy, his pupil, told me. He reads Tully's 
Orations at nine of the clock : at one of the clock, Theo- 
DORicus Laudius read (whom I heard) CEd, Tjfr. SophocL 
Orac^. He read that chiding place betwixt (Edtpus and 
Creon, beginning at oix tW i^* oU ydp i^^ ^povu^ tnyav 0iX£, 
reading twenty-one verses. His hearers, being about 
eighty, did knock him out with such an noise, as I have 

1561.] abohah's lettebs. 249 

not heard. Tlus college is called Trilingue ei Bu$Ud^ 
anum, where he read. If LouTain, as far as I coold mark, 
were compared with Cambridge, Trilingue with Bt John's, 
or Trinity college, Theod. Laudius with Mr Cab, ours do 
far excel. The reader, in oi, followed our pronunciation. 
I tarried so long at his lecture, that my lord was ridden 
out of the town ; and as I posted after my brd, so do I 
now post out of LouTain to Tillemout, nine miles off. 

The town is walled, and so is e?ery town we lay in 
betwixt DoTcr and Augusta, There I saw nuns and 
papists dance in the middle of the town at a bridaL These 
be news to you, but olds to that country, where it b leful 
[lawful] to that Babylonicol papistry to serve Bacciius, 
and what unhonesty they will, so they meddle not with 
Christ, and his word : Nam quse communio tenebris cum 

The stark papist io England would spew up his papistry 
and become a whole Christian at the sight of these dregs 
of Borne, wherewith the people are more ignorantly and 
willingly drunk, than with all the good wine of Bhene 
which they loye well enough. 

7th Octob. From Tilemont to Trimay ix miles, from 
thence to Tongris ix miles. At this town's end we met 
with the Queen of Hungary, posting from Augusta into 
Flanders, having a thirty in her company, for she had out- 
ridden and wearied all the rest, passing that journey in 
thirteen days, that a man can scarce do in seventeen. 
She is a virago : she is never so well as when she is 
flinging on horseback, and hunting all the night long. 

This Tongris is notable in Casab's Commentaries ; the 
old walls of the old town be yet apparent in the fields. 

8th Oct. From Tongres to Maestricht, called Tra- 
jeotum, nine miles. A fair city standing on the river 
Moaa, as good as Trent. In the midst of this stands mills 


betwixt two boats that never lack water. I marvel 
that Temmcft [Thames] hath not the like ; ami here, at a 
goldfthip's vbop, I taw the firtt old coin after I came out 
of England. 'J'he goldsmith told me that a great sort 
were found at Tongres, which we past from the day before. 

10th Oct. As we rode out of Blaestricht, there stood 
in a shop fair white bread to be sold, the loaves being 
bigger than ever I saw two loaves at Cambridge. Hy 
lady sent her footman to buy a stiver's worth, which is 
twopence. At the first word the maid proffered him 
thirty-two for bis stiver : and he, having as many as either 
his conscience could require, or his lap could bold, would 
ask no more. 

This day we rode to Oulic, called in Latin Juliacum 
of J[ulius] C[flDsar], the founder. The country by the 
way may compare with Cambridgeshire for com, with 
Busshoprick for soles. 

This know, there is no country here to be compared for 
all things with England. Beef is little, lean, tough, and 
dear, mutton likewise; a rare thing to see a hundred 
sheep in a flock. Capons be lean and little; pigeons 
naught ; partridge as ill, black, and tough ; com enough 
everywhere, and most wheat. Here is never no dearth, 
except com fail. The people generally be much like the old 
Persians that Xenopuon describes, content to live with 
bread, roots, and water ; and for this matter, ye shall see 
round about the walls of every city, half a mile compass 
from the walls, gardens full of herbs and roots, whereby 
the cities most part do live. No herb is stohsn, such justice 
is exercised. These countries be rich by labour and con- 
tinuance of man, not by goodness of the soil. 

If only London would use, about the void places of the 
city, these gardens full of herbs, and if it were but to 
serve the strangers that would live with these herbs, 

IS51.] ASOHAM's LETTEE9* 9I&1 

beside a multitude which either need, eoffim$9ms9»^ tn 
temperance would in few years bring to tbe ^tf*e.^ ftll 
England should have victualt better cbe»p. 

I think also there is more wise indeed droftlt^ in 
England, where none grows, than even iherf^ from wK^me« 
it cometh. It is pity that London hatb not (yne gMy^' 
man to begin this husbandry and tempenmcv^ 

At Briges, in Flanders, we had as (ni, go^l^ im^l p^ 
mutton, and fatter, better, and greater f»ffM^ iiMm et«r 1 
saw in Kent, but nowhere else, Bot t»fm let »s CMtm Uf 
Oulich, a town of the Duke of Cleres^ sUnding in Om- 
derland, burned of late years by the wnfirrw, hufmg 
goodly deep ditches and strong walls, with a fcteni mtmk 
of the one side the town ; yet the Ihikf. of Ckte^ 't» 
building it anew again, enlarging the town three hnmlreid 
feet round aboot from the okl walls ; makbg ¥p hrtmt 
and deep a ditch, so strong and thiek a wall^ wiib so 
many scouring bulwarks point to point, etery one answer' 
ing other, with vaults under the groond to serve infinite 
loopholes for great pieces, scouring ami sweeping wHlnin 
two foot of the earth the whole eonntry abo»i$ living 
within, to back the wall, sueh a broad ntmp (A eartli «« 
nothing can burst down, that to my jn/lgn»ent neith^ the 
strength of Calais nor Antwerp doth pass it. At the e^M 
side of the town is bnihling a castle, so futr an^l large as 
the Emperor might dwell in; so strong to repnl^e tlie 
Great Turk. 

I toh], myself, about this little tonr five ami thbiy 
brick killes [inlm$]. The duke, hereby, will be so strong as 
be once able again to bid the emperor basse ; but the eni' 
peror is a wise prince, which can suffer men to beat tfaeoi' 
selves with their own purses. 

11th Oct. From this town to Colen is eighteen miles. 
We left Aquisgrave, where the emperor is crowned, on the 

252 ascham's letters. [1551* 

right hand. Thifl day journey was mnch through woods, 
jeopardsome for thieves, ealled snaphauies, in complete 
harness. There is one vale so good for com as no pieoe 
of Cambridgeshire is like. 

When we came nigh Colen, being a fair day, there fell 
such a mist, because Rhenus fluvius was so nigh, that we 
lost the view both of the country and also of the dty. 
Colcn is not so well builded, by my judgment, as the towns 
in Brabant and Flanders, nor as here Sumia et Bhetia. 
We, entering the town, had thought every man had 
been a butcher, for almost in every shop there hang 
«n ox and half a dozen sheep. The manner is, at this 
time, to kill their store for the whole year, and, at killing 
of his ox, he makes a feast to his kinsfolks both of the 
country and city. 

Arnold Brickman, Mr Sperino's kinsman, showed 
me much gentleness, and I made him again good cheer at 
my lord's table, and by him I wrote into England. 

St Peter's Church, where the three kings lie, is fair and 
large, but not builded up. The steeple, as out of joint, 
leans to that side which way so ever the wind stands, as 
ye may see in the description of the city of Cologne 
which my friend John Scarlet hath. Ye will not believe 
how constantly every one doth talk here of Beynold, of 
Mount Abbon, one of the sons of Amon, which is said to 
have wrought at this church more for a penny than other 
seven could ; and so, for envy, was slain sleeping, and 
cast into Ehine, and found and buried then as a good 
man, and now here taken as a saint, and for his death 
they say, the work could never go forward. Some of you 
hath read the story. Ye may believe it as much as you 
list, for I only tell you what men here generally say and 
do talk. The Three Kings be not so rich, I believe, as 
was the Lady of Walsingham. 

1661.] MsemxsL'i uarnuus. z:i4 

If I eouU bave tgrrasri jl Q^mi^ .1 wfinuL mst*: itu^jc 
aoi then, and wiittea now rn r<mt. wiisj: «snk&. j^ jc/^\.w- 
menta of writiiig tiiiy iasvft tf 'Irocs. ifȣ 4ik /.alix^ 
thither of thoie thflse IcznigiK. 

SiUmsuLA thaBtWitb. rJuf '.-Wi Te/nerAi a s^.:0<: /. at: 
nuunrelkd at. A zma vtsmift m ii«e «cu0i:£. iu^ Ttues^ 
there is in the Annk aa duilie, mc iiw iciL ^iunr i^^.w^jt 
stone gxaTCSy one ixfiniL loi JOiri^. ai^k okc v:TiiCiit td^ii. 
oorered orer with tfirsiuc. Ix al iurtfTi. aiftpe. fj^M s: 
Uisola, formed disviL i» "Hj^ n^iiick ai j: aii^^. i^c 
massj* hot holhMr, Kgifffing vxuxii. i «< ji/.ir 'jkjiiz»iuc^^ j*. 
the waiL About bet, jo. uie sazuc a^u^ m/L iic^rui s-^x^ 
ladies and nohirayn, '^3ut auti ha J. Icnjiuk.. -^-.^^ 
shoold hate been b«r iuisarjuui^ do^^di utsr, \i ic:r . v; -jut 
nnmber of fbuneaiit or iir:« aubiit r^'va. af^tf ^uc «uw 
sort, of silTcr, on tsuriife, vxxi id:T« tlo^l^ -d issesL gedfs: 
woonda. There be h^otis 'Ci'j&c:i jl t^<*^ tsti aa^^ as 
in lockers order^, wkk tc ioulj ''^js§ci: <!>ucsk:L iaistewj^ 
m order, that books iLUdi stx it^i^ts jsl ^ «&ugj^ 4ie I wxtdL 
two earta woaU fcarociT tsiry Uieir IiicDe ue aiAC 
manj heads of childRa, stew-brj^x fjr eiiar n^^pi^ \iui c^ 
their motber^s womb, for xkitj s£y Uirv Ftst irx «ul iiicodf^ 
hot many of them nobknea's vir€«, abd ciKnd:bJe e&oi^ 
that thb oompaoj was tho^;^t vo i«af « oeiuce&da iuw 
a strange country, and tossed or weauker ou u^e sea, vas 
brought hj Tiolence to thi£ town, bfir»g ujnder a ibeatbda 
tyrant, the which with his men goioir &U0U.1 to uui^use 
these godly women, and when tbrv cuuld noi rarisk them 
by force killed them by foroe. 

Here I would be loath whilst I go about to tell you 
what I hear and see to be noted a defender of ranities 
of papistry. I tell what I hear and see, not what I 
belieye and credit : and also you may credit of it no more 
than you list. If these things were left as monuments of 

254 ASCHAM's LETTEB9. [155!« 

antiquity, not as allurements of papistry, shewing the 
example of virtues past not abusing the ignorance of the 
world following, I would delight both to see them 
myself, and praise them to other, if some of you for my 
diligence in marking things, and gentleness in writing 
them to you, should abuse yourselves in laughing me to 
•com, either contemning by ignorance things that you 
know not, or .dispraising by frowardness things that ye 
like not. If I might know by some of friends* letters ye 
should both make me repent me of my labour past, and ease 
me also of my labours to come. And for this time I will 
be bold still to make my friends full partakers of my follies 
which may be read to the pleasure of some, and displeasure 
of none, comforting myself that the best old authors for 
their diligence hath been noted liars, but yet only of 
them which lacked either leisure to read or learning to 
understand, or wisdom to weigh things as they be meant 
and uttered. 

But methink I see you all at the fire-side rather content 
to hear me talk farther than ready to roislikc that which is 
past. The fairest thmg in Coleinc was Pomeria (ye know 
what Livy calleth them) so green, so clean, such as 1 
never saw the like. I heard Justus Wolfius sometime 
u reader at Argentine begin Aristotle's Ethics in Greek ; 
he reads in one tone coldly : I can well allow him, not 
greatly praise him : I heard there a frear D. Alex. Blan- 
OART read there of Acts there Sicui eum vidisils ascendeniem 
^c: he read lustily with a plain pronunciation, good gesture, 
ready tongue, but yet like a great papist he did urgcre the 
ixth Epistola of the first book of 8. Cyprian propter ohla- 
iionem pro dtfunctis, yet he made a goodly antithesis 
betwixt active life and contemplative, preferring active. 
He is thought as well learned and more popish than 
Belike himself. Belike icads there Genesis : that day 

1051.] AXXAMTt 

he read not, I went ac itfaeruMui u iis TreniiT? loo. 
saw him. He u aomeviuc ikd. neduuupc. JofiN l«jx«x. 
the parer of Cambridge^ iuc i ictii* uiier. I :iuiiiric 
to have talked with him, :a. 3av*i x^a ireseaciy ii^ ^it*. 
I fancied that it waa toai me Thai: le imi .-errain ji'oiu jx' 
StBAENASD never prinud. l-fjs 5erT-iac jcoiuric lue ▼'jri 
from him that he had ^aebi xram^Ts :hac je .-cuiii luc 
then talk with me : and :hu3 I .ssc Jif >i imiJc^r :jiu*. 
because he tospeeted me :a be i irouscuLC I i'^e^ <e 
cared as little for him» because I loe^ .liiu :a je ^uf ii i 
proud popistant, nor would aoc '^arry ixis Le:sur?, :« T^fii: 
aboQt to see the city. 

IS Octob. We took a diir barse. Trltii r:oiLj zLisa 
windows, with seats of dr^ as ^icjse la my icuse. v* '£j:ie\r 
not whether it went or stacd. Eiieoe is siiArii i r.7£r z^nn, 
now I do not marrail that ciie por^ make hvera ^ii. 
Rhene at Spires harin^ a ronoer course :o n:i ia;U3 ci&e 
ocean sea than is the spaoe betwi^: Dover and Barwidc 
is broader over a great deal than is Thames a: Greenwich 
when it is calm weather. The Rhene runs fo^t and ]»et 
as smooth as the sea wa^er stands in a TesseL 

From Colen this day we went to Bonnn, the bishop's 
town, the country about Rhene here is plain an. I ioney. 
We were drawn np Rhene bj horses. Little vilLi^es 
stand by Rhene side, and as the barge came by, six or 
seren children, some stone naked, some in their shirts, 
of the bigness of PetcrAiland, would run by use on the 
sands, singing psalms, and would rin and sLn*; with us 
half a mile, whilst they had some money. 

We came late to Bonna at eight of the clock : our men 
were come afore with our horse : we could not be lot into 
the town, no more than they do at Culisc, after nii hour. 
We stood cold at the gate a whole hour. Al last wo 
were fain, lord and lady, to lie in our burgc all ni<;ht, 

2S6 ASCBAM's LITTIB8. [1551 

where I tat in my lady's side-saddle, leaning my bead to 
a malle, better lodged tban a dozen of my fellows. 

14 Octob. We sailed to Bronsik : 15 miles afore we 
come to Bonna begin the Tines and hills keeping in 
Bhene on both sides for the space of five or six days 
jonmey as we made them almost to Mayence, like the hills 
that compass Halifax about, but far branter up, as though 
the rocks did cover you like a pentice [pent-house] : on the 
Bhene side all this journey be pathways where horse and 
man go commonly a yard broad, so fair that no weather 
can make it foul : if you look upwards ye are afraid the 
rocks will fall on your head ; if you look downwards ye 
are afraid to tumble into Bhene, and if your horse founder 
it is not seven to six that ye shall miss falling into 
Bhene, there be many times stairs doWn into Bhene that 
men may come from their boat and walk on this bank, 
as we did every day four or five miles at once, plucking 
grapes not with our hands but with our mouths if we 

The grapes grow on the brant rocks so wonderfully, 
that ye will marvel how men dare climb up to them, and 
yet so plentifolly, that it is not only a marvel where men 
be found to labour it, but also almost where men dwell 
that drink it. Seven or eight days journey ye cannot cast 
your sight over the compass of vines. And surely this 
wine of Bhene is so good, so natural, so temperate, so 
ever like itself, as can be wished for man's use. I was 
afraid when I came out of England to miss beer ; but I 
am more afraid when I shall come into England, that I 
cannot lack this wine. 

It is wonder to see how many castles stand on the tops 
of these rocks unwinable. The three bishops electors, 
Colen, Trevers, and Mayence ; be the princes almost of 
whole Bhene. The lansgrave hath goodly castles upon 

1531.] ascham's letters. 257 

Bhene which the emperor cannot get. The palatine of 
Ehene is also a great lord on this river, and hath his name 
of a castle standing; in the midst of Hhene on a rock. 
There be also goodly isles in Ithene, so full of walnut 
trees that they cannot be spent with eating, but they 
make vile of them. In some of these isles stand fair 
abbeys and nunneries wonderfully pleasant. The stones 
that hang so high over Rhene be very much of that stone 
that you use to write on in tables ; every poor man's house 
there is covered with them. 

15 Octob. From Brusik to Confluentia xviii miles. 
Here Mosella comes into Ehene as fair as Trent. The 
bishop of Trevers hath here two fair castles of either side 
of Rhene up in he cere (sic'*) in high rocks, one bragging 
the other, and both thrcfitening the town with many 
pieces of or^iinance. 

16 Octob. We 8ail, Wecheley eighteen miles, Rhene 
being still like itself. A:nd here 'by the Rhene side stands 
a round house of stone upon seven pillars of stone. My 
lord and I went up a pair of stairs into it : above it is 
uncovered and is like a great cock pit. The king of 
Eoiuans is ever more crowned there by the seven electors. 

17 Oct. From Witchley to Binga, xiv miles. Here I 
bought two fair coins of Diocletian and Maximian for a stiver. 

18 Octob. To Magunce xiv miles. This city, the 
inventor of printing and guns, lies goodly and long upon 
the side of Rhene. Betwixt Binga and Magunce was 
noble Deusub Gebmanicus the son-in-law to Augustus 
slain ; where he was buried at Magunce doth yet appear. 
... 1 read this epitaph which is no more but memoria 
DBUSi in goodly old letters on an old stone in a broken 
wall, and I was delighted with the monument of such a 

* The only oopy of this letter in full is corrupt or illegible in 
many placet. 


258 ASCHAM*8 LETTERS. [1551. 

man, and the rather because Otid that knew him gives 
him such a praise to Livia, saying : — 

Occidit exemplum juTenxs memorabile morom ; 
Maximus ille armis, maximus ille toga. 

Here we left Rhene and took our horse. 

19 Octob. To Worms xxi miles, fair way. The great 
church of this city appears all the way like King's college 
cradle. The city is great and fair; but because the 
plague was in it, I kept me in my inn. 

20 Octob. To Spira, x?iii fair miles, a goodly city. 
Here I saw first Stobmius de periodis. I found also here 
Jjax, Electra, and Antigone of Sophocles, excellently, by 
my judgment, translated into verse, and fair printed this 
summer by Gryphius. Your stationers doth ill, that at the 
least doth not provide you the register of all books, speciaUy 
of old authors. Here is printed Stbabo in Greek and 
Latin together. Polybius is printed in Greek and Latin 
with twelve books moo than was printed afore : GerbeU 
lius hath written 7 integros libroa in descriptionem Gracia* 
Paulus Jovius,an Italian bishop that wrote the story of 
the rodes, hath set out this year hiatoriam m tempori$ 
to this day, containing Turk, emperor, Italy, French and 
English matters in two tomes fair printed at Florence. 
At Spires I saw the bone of a giant from the elbow to 
to the worst [wri8f\ of the hand, bigger tlian any man's 
thigh is commonly. I would not have believed it except 
I had seen it : such huge bones be at Antwerp, but I saw 
them not, of a giant of whom Antwerp hath the name. 
Bead in a life of Sabellius what was found in Greta, and 
therefore less marvel at this. I saw one thing at Spires 
which I will not pass over : in a fair market place against the 
north end of the church there stands a cup made of one fne 
stone in form like a court silver bowl to drink beer in t it 
is fair fawdome [fathom'\ compass about and niore. The 

1S51.] abcham's litters. 259 

«ew-elected bishop doth fill it with wine and briDg 
good luck to his flock. These verses be written about 
the edge in majusculis litteris Eomanis sane : — 
Quid felit h»o relegasP ut launx cavut itte oftthinut 
Bum noTUs antiates prooerum oomitante caterva 
Urbem hano intrat eques huo bacchi Minenra • . . • dit 
Virginia a templo cleri simul ecclesiarum 
TenBinat et'binut ttat lihertatia asylum, 
£t fit oonfdginm, portut et ara ivia. 
This cup is much like the cup of silrer that CR<Bsut 
gave to the priests of Delphus much-what for the same 
U8e» as doth appear in Herodotus, 10, 2. This is both 
Gennan-like and papistical-like, both for the drinking 
«nd diligent observing of pageants, rites, and ceremonies. 
Here, at Spires, we were a day's journey and a half 
from Argentine. My lord was willing to go thither ; and 
whether I was or no, you, Edward Haven, can guess : but 
word came from Mr Hob hie, I beshrew him, to haste our 
journey ; or else I had talked with Sturmius, to whom I 
wrote, and sent Mr Bucer's letters ; and he wrote again 
to me at Augusta, sending me the copy, which Mrs Bucer 
brought to mc to Cambridge. One sentence Sturmius 
wrote to me in his last letter, which some of you will be 
glad to hear. The sentence is this : '' Regis non memini 
in praeflEitione, ut nunc loquuntur, ad D. Elizabetham. 
lyos Migestati locum designavi in Aristotelicis meis 
dialogia, in quibus stylum meum quotidie acuo, ut siquid 
poesit contra barbariem, in his ostendat quantulum sit, 
quod in ea oonficienda possit." 

21 Octob. A mile beyond Spires we sailed over 
Bhene in a boat so big and plain way to enter in, that we 
being xxxiv horsemen and women, not one person did 
light We rode this day xv miles to a pretty town called 
Bretta which town I saw gladly, because it was natale 
•okua Pfl. Melamohthonis. We lodged at his brother-in- 

160 A»OflAH'0 LXTTIIIf. [1651, 

1aw'« lioufa, hit own brotlier it ^rmkciuB urhin, I weol 
to bit bouM yifharti Mki^anciithoii wat born, we bsdlottg 
Ulk : ha cniartnincd mn ^entilly mid gAfe tiie a pUtle of 
bis brotber'f written to bim from WbiUnblrg [H^Uienhirgl 
ibe wiH^k before Mrlanchtiion find CAHSRARiut . , , , 
I am Korry to bear it and aorry to write it, and I intal 
it be fnUe, and all ibough bone»t men bere do report ii» 
yet all good men give no mueb to Mebinebtbon tbat ibey 
will not lightly believe it be niroia frigidi nimia 

If I had leittirei which I never lacked more here, I 
would write largely, but God, I truat, ahall tend me time. 

22 Octob. Thia dry we rode through Vangane iti 
Dutch m\U%t which were long xvi Bngliah milea, Hera 
was a fair church of the Proteatanta, but amelling a little 
of the drcg» of intirrim. 

23 Octob. Th i» day we rode through the duke of TiLi- 
Bf KO land, tlirough which runa the goodly river called 
NftccaruM, for the apace of ten milei. Wero<le under auch 
hilla of vintta aa the Uhcne bath not the like. Thia wine of 
Necar ia better eatceme<t than the Hbeniah wine. We pat led 
through a fair town called Caatok, and tbat night we rode 
to Killing, upon Ncccarua. At the town'a end we met 
with a noble lady, which ia ducheaa of Mibin and Lorrain, 
daughter to the king of Denmark, She abould once have 
been married to king IIknry the VlII, before my bwly 
Anits of Cleve, Site bad been with the Kmperor, ami, 
aa some thought, she went a-wooing to the prince of 
Spain, She had in her company about 300 boraea, most 
part great horse, aitd gennets. She bad four chariota 
full of ladies : she rode on one, a white palfVey, herself, 
having si)i.teen ladies following her on palfreys. She hml 
thirty 'sIx mules laded with her chamber-atuff, beaides a 
number of waggopa loaded with other atuff. A great 

lo51.] ASOHAU'S LETTERS. 261 

number ol rascals belonging to her kitchen and stable 
came drabbling in the dirt on foot. I never saw lady of 
ber port in my life. 

At Estliug we lay that night, after my custom I went 
to the goldsmiths' shops, and with one* man I found 
plenty of coins, but all brass. I went to his chamber, 
and for twelve I would have given him two French crowns : 
five of them were of Augustus : the other of the xii first 
emperors : I never saw goodlier. I gave the wife ii battes 
and vii d. for troubling her house. The man of his 
gentilness gave me an Augustus, having on the one side 
Diims Augmtus Paier, on the other Frovidentia, He 
told me that the bishops of Trivers and Joannes Jacobus 
FucoARUS the rich merchant of Augusta, and an earl that 
is with the emperor, doth seek all old coins they can, both 
gold, silver, and brass. These three great lords make 
old coins here too dear except our new money were more 
plenty and better. I saw here at Augusta three coins 
emongs a great number, for the which I proffered half 
a crown a-piece. The first was thick, having of one 
side four running horses, on the other side an elephant, 
and this word Caesar only in fair letters. The second 
was fair and thick, with this name P. Clodius : the third 
was LiBO ScRiBONius. Some of you will jest at my dili- 
gence in seeking thus old monuments ; but I do it for the 
remembrance veteria et amici et praceptorU noUri Mr 
Fembeb, whom I do not forget, and I know he would hold 
me excused, because I write not to him, if he knew what 
business I have. I pray you, Mr Raven, make him 
partaker of this my trifling talk. 

But friends is content with all things. I pray you, Mr 
Eaven, use Mr Pbmbeb as ye would me; commend me 
to him, Mr Bayen, and desire him, which I know he doth, 
to learn Christ out of Christ's own Gospel ; and let that 

H% A8CHAH*8 LETTIBf. [1551. 

eommtui eecletUt alone, wbioh deeeifes minj wortbj and 
learned wits in Cambridge, wbieh is nothing else indeed but 
a priry sink to conyey the dregs of papistry into all places* 
Papists here openly do use it to oonftrmthe primaeyof Bone. 

Here was at Estling a wonderful woman, having so 
big a belly as my friend Mr Patrick might well have lien 
in it : it was, as they said, full of serpents. She had 
gotten them with drinking at a fountain in the fields : sht 
had kept her bed sijL years : she is about twenty two years 
old. The emperor, the king of Romans, the queen of 
Hungary, the duchess of Milan, hare been with her. 
WisTPHALVS, that made the goodly anatome, would by 
the emperor's commmandment have taken tbe eare of 
her, but she would not, supposing he sought more hia 
own experience than her heidth. I myself went to aee 
her, and saw her in the chamber where she lay wonderful 
pitifully. Yet her colour was good, there came a oarl 
underneath the window which made a great rattling co 
the stones, and suddenly I looking on, the thing within 
began to stir at the noise of the cart, and tossed and 
heaved her great belly as when a spaniel is within a bed 
and labours to come out, her face did wrinkle at it and 
drew her month awry terrible, I pitying her and marking 
her manners departed. Within three days eame three or 
four Spaniards to see her, and they suspecting that all 
was feigned suddenly pulled off tbe cloth and found a 
great ox hide heaved round over her body and a little boy 
lay with her which could mow it strangely when she list. 
This woman hath deceived the world, the emperor^ king» 
queen, etc. 

24 Oct. We came to Gisling xii miles. This town it 
pretty, belonging to the city of Ulma, so oompasaed with 
rooks as ye would not believe. There is a castle stands 
on a high rock over the town; ye would be afraid it 
should fall on your head. 

1561.] a8Cham's letters. 263 

26 Octob. We rode to Ulmes xii miles, and upon a 
hill on this side the city we saw the Alps of Italy. I did 
like Ulma best of any city that we bad yet seen, and 
because we tarried there Saturday and Sunday, I will 
trouble you a little with the sight of this city : it is a little 
city, which ye may also guess of that which Munstebus 
writes in his Ootmoffraphie, saying that the castle of Cay- 
rum, in Egypt, is as big as the city of Ulmes — look 
Hunster, if I lie, but indeed I think he lies — it stands 
upon the noble river Danubius, and, believe me, there 
was nothing which I did yet so gladly see as that river 
Danubius. I went straight to see the river and to walk 
on the banks of it, and did me good to remember how 
Hbbodotus doth describe it, cidmpare it and prefer it to 
Nilus. I washed my hands in it, and supped on the 
water, and did wish to have had with me Henby Eland, 
Ed. Kavbn, Tm Wilson, Hen. Pilkinqton, Will. 
Tailab, etc. Loath I am to leave out any. I wished any of 
8t John's there with roe. I wished to have a journey 
down Danubius through almost all Europa, and I am 
afraid I shall have my wish at beginning of this spring, 
for it is thought here in a manner without doubt that we 
must all go here against the great Turk. Ulma is so 
builded as I have not seen. Hebodotus in Cleio doth 
praise Babylon, because it stood having houses commonly 
three or four stories high. But Ulma and here at Augusta 
they be commonly ix house and eleven house high, that it 
would do a man good to look up to them. The city is 
of this strength, it is double-ditched very deep : the 
emperor himself comes not in but with a certain limited 
him. My lord was presented solemnly by the states of 
the town, and upon Sunday my lord, my lady, and we 
went to see the store-house, and beside all the guns that 
lie already upon the walls, in the first house there stood 

264 ASCIIAll's LITTEK8. [1651. 

\i and ix field pieces, the least of them a demi saca 
shining very bright. Against the mouth of every gun 
was a goodly seat made of wood where was chowcbed up 
a wonderful number of iron shot fit for tliat gun, and so 
in order a long way over the gun and her shot that it was 
a pleasure to behold it. In the next house lay four 
thousand arquebuses, a crotch which is bigger than a 
man can bear, but fit to keep a loop-hole in a wall. These 
guns likewise had their shot by them in long chests. 
There lay also in order six thousand hand guns as bright 
as could be. In the next chamber stood eight thousand 
anned pikes, in another chamber stood bills and harness 
a great number for men of arms. Another chamber had in 
it lead for pellats, barrels of gunpowder, and a wonderful 
deal of salt petre. Reside these there was a long house ; 
my lord asked what was in it, it was answered forty-eijcht 
thousand qimrtcrs of wheat for the city against all need ; 
it is so hardened that nothing can corrupt it, yet every 
housekeeper by the order of the city is furnished before- 
nand always for eerinin months. 'J'he city keeps always 
two hundred great horse. Every man hath a conducte 
[oonduH] within his yard, not of lead but of wood ; for it 
is so plenty that they build and burn no other here : they 
have mills here that doth nothing but bore fir trees for 
cunducts, for lead is scarce. This city is enriched by 
making of fuschian called in England barburnslic holmes 

27 Octob. We rode over Danubius to (iamsbroug, 
the baiting town betwixt Ulma and Augusta. This town 
is full of Jews : I was amongst them ; they Hpeak nothing 
but Hebrew and Italian. Their boys learn the ()ld 
Testament without book: they have goodly o hi Hebrew 
books. I would have bought of them as far as my purse 
would have stretched, but they would sell none. I 

1651.] ascham's letters. 265 

bought of a goldsmith, a Jew, two notable old coins in 
silver, a Nero that weighs about iiii oz and a Domitian 
with anchora Aldi. He let me see an Hebrew coin of 
gold, old and fair, but he would not sell it. 

28 Octob. We rode toward Augusta, a mile on this side 
the city. Sir Philippe Hobbie, with a great number of 
horse, where was Thomas Hobbie, and Grorge Wheat- 
ley, mine old friend, which did convey us honourable to 
our lodging, tvhich is the abbey of St George. Ye may see 
it in Munster's description. And thus ye may bid me 
welcome to Augusta. And if I should bid you farewell 
also, ye would now give me leave, because I am sure ye 
are weary of my long talk : but because I think some of 
you would glad hear how we have done since we came, I 
will yet a little more trouble you. 

I thank God, and my lord ambassador, I lack no 
money, which is the best comfort in a strange country ; 
only I lack leisure to write to my friends whane I would, 
and to learn the tongues here as I would wish. 

I wrote part of this letter three months ago ; and now 
it is the 3d of January. Five days in the week my lord 
and I continually do study the Greek tongue, that I am 
always either looking for my lord's lectures, or else with 
my lord : two days I write my lord's letters into England : 
80 that I never so much as go into the town, but only on 
Tuesdays, to deliver our letters to the post. If I had 
leisure to mark things, and write things, I trow I would 
oome as well furnished home as most part of Englishmen 
do. And that thing which I thought should have been 
the cause why I should have sent you many news, doth 
in a manner forbid me to send any ; and that is, because 
I know so much ; and being in this room that I am, I 
must needs keep them close, because they be credit unto 

t66 AtOBAX't LITTBM. [1661. 

mt I and although I knew them otherwiie^ jet I mutt and 
will let them alone. Vabaiii hath a better lifethau either 
my lord or I. He lacks nothing, he fares well» he lies 
well, he may do what he list, study what tongues he list, 
go to the Emperor's court, or elsewhere, when he list. 
If he do not come home well furnished with much know* 
ledge, he little considers what God doth call him to by 
this journey. If I were any man's man, u Vabam is 
mine, I would wish no better felicity abroad. Those that 
stopped For. Wbiobt from this occasion, shall nefer be 
able to make him amends ; for in lacking nothing, be 
should have studied, and seen what he had list. There 
cannot be a greater commodity to an Englishman abroad. 
Yaban cannot displease me except he will do himself no 
good when Ood doth send him such a time to do good. 
If Wbtoht had ten fellowships of St John, it would not 
oounter-weigh with the lots of this occasion : for, besidea 
Dutch, French, and Italian, which he should have learned* 
in a manner, whether he would or not, he might ba?e 
learned as much Greek and Latin, and perhaps more, than 
in 8t John's. I am almost an Italian myself, and never 
looks on it. 

If I should tell you nothing of Augusta, I should do 
such a noble city much wrong. At a few things, gueae 
the rest. Here be five merchants in this town, thought 
able to disburse as much ready money as five of the 
greatest kings in Christendom. The Emperor would 
have borrowed money of one of them. The merchant 
said, he might spare him ten hundred thousand guilders, 
and the Emperor would have had eighteen : a guilder is 
iiii #. vi d. These merchants be three brethren, Fuccaex, 
two brethren,BuNaARTNEHi,and the Suobbs. Isoceatib 
is dedicate to Joannes Jacobus FuooARUs,and also Db« 
MOSTBENBS : this man is learned and hath gathered such a 

1651.] ASCHAll't LETTERS. 267 

library of Greek and Latin books as is thought no man 
else to hafe. I will see it if I can. One of the 
Fnoears doth lodge, and hath done all this year, in his 
hoase, the Emperor, the king of Romans, the prince of 
Spain, and now the qneen of Hungary, regent of Flanders^ 
which is here, beside his family and children. His house 
is covered with copper : there be a number of houses in 
this town, which, set in Cheapside, would over-look and 
over-brag the whole street. There comes to this town 
commonly every market-day, three and twenty hundred 
waggons loaded with things to sell, whereof four or five 
hundred be only bread, which is as good as ever I saw. 
There be some innkeepers in this city which pay yearly 
to the chamber of the city for custom only of broaching 
wine in their houses three thousand guilders. If the 
proctor's fees in Cambridge were so good, the office 
wonld be more desired. The gardens, the conductes, the 
buildings, here exceed : one merchant of late bestowed on 
deling a little chamber only with wood two thousand 
guilders. Such merchants is not read upon neither in 
Ghreek or Latin. 

I have seen the Emperor twice, first sick in his privy^ 
chamber, at our first coming. He looked somewhat like 
the parson of Epurstone. He had on a gown of black 
taffi^, and only a furred night-cap on his head. Dutch- 
like, having^a 'seam over the crown, like a great cod-piece. 
I saw him also on St Andrew's day, sitting at dinner at the 
feast of Golden Fleece ; he and Febdinamdo both under 
one cloth of estate; then the prince of Spain ; all of one 
side, as the knights of the Garter do in England ; after 
orderly, Mr Bussib, master of the horses, dux d'ALVBA, a 
Spaniard, dux Bavariaa, the prince of Piemonte, the county 
of Hardenburg. 

I stood hard by the Emperor's table. He had four 

MS aiouam's lkttkrs. [166L 

oourte» ; he bad lod beef very good, roast muttoni baked 
hare : these be no service in England. The Emperor bath 
a good face, a constant look : he fed well of a capon } I 
have had a better from mine hostess Bahnki many timet 
in my chambers. He and Fkkoinando ate together very 
handsomely, carving themselves where they list, without 
any curiosity. The Emperor drank the best that ever I 
•aw ; he had his head in the glass five times as long as any 
of us, and never drank less than a good quart at once of 
Bhenish wine. His chnpcl sung wonderful cunningly all 
the dinner-while. Ferdinando is a very homely nuut} 
gentle to be spoken to of any man, and now of great 
power and riches. The prince of Spain, I think, is not in 
all so wise as his father. Maximilian,F£kdinamdo's soAi 
now king of Beame [Bohemia]t is a worthy gentlemaiii 
learned, wise, liberal, gentle, loved and praised of all. 

We hear weekly from the Turks : our mutton and beef 
comes from them, for Hungary exceeds in ])lenty of cattle. 
We dwell within three or four day's journey from tb« 
Turks ; 1 think we shall go against the Turks thia 
yiear, and if the emperor would go whither I would have 
him, he should never leave till he came to Constantinople. 
Madenburdg sore withstands the emperor : it is th^ 
strongest and best furnished dty in all Germany. On 8t 
Thomas's even before Christmas they took and slew four 
hundred horsemen beside others : they took also the duka 
of Meychburge, and many gentlemen with him, which 
was the chief besieger of them ; for Duke MAUftrnta of 
Saxony was gone to resist the counts of Uadeck and 
Mansfelt, which have a great host beside Luneburg. What 
end will come of this business Qod knoweth. 

The general council shall begin at Trident the first of 
next May. Cardinal Pole shall be president there, as it 
is commonly said. I have seen the Tope's bull already for it. 

1651.] ascham's letters. 269 

If Mr Cheke would get a living of the king, my lord 
ambassador wonld send me to sne all Italy, and other 
countries ; so 1 believe. I would report the manner of 
the general council, and mark the state of the world, as 
well as some other. I would trust to have here the letters 
of most ambassadors to their cities, that I might more 
freely see things than commonly Englishmen do, that go 
into Italy. My lord hath promised me to write to Mr 
Cheke and others for the same purpose : and I do not 
doubt but my * lady's grace, my maistress, when she shall 
consider the honest and true service that I did her, will 
help also to the same. 

God's doctrine is so earnest in this town, as I never saw. 
The churches be made like theatra^ one seat higher than 
another, and round about be stages above, as it is at the 
King's college buttery-door ; and in Christmas the pulpit 
in the midst. The table of the Lord stands comely in the 
higher end. On Christmas-day I did communicate amongst 
them. There was above xv hundred that did communicate 
that day. 

At solemn feasts be most solemn communion, the 
preacher sits all the week before in the church, and 
doth examine not secretly but by two and three at once, 
young men and maids and other also of their faith 
and Hfe. At the communion one minister stands at one 
end, another at the other end. The first doth dispense the 
sacrament of the body, the other the Lord's cup ; and so 
they pass by one after another ; the whole church sings 
psadms all the while : there is not one young nor old man, 
woman, nor child, but they sing. I heard one Db Be adman 
say he would wish that men should sing prime and vespers 
and mattins so diligently, that they might have the psalter 

* The Lady (afterwards qoeen) Elizabeth* 

270 ASCHAM'b LETTEE8. [165L 

witboai book. Yerily here, young and old coinmoiily can 
sing perfectly without book the whole psalter. The prae- 
oentor begins the psalm, all the church follows without 
any square, none behind, none before, but there doth 
appear one sound of voice and heart amongst them all : 
it is so reverently, so godly done, that I have wished some 
whom I love, and yet dissent from in doctrine, and I thmk 
they woUe say that they never saw God so honoured in 
their life. 

My chamber is over-against the church : I hear them 
sing even as I sat amongst them* The church is not 
able to hold all that come. The church side is whole 
opened then to me by great windows, there stands moo 
without the church all this cold winter, rich and poor as 
they come, than is within any papistical church in this 
town. The service is done soon by nine of the dock, then 
go they home, and those servants that were left at homt 
come at ten of the clock, and they sing likewise their ser- 
vice as godly as the other. Thus Qod's people live here : 
there be also in this town a number of families, which 
morning and evening, maidier and maistress, child and 
servant, kneeling all together on their knees say private 
service to God. 

Poor folk go not here a-beggiug, there stands one every 
holiday at the church door, with ane iron box locked ; 
where one giveth nothing that cometh by, twenty doth : 
the women be the comeliest and sagest here that ever I 
saw. They wear long gaberdines of cloth or silk, like 
night-gowns that men wear in England. Their beads 
be wrapped about with line linen, even as ye see the regent 
of Flanders painted. There be many of the emperor's 
court given to God's word : the captain of his night guard 
was married here, using ceremonies forbidden by the 
interim, and leaving out those that were commanded^ etc. 

1561.] ABCHAM's LETTE18. S71 

Ye see, good fellows and friends, how g^ I am to talk 
with yon, remembering you always, wishing oft to be 
amongst you, where is the most pleasant life in the workL 
I shoald not take pleasure at things here, if I did not 
remember how gladly I shall talk of them amongst yon. 
He that is able to maintain his life in learning at Cam' 
bridge, knoweth not what a felicity be hatL I pray God 
I may meet with you there, whom I left at St John's* I 
do salute you all : I name none, because I would leareoot 
none, and because I love alL I do make you weary« 
And thus faxe you well all in the Lord, and pny for me. 
Augustas Yindelicorum, 20 Januarii, 1551. U.A. 

CXVIL— TO STUKM, (1, 5). 
Sent by the hands of Chrittopher ICooot, who was retumisig to 
Strasburg — miBafe to write about politics or reiigkm, on 
acooant of the inaecurity of letten — pre§ aa aeeottst of 
Grindal aa tutor to EKiabeth, and about his own pareota. 
Angabttrg, Jul Z^ L&6L 
^l^eruM Jteiamtu Joanmi Sturmio 8.F. im Chriita 
Jnu. — ^Nullas ad te literas, tam opportune 
tabellario, dare non possum: et longas son 
opus est, mi optatissime Stubmi, quum unus 
MoMTius nostrarum longissimarum instar esaa 
potest. Bigressum a nobis tam honesti et integri riri 
aegerrime fero, his temporibus d hoc loco : non sum tamen 
tam durus in alios, nee tam mei amans, nee tam meonun 
oblivisoens, ut non conunorear sensu desiderii illius, vi- 
send! eos, qui ei sunt carissimi. Scribis Montio nostio 
divulgatam esse utriusque epistolam. Tu videris, oma- 
tiasime SrcmMi, quo tuo periculo hominem hactenus tene- 
bna delitescentem in lucem producis. Quanquam id in- 
genue tifai quod sentio dicam, pluris fecio testimonium 
judidi tui, vdi potius amoris tui, quam pertimeseo Tooem 

2712 aicham'i lrttkrs. [1561. 

Attt opinionem ulliut hominii : hoc dictum nut ralde iirro* 
giintif, nut lui nimium ftmontii videri potest. 8i peooo> 
quia error est in me, non icelut in nlios, n te, qui me 
amaip veniam expcoto, ab idiit quo» nihil Indo, ofTeneam 
non mettio. Si epistola mea nondum impreiaa aiti b»o 
duo nut tria verba adjungi illi loco vohcmenter cupio, ubi 
dominm KMZABiCTiiiis grndus et progreisus in itudio 
literarum explioabam } videlicet, *' prima utriuiqoe lingoai 
fundnmentn fetid««ime in hac principe jncta sunt, anidut 
opern et diligentia Ouliklmi Orindallx mci, Orin ballx 
mei inqunm, et »i nliud vocnbulum es»et in omni ratione 
amicitife, neccMitudinis, caritntii, pietatis, quod propin* 
(juiorcm et nrctiorem conjunctioncm tignificaret, quam 
mei, illud ad memoriam mei Ohindalu libentisiime ad- 
hibcrf^m. Fuit enim i» CantabrigiflD diicipulus meus, et a 
parvulo inter pnrictes ctibiculi mei »eptem fereannot literia 
Greecii Latinisque inititutu*. More*, ingenium, memo- 
rinni, judicium tnle bnbuit, qunle vix cuiqunm in Anglia 
contigit quem ego unqunm vidi. An ego aliquid faUo 
nffitigo ejufi Inudibun, intelligunt multi prsuclnri viri qui in 
Auln illo conjunoti»«ime usi sunt. Adulntionin notam non 
timeo, qtiia mortuus est ; invidorum reprojhensionem con- 
ienino, quia virtutis tnudem in nliii non ferunt, quod 
Ofindcm in se ngnosc^ro non possunt. Nnm ex Academia 
in Aulnm vocntus estn domino Ciiieoo, et brevi doctor ad 
institucndnm banc prindpem adhibebatur; post aliquot 
annos, quum ctnristima Klizahetha, et luo ingenio et 
tnlii prreceptoris opera, ad pricclnram perveniaiet cognitio* 
nem, ntque meui GaxKDALLUs, et luo m6rito,et D.favore 
ad eximiam dignitntem ndspirasset, ecce iibi, lubita peste 
eorrepiui, diem luum obit. Aula tantum sui deaidmium 
relinqueni, quantum baud scio nn quisquam alius hos mul- 
tog nnnoi, me corte mtijori afllixit mceroro quam obitos 
utriusque parentisi qui una die et eadem fere horai quum 

155].] aschah's letters. 273 

quadraginta septem annos conjunciissime oonjuges Tizis- 
sent, una ambo ad Chuistuh morte etiam ipsa jugati 
oommigrarunt. In locum hujus ct carissimi discipuli et 
arctiasimi amici suffecius ego sum : ubi invenio ea iitri- 
uaque linguae fundamenta jacta, ut dubitarim, an istios 
ingenium quae didicit, an illius diligentiam qui docuit, 
magia admirarer : huic ego quod felicissime a Grinuallo 
meo,quanquam sine mea opera, non tamen absque omni meo 
oonsilio inchoatum est, diligenter sane et assidue exaedifi- 
care conatus sum. Hsec verba, mi Sturmi, si in saam 
locum apte reponi possunt, et tuo judicio, et quasi lima 
810 perpoliantur, ut cum reliquis concinne construi queant, 
rem mihi peroptatam effecturus es. Nisi te valde arnarem 
et tribuerem omnia nostrse amicitise, vererer te ad bunc 
modum tam imprudenter abuti; sed familiarem esse 
oportet qu8B ficta non est amicitia, et nosti illud Cice- 
RONis tui: [JdMLl,lS]. '* Quicum omnino nihil 
fingam, nihil dissimulem, nihil obtegam : " nam iUm 
sapientes amicitisB ostendunt fucum, suantatem non 
habent, et plus foliorum quam fructus semper ferunt. 

In proximis etiam superioribus meis ad te literia, 
nobiliasimse yirginis jANiE GRAiiE mentionem feci. Non 
est, ai quid in me judicii sit, diguius exemplum, quod in 
oculia hominum feratur, quod in lucem et oonspectum 
appareat, quo reliqua nobilitas ad veram laudem et invigoe 
decua evocari possit. Condoua mihi hoc, mi Sturmi, si 
cupiam hsec lumina patriee mese luce iugenii tui nie 
acoendi, ut quum per se illustria sint, tuo tamen testinionio 
in eminentem et conspicuum locum excitentur. Literat 
tuaa longissimas a?ide expecto, quanquam tempus tuum» 
quod ArUioielicia dialogis impartis, iuterturbare nolim ; 
de ilia tamen re audire cupio. Quum dicerem domino 
legato hodie me literas ad te dare, jussit me buo nomio* 
te plnrimum aalutare, et libentissime se iuire Telle 


274 A8CHA1I*8 LITTKB8. [1651. 

rationem tecum arciioris ainicitiflB, quern jam nvltiiiD 
amavit hos multos annos : hoc tamen te male habeie, 
quod disiineatur pluribus quotidie negotiia, quam ul 
possit orebritate literarum pertequi hoc studium quo te 
complexus est. Nihil libcntius facio, quam scribe ad te, 
led nisi invenero fidelcm tabellarium, cavebo quid cm 
eommittam : nam vereor ego illud, quod kpide CiC£BO 
tuus conqucriiur de suis temporibus: [Jd Mi, 1, 18]. 
"Yix quenquam ease, qui epiitolam paulo g;raviorem 
ferre possit, nisi earn per lectionem relevant." 8i abs ie 
aut MoNTio nostro certus nuntius, de meliori Dota« a 
Tobis commendatus ad me accesserit, libenter de mots 
reipublicas, do statu religionis, de apertia consiliif, de 
•ecretis studiis, qua; ad meas menus penreneriiity robb 
•ignificabo. Tuas suavissimas literas, Sturmiania rtbvm, 
hoc est, eruditione, eloquentia, humanitate refertaa, 
omnibus istis ncgotiis, Turcids, Papisticis, CflBsariams, 
Oallicis longe antepono. De quibus tamen hoc tempore 
aliquid ad te scribcrem, nisi D. MoNTiua noster, ODUttuf 
omnibus gravibus rebus, quae ubique fere hoc anno geslse 
sunt, domum ad vos rediret. Ex cujus sermone opporta- 
nius, quam ex mca scriptura singulas res cognosces. Yale. 
£t saluta mihi Joannem Sleidanum et Yalentinum 
EaYTHRifiUM. Augu»tfe Yindelicorum, XXIY Januarii, 
An. Dom. 1651. 


Sajf that he has followed liim from Antwerp to Broiseli and 

LouTain without seeing liioi. [Lourain] Feb. 8, [1551]. 

Ipciissimo ei humanUnmo viro, Domino liogero 

ABchamo cariatimo amico suo, Eickardus Bran- 

dUbaua. — Ex summa spe tuas prsBsentiee ia 

summam dcsperationem inddi, eruditissime et 

humanissime Asouame; quod eo tristius 

1551.] ascham's letters. 275 

erat, qao vicinior adjunctiorqne rebus optntis esse mibi 
palchre vidcbar. Quum enim audissem Bruxellis elo- 
qaentissimum nostrum oratorem dominum Eicharduu 
MoRYSiNUM Antyerpiam appulisse, siatim decre?i, primo 
quoque tempore te illumque invisere. Yeni igitur, 
abniptis omnibus remoris, Antverpiam, fessusque ab 
itinere, earn noctem interquievi. Postridie (fuit ille dies 
Satumi) te dominumque oratorem a meridie requiro: 
renuntiatnr ilium cum sarcinis Bruxellas abiisse, et ubi eo 
in loco aliquot dieculas commoratus esset, Lovanium 
petiturum. Hie mihi ingentem intercapedinem temporis 
poUicitus sum ; tamen ne ego mora spem tui conveniendi 
iliiusque salutandi corrumperem, die Lunss Lovanium 
repeto, ut domi mess pro mea tenuitale, et erga ilium 
officiosam reverentiam, et erga te consuetam humanitatem 
benevolentiamque exhiberem. Hie dum in itinere sum, 
occurrit mihi ad primum lapidem a Lovanio Georoius 
GiLPlNUS secretarius, una cum nostro damosello ? statim 
sermo de Tobis : aiunt collectis sarcinulis vos Lovanii non 
fiubstitisse. Quod mihi primo ut propemodum incredi- 
bile, ita re cognita postmodum tristissitne accidit. Venio 
domum : stathn ills mcestissimse, sed tamen humanissimee 
taa9 literff" meis ocalis offeruntur, quae quanquam cum 
Tulnere, dulci tamen, libet verbatim ex mcmoria repetere. 
'Libenter, carissime BRANDisBiEE, tuas fi^des vidi, sed 
multo libentius te ipsum vidissem. Memoriam multorum 
annorum, et rerum in Anglia gestarum buavi serraone 
tecum repetere constitui, de te et tuis rebus tibi impartiri 
volui. HsBC tui absentia vehementer me dolore afficit, 
scribe ad me, saltem te recepisse has meas : sequemur 
CiESAREM.' His verbis lectis, optime et animo meo 
carissime Asohame, non est decorum, si me dicam 
lacrimis immaduisse ; id libenter confiten me masslissimo 
aspectu, immotisque oculis literis tuis inbossisse; sed 

276 ASCUAU'S LETTERS. [1661. 

redibis, spero, et retlibis brevi, et utriusque tristitiam 
mutuo colloquio consolabimur. Quod si te diuturnior 
tenebit absentia, quaeso commuuices mihi per literas, de 
rebus meis quod cerium babes. Ego ob insiDceritatem 
quoruudam ex meis ne dicam perfidiam, mortuo fratre, 
multarum rerum mearum sntago. Clarissimum et erudi- 
tissimura dominum oratorem ofiiciosissime ex me saluta ; 
in cujus obsequium et ministerium ofifero et devoveo 
quicquid possum. Quicquld scribes, si miscris Bruxellaro, 
ad ndes domini oratoris Anglici Camberleni, ejus amicitia 
et humnnitate multum utor, optima fide ad me perferetur. 
Quod serius scripsi, nibil in caussa est, nisi quod C^sakis 
adventus hie expectabatur, in cujus comitatu te hsesunim 
non dubitabam. Malebam prsesens cum prsesente quam 
per literas agere; bene vale, doctissime et carissime 
AscuAME. Sexto Idus Februarias. 


EDWARD VI, (4, 76). 

A complimentary letter of thanks for kindneweB, from Hatfield, 

given her by the king : she went to live there about March, 

1660. Hatfield, Feb. 2, [1661]. 

llustrissimo et nobilissimo regi Edovardo Sexto, — 

Amoris erga me tui argumenta nulla, velplura 

vel illustriora dari potuerunt, rex serenissime 

et illustrissime, quam quum proxime fructu 

jucundissimsB consuetudinis tuae perfnierer. 

Cujus sane quum recordor, (quotidie autem recordor) 

quasi tecum esse et collocutionum tuarum humanitate 

prccsens ipsa frui plane videor. CeBterum quum in 

mentem veniunt innumerabilia tua ilia in me beneficia, 

quibus isthuc advenientem excepisti, discedeutemque abs 

te dimisisti, non facile habeo commemorare, quantopere 

in diversas partes distrahatur animus, ancipitemque cogi- 

1551.] ASCHAU'S LETTEB8« 277 

tandi curam adferat. Nam ut ex beneficiorum erga me 
tuoram magnitudiae, amorem in me tuum propensum 
maximeque fraternum persplciens, non parum inde gaudii 
laBtitiseque concepi : ita rursus meritorum erga me tuorum 
multiiudinem eequa justaque lance expendeus, doLeo quod 
intelligam me eorum vim, ne cogitaada quidem, nedum 
referenda gratia, ullo unquam tempore cousequi posse. 
Ne tamen tua majestas tot tantaque in me beuefacta, aut 
male locata, autpotius, ut Cicekonis ex Enkio sumptis 
utar verbis, malefacta esse arbitraretur : aut denique 
parum me memorem gratamque esse judicarct; volui 
nunc saltem, quum re non possem, verbis tusd majestati 
gratias agere. Quod quidem ipsum citius a me vel 
Uteris vel nuncio misso factum fuisset, lusi opusculum 
quoddam, quod etiam ad tuam majestatem mittere cupie- 
bam, propositum meum intervertisset. Id quod, quum 
propter angustiam temporis, quod mihi vel aqua citius 
effluxisse video, ad calcem, uti me facturum opinabar, a 
me ipsa perduci minime potuerit : spero nunc hasce literas 
quantumvis rudes, meam abseutis caussam apud tuam 
majestatem acturas esse, simulque animum erga te meum 
quomodocunque saltem declaraturas. Nam, ut id plane 
abundeque satis mutis vocibus a me fiat, miuime fieri 
posse existimo, prsesertim quum, ut tua non ignorat 
majestas, mese naturae quasi sit proprium, non modo non 
tantum verbis dicere, qiiantum mente cogitare, varum 
etiam non plus dicere quatn cogitare. Quorum posterius« 
plus dicere, puto, quemadmodum pauci detestaiitur, ita 
multi ubique usurpant, maxime vero in aulis principum 
et regum, quibus id unice cavendum est, ne plures intra 
cubicula sua K6\aKai: quam extra aulam suam K&pasaQ 
habere videantur. Qua quidem de re hoc loco satis : illud 
tantum precor, ut Deus conservet tuam majestatem quam 
diutiasime incolumem, ad nominis sui gloriam regnique 

ItU AlCffAM'l itmM» [1SS1« 

uiilitAtem. llAtfildiiD, 11 FebruarIL MnjeitniU itm 
butiiillima Koror et norva Klikasktiia,* 

CXX.-TO KDWAIU) RAVk7n, (k, 2, ml l, 57). 
On ihn p0\iii(i§ of i\ut cUjr, Au((>ibMrf(, Vtth, ft0, 1661* 
>"^* «; arlMmo amiao meo Mdwardo liavm, $oeio eoU 
legii JohannU. — I om much bebobJim to my 
lord nnd my bidy« X wan yet, tbunked be God, 
nevftr »ick. Tbiit IlbeniNb wine \n to geitito a 
drink, I cunnoi tell bow to do wbmil com« boma* 

Newi ye look for, ond few I dore write. Wbetber ibe 
Kmperor %o agninnt tbe Turk, itito Itnly, into Spitin, ogaintt 
Miidetibur^e, or eotne down into Flnnderf, it ii not yet 
certain. We will f<o witb bim wbitbersoever be go, except 
be go to tbe devil. Tlie Turk eometb witb a great power 
AgainMt Hungary, but Poftellu«, wbieb wiibin tbia tbree 
weekn i» eome out of Ttirkey to Veniee, aaitb tbat tbe king 
of Vm\A imtb liotb weaketied bia atrengtb and emptied bia 
cofTerv. Tell ibia U) Jainea J'ilkington, wbleb di4 not 
bandle me ao getttilly at my going into a atrange country 
aa I would Imve done bim, Ferdinando, witbin tbeae two 
daya, de|mrta benee to meet tbe Turk aforeband, witb bbf 
two noble aoua, Maximilbtn king of Beame, ond Ferdinando 
areb-duke of A uatria. Maximilian la a prince peerleaa, ex- 
oept tbe king our master. Jle ia twenty-ibree yeara old, 
luaty, eourageoua, wine, bardy, liberal, gentle, learned, vir' 
tuoua, godly ; be can apeak eigbt tonguea perfttly. I pray 
(lod be nmy give tbe Turk an overtbrow. Ife carrietb 
witb bim ibe bearia, good-willa, and prayera of ricb and 
poor, and the commendation of all tbat ia wiae. 

Fra, Or.oiioi$, a atout friar, and a biabop of Tranayl- 
vania,(look your mapiK,)gave tbe Turka an overtbrow tbia 
winter ; I Maw Fra. (iaouoid'a letter written to tbe pabitine 

* KxMitti hma ^;Mo1a in AvtMMn UMioiheam Bedlabm*, 
propria ipiiua ^iA'AktiWHiAm priodpia ma»u oonieripta* 

1551.] aschah's letters. 279 

of Rbene, requiring aid of the princes of Germany. The let. 
ter was dated 12 Januarii, 1551. If we go into Turkey, 
(I pray God we may,) we shall sail goodly down by noble 

Pope Julius is a very king. He hath made a boy of 
his kitchen, an ape*keeper, cardinal de Monte, whereof 
he was cardinal himself. Men say now, Farturiunt 
monies ; nasceiur simia turpia. 

The Emperor last Saturday in his chapel, within Fucae's 
house, gave warning to all the electors and states to be 
at the general council at Trident 1® Maii, where they say 
cardinal Pouli: shell be president. But all wise men think 
there will be no council at all ; for the Pope purposing 
neither to amend his life nor redress his doctrine, may 
lose more than win thereby. The Germans were never 
more stouter in God's cause. The Emperor is too wise 
and forecasting a prince, either to fall out with Germany, 
or the Pope ; for by a general council, he is likely either 
to make the Pope, of nn uncertain friend, a stedfast 
enemy ; or else the Germans, of secret repiners, open foes. 
Madenburgers be stout persons : the duke of Mecherburg 
who they took prisoner, is dead, as men say ; and it is 
even now reported, that Mauritius hath raised his siege, 
and Madenburdge strongly furnished for two or three 
years. Two Emperors have made war against that town, 
and have left their bodies buried in Magdeburg for 
monnmenis, and the town as>-a idlaid undefiled. Well ! 
God send quietness to his church. Men think there will 
be business about Piedmont and Milan shortly. 

England need fear no outward enemies. The lusty 
lads surely be in England. I have seen on a Sunday 
more likely men walking in Paul's church than I ever yet 
saw in Augusta, where lieth an Emperor with a garrison, 
three kings, a queen, three princes, a number of dukes, &o. 

280 ascham's letters. [1551. 

Here was justs since Candlemas. The tilt was in a 
street before the Emperor's lodging. The houses be 
eight or nine stairs high, that a wonderful number of 
people may look out of windows. Their spears were 
small, their decking was above measure. The prince of 
Spain justed gentilly ; for he neither hurt himself, his 
horse, his spear, nor him that he ran with. Noble Maxi- 
milian ran not. 

If Vahan were an honest fellow, he might write at 
large of many things ; for he hath good leisure. 

Well, to bid you farewell : the Turk is set upon war, 
the Pope upon mischief, the Emperor upon wisdom and 
policy, the Germans upon God's doctrine; and the 
Spaniards also be the people of God, for all the world 
hates them. 

I study Greek apace, but no other tongue ; for I can- 
not. I trust to see England shortly, God willing. I am 
sorry that I have no word from Ireland. Commendations 
to all, because I would leave out none ; to Dr Haddon, 
father Buoer, John Scarlett, mine hostess Barnes. 
If ye will see Fucar's library, look on Mr Fehbe&'s 
letter. From Augusta, 23 Feb. 1551. 

I never yet received letter out of England. 


Written in Mount's library— says he shall finish his Dialogi 

Aristotelici this year. Strasbourg, March 17, 1551. 

Joannes Sturmius Bolero Aschamo 8, P. — Scribo 

haec in Bibliotheca domini Month : fui etiam 

tota die occupatissimus ; itaque ignosces. 

Gratum mihi est me magni a te fieri, et meas 

te literas expetere : quorum alterum prsestare 

non possum, ut sim magnus, alterum jam facio ; scribo 

enim, verum paucis ; nam pluribus non vacat. Gratiam 

1551.] aschah's letters. 281 

tibi habeo quod literas ad Montium communes esse 
volueris ; et me sane delectarunt, quum rebus ipsis de 
quibus scribis, turn etiam tua prudentia tuoque judicio. 
Cogito tuis omnibus epistolis, uno aliquo scripto publice 
respondere, ut non me pigrum esse putes. DialogoB 
Jmtotelicos conficiam hoc anno : gratum mihi est, quod 
hue usque pervenerim. Dominum legatum pro me 
meisque verbis saluta. Vale. Argeutorati, XVil Martii, 
Anno Domini 1651. 

CXXII.— TO EDWARD RAVEN, (e, 3, and L, 60). 
In continuation of his former letters from Qormany. 

Augsburg, May U-18, 1551. 
my assured and especial friend Air Edward 
Raven, Fellow in St John*s College, S, P. in 
ChrisioJesu, — I cannot think, my good Ed wakd 
Raven, that because ye either forget me, Or 
neglect me, yo write nothing unto mo. I sup- 
pose ye know not how to send. Send to Mr Eland, and 
he may deliver them at the White Freers to Mr. Stephen 
Uales, and ho can and will send them to me as fitly as 
you may send to London. My good Thomas Leaver hath 
not deceived me, but written a large letter unto me. I 
marvel that Mr Henky Ailand writes not. None of you 
lacks matter ; and your longest letters be most looked 
for. Write how good Dr Madew doth, and all his. If 
I might have had a stroke in bishoprics, I wish, &c. and 
I would I had been at home in England at tiiat time. 
Commend me to Mrs Madew, &c. Tell D. Madew, if he 
and I live together, he shall be sure of a stedfast and a 
loving friend. I ask nothing so much as good-will ; for 
all other goods I trust to provide well enough myself. 

Now, Edward, I pray you as him whom I trust and 
love 88 myself, mark the manner, towarduess, and bringing 

282 ascham's letters. [1551. 

up, &c. and whether Dr Madew would be very glad 
thereof, or no ; and whether he is pbin in the matter, or 
double and wavering; for if, &c. Ye perceive what I 
mean, and add what you list ; for in this matter, or in 
any other, I trust you as myself. Let no man read this 
letter, or see it; be secret and close; and so bid Dr 
Madew. But I need not write this to you. As you send 
me word of the matter, so shall you hear from me : for as 
I shall know your alTections, so then I will enter into the 
matter myself more plainly. Ye need not let Dr Madew 
see this part of my letter ; for now I would only prove by 
you what that part would think of the matter, if it should 
be. I do not doubt but ye will both do it friendly, and 
even handle it wisely; for your counsel, Edward, and 
advice in that matter, surely I will follow. When ye 
write, seal your letters so that they may not be opened, &c. 

Keep my chamber well : I heard say some was in it ; I 
know not. What you do I am content, and well content. 
If the master meddle with my interest, I am not content ; 
and he had as good no. Be stout, Edward, and doubt 
not but I both will and shall be able to bear you out. 

Purpose, my Edward, to live in godliness and learning ; 
for that is life only. I see emperors, kings, princes, kc, 
live not, but play their lives upon stages. Suspicion, 
care, fear, need, and a thousand miseries and diropiat, turn 
and toss their lives. 

Edward, I purpose, God willing, that you and I will 
live together, and look and laugh at the world. I trust 
to provide for us both ; and that little that I shall have 
take it, and use it as your own. 

I am very well, thanked be God, and 'in great favour 
with my lord and lady. My lord surely is a witty man, 
and serves his God, his king, and his country, noble here. 
If ye hear any thing to the contrary, be bold, Edward, of 

1561.] asoham'8 letters. 288 

my word to reprove it. Yesterday we received letters 
from the king's council, full of thanks and gentleness. 

Write how my money is received there, and make mine 
account well; and think not that 20«. is my debt to you, 
Edward, but all that ever I have. Write of Bucer, and 
what my friend Mr Haddon hath written on him ; but 
that I commit to my Henry Ailand, to write at large of 
Bucer, because you shall write of other matiers. I trust 
Will. Taylor, John Bee, and Thomas Wilson, will not 
be behind. I pray God I may find these good fellows at 
Cambridge ; for there is the life that no man knows, but 
he that hath sometimes lacked it, and especially if one be 
able to live plentifully there. 

Will.Ireland and U.CALiBUT,in Easter week, departed 
from Venice towards England through France. I beshrew 
them, they came not this way ; and $o tell my good Ire- 
land. And I trust, when he cometh home, ye two will 
take any thing that I have as your own. I write not this 
§0 oft, Edward, as I mean it faithfully, and fro my heart ; 
which doth cause me so oft to repeat it. 

I know ye will answer all my letters with one long one. 
Make one packet of all your letters together, if any other 
will write, and so send them. 

Some news 1 must needs write. 

The Turk's armies entered Transylvania. The great 
king of Tartary is the Turk's standard-bearer : and the 
Turk hath made a league with the Sophy, which is king of 
Persia. We shall have hot war in Hungary ; and would 
to God the Emperor would go thither. Ferdinando, 
with his noble son king Maximilian, were almost both 
drowned of late in Danubius, going to Vienna. 

The Turk's preparations is great per mare Mediter- 
raneum, and the Venetians of late have sent a great force 
into Corcyra. The prince Andrew Doria hath chased one 

284 ascham'i lvttvei. [1551. 

of the Turkiiii captainip called Draount RaiSi into such 
a strait upon Afric sand, not far from the isle of Zerbiei 
that he is like to bo taken, with all his ships. 

The matiers of Parma and Italy, Ireland shall tell you. 
Some of the Pope's bishops hath been at Tridentum at 
the beginning of May, and given the Holy Ghost and 
XX ^iaQ and gone their way, and have deferred the council 
ad calendaa Septembris ; but I believe it be ad calendoi 

Madelburgers be vcngeable fellows : they have almost 
marred all duke Maurice's men ; and yet they be as 
strong as ever they were. 

This I wrote the 10th of May; but this day l^"" Maii 
news are come, that Andrew Doria is either taken by 
the Turks, or at least his whole navy lost. The certainty 
ye shall know shortly ; and this day, I hear say, that the 
siege at Madelburdge is quite dispatched. The French 
king sets upon the realm of Navarre. So many irons, and 
so hot, bo ill to handle. 

I hear from Sturmius every week. 

Jeronimus Wolfius, that translated Demosthenes, 
and IsocRATKH, is in this town. I am well acquainted with 
him, and have brought him twice to my lord's to dinner. 
He looks very simple. He tcllcth me, that one Boerheus, 
which hath written well upon JrisioL priorinus, &o. hath 
even now in printing goodly commentaries upon Aris- 
totle's Ilhctoric. liut Stuiimius will obscure them all. 

JoACHiMUs Camkrarius huth two goodly books in 
printing at Basil, which he hath been in hand withal many 
years. The one is Commentaries upon Plautus; the 
other is called J)e Jfomine; a lexicon for alt things Greek 
and Latin belonging ad res humanas. 

The godliness, and constancy, and discipline of this 
town, is incredible. Three or four thousand singing at 

1561.] ascuam's letters. 885 

one church at r time, is but a trifle. If a papistical 
church have a dozen, it is well furnished. Upon Shrove 
Thursday, at night, a wonderful sort of Spaniards did 
whip themselves naked through the streets, deep with 

Ye write not to me ; therefore I have no courage to do 
as I would, or else I would write many things to you. 

There was many companies, and of the Emperor's house 
1 18, which went at nine of the clock at night, accompanied 
with 800 torches. No small fools bare torches that night, 
but very many great lords, in gowns of crimosim and 
purple velvet, full of agglets of gold. The prince of 
Piedmont, the duke of Alva, one of the Emperor's council, 
bare torches that night; a wonderful '£0iXoOp4(7Kiia to live 
so abominable all the year, and then will needs make 
amends with God whether he will or not. 

I could declare you the think goodly as I writ it to 
my lady of Warwick ; bub I cannot tell what to say to 
you, ye be so unkind : I have called Vahan L. K.* many 
times, that having so much leisure, he never writes. But 
I DOW judge him wiser than I. I know, Edward, there 
is no fault in you. 

If ye will know how I do, I think I shall forget all 
tongues but the Greek afore I come home. I have read 
to my lord since I came to Augusta, whole Heuodotus, 
five tragedies, three orations of Isocrates, and seventeen 
orations of Demosthenes. For understanding of the Ita- 
lian I am mette [meei] well ; but surely I drink Dutch better 
than I speak Dutch. Tell Mr Dr Madew, that 1 will 
drink with him now a carouse of wine ; and would to God 
be had a vessel of Bhenish wine, on condition that I paid 
40«. for it ; and perchance, when I come to Cambridge, I 

* Lasy knave P 

286 ascuah's letters. [1661. 

will so provide here, that every year I will have a little 
piece of Rhenish wine. 

I would fain hear from my good cousin Coniers. We 
have word now, that the Emperor cometh down into 
Flanders the 29th of May. 

If I can get leave of my lord ambassador, surely, 
Edward, I will come home at Michaelmas. 

Commend me to all ours Johanneuses, and leave none 
out ; Mr Pembbe, Mr Baewick, good Mr Dr Haddon, 
John Scarlett and bis wife, and my good hostess 
Baenes, whom I cannot forget : to all at Wittam. 

I write these letters by piece-meal ; and this is the first 
letter you have had f)'om me since Candlemas. Bum this 
letter. Falete in Chrisio. — From Augusta, 14 Maii, 1661. 

E. A. 

P S. Because this paper is void, I cannot leave talking 
with you. 

Madelburg, as it is said, hath given within this thirteen 
days a great overthrow and slaughter to Mauritius. They 
say that the marquis of Ikandenburgh's planta pedis is 
smitten off with a gun by them of Madelburdge. They 
have gotten into town many waggons laden with victuals. 
They have ploughed up all gardens, and sown wheat in 
them : they have taken up the stones of the streets through- 
out all the town, and sown wheat in the streets, leaving only 
a little space to pass from house to house : and it is said 
there is as goodly wheat in the city as ever grew. This 
will be both a great help, but chiefly it keepeth the people 
from idleness. I hear also, that Consules Madelburgenaea 
be desired by Mauritius to come to Wittemberg, to talk of 
conditions of peace. God send peace, but peace in Christ. 

I would be glad to have a letter from Mr Doctonr 
Madew, and so tell him. Tell Heney Ailand, that I am 
well acquainted with Andeeas Vesaliub, that noble phy- 

1651.] asoham's letters. 287 

sician, and yet he was Yahan's physician, and as Yahax 
saith, the best physician in the world, because he gave 
him pitcher-meat enough. I was never sick, thanked be 
God, since I came out of England. I pray you make 
Mr Doctour Blithe partaker of this news of Andrew 
Doria's and Madelburdg, for he is a man whom I always 
much esteemed. 

If my lady of Suffolk be at Cambridge, know if my 
lord ambassador's son, little Mr' Charles Morisin, be 
there ; and let not, Edwardj but go and see him ; and 1 
pray you write diligently to me of him : and if he were 
not so young, I would ye should bring him to my chamber, 
and show the child some pleasure ; at least offer to do it 
for my sake, &c. Write of his growing, of his wit, of his 
colour, &c. ; for it is a great thing to please a mother 

Keep these letters secret; show them but by piece- 
meal : yet, Edward, enquire of him wisely, lest my lady 
of Suffolk suspect it is done to prove how he is handled : 
and therefore write to me accordingly to this purpose of 
the child. But I need not warn you : ye can do me no 
greater pleasure, for divers causes. 

Ye see, Edward, how that with manv pens, and divers 
ink, and sundry times, I write this letter. I trust my 
will to write shall match the marrs I make in it. I shall 
be sorry if I hear that Washington is gone from Cam- 
bridge, and glad to hear tell that S. Wright, by diligence, 
came to that prick, whereunto his goodly wit doth call 
him. I send my letters to my brother and cousin 
Coniers open to you, that ye may both see news, largely 
tdd, and also learn to lap up a letter. 

The French Secretary told me this day, that there are 
news that duke Maurice himself is smitten with a gun : 
but there is no certainty. 

268 ASCHAU'S LETTKR8. [1551. 

Te see, Edward, bow glad I am to talk with you, and 
loth to depart from you, and therefore how confusedly 
jm2 ci il ctitovofiiat I chop in things as they come. 

Good TuoiiAS Leaver only hath not deceived me, but 
written to me diligently. I will requite him, God willing. 

Seal your letters up well, Edward, or else they will be 
read many times ere they come hither. Make your packet 
of letters like a pack of cards ; but keep the same propor- 
tion that I do in my letters. 

At the closing up of these letters, word was brought* 
that the prince of Spain, which as to-morrow should have 
gone into Italy, and so per mare Mediter, into Spain, is 
this day fallen sore sick of a phrenesis ;, that he was twice 
this day let blood. Yesterday my lord was with him, and 
bade him farewell; and then 1 saw him in his privy- 

I purpose within this seven days by the next post to 
write again to you, God willing. Now I bid you farewell 
in Christ, good Edward ; for my paper is spent, and it is 
almost midnight, and to-morrow I write all day to the 
council. Saltita omnei. Show Edward Cantrell some 
of these newe. — From Augusta, 1 8 Maii, 1651. E. A. 

BASLE, (3, 18). 
Bpeaki of the Greek library of Jacob Fugger, and of other 
znatteri abnut books, &o. Augsburg, June 10, [1551]. 
'\pm. Hieronymo Frobenio noblili BasUietm typO' 
graphOt S.P, in ChrUto Je»u, — Eruditum te, 
ex tuis scriptis, Hieronyme Fbobeni, hu- 
manum atque bonum ex aliorum sermonibus 
esse intellexi : et eo facilius patiebar me adduci 
rogatu doctissimi viri et utriusque nostrum valde amantis 
HiBBONYMi WoLFXi, ut inprimis tibi significarem Uteris 

1551.] asgham's LirrEis. 1^9 

meis illos Dbsidbkii Esasmi Aitl^a^MTtmfm Ubros di« 
desiderates, et olim Eomae Richakdo Paceo somrp- 
tos, ad hoc in Anglia reserran. Liber ad me proximo 
superiore anno adferebatur, et eo atebar Cautabri^is 
aliquot mensibus : integrine libri sunt an XuTo/Mirdy rt 
plane ignore : egi cam ilio in cujus maoos deTenemnt, 
at in lucem apparerent : qaod ille facile mihi concedebaL 
Atque quum mihi, ab ineunte setate, perspecta sit ilia 
multorum officiornm et bencTolentiae coajaactio, qose 
▼estne Frobenianse familiae cum Eras mo iatercessit; 
banc rem tibi communicare consilium fuit : ut, si tu ita 
vis, mea opera utaris ad id, qaod tibi de hac re tuoque 
judicio consultissimum esse rideatur. Itaque expecto 
literas tuas, sequor aalam Cssaris : si miseris litems 
tuas Ar^utinam, ad Joannem Stcbmicm, ubicunque 
fuero, curabit ille ut ad me commode perferantur. Vidi 
ego Gnecam bibliothecam Jacobi Fuggbri, et habeo 
indioem scriptorum ; librorum multi libri sunt nondum in 
lucem divulgati : quanto major laus esset hujus viri, si 
tot prseclaris auctoribus, non civitatem, ut potens consul, 
sed muudum et ?itam, ut aliquis deus daret, quam com- 
pingens eos in perpetuas tenebras, non ^iXoX^yoc, sed 
PifiKi6Ta^oc merito quidem baberi ? Utinam bio ?ir ad 
banc et privatam gloriam et communem utilitaiem exci- 
tari possit. E Britannia decedens, et nobilem basileam 
visere et fortem Helvetiorum gentem peragrare sperabam : 
Bed yereor, ut mea negotia bis teinporibus hoc me 
patiantur facere. Eeligionis veree cursum, literaruni 
cultum et progressum, populi mores et locorum illoruni 
opportunitates avide perspexissem : nunc reliquum est, 
ut quern fructum ipse prajsens ex contemplatione harum 
rerum percepissem, eundem ex tuis ad me longis gratis- 
Bimisque Uteris expectem. Si ulla officii ratio a me, nut 
in bac aula aut in Anglia, tibi proficisci possit, quauluu 


290 ASCHAU'S LETTERS. [1551. 

eniti navareque possum, libenier prsestabo ; et si cseteris 
rebus minus queo» amore certe gratique animi signifiea- 
tione, et literarum etiam crebritate tibi respondebo. Vale 
in CuRisTO Jesu. August®, 10 Junii. 

Offers a book combining, as he says, heaufy, riches, and honowr^ 
and alludes to some archbishop, friend to both. 

'\rancisco Jlano, — Tres sunt res, Francisob 
A LANE, quae in rebus humanis plurimum pos- 
sunt fereque dominantur ; forma, pecunia, et 
honor. Form®, praecipuus voluptatis sensos ; 
pecuniae, maximus commoditatis usus; honori, 
summus dignitatis locus merilo tribuitur. His enim tribus 
rebus tres olim deos, vel iniperita vetustas propter usum, 
▼el olim docta poesis propter prudentiam, ingeniose af- 
linxit. Nam voluptati ipsam Venerem; divitiis Plutum ; 
dignitati summum Jovem praeesse voluerunt. Postea, 
eisdera rebus ipsae philosophorum scholae ultimum bonuro, 
et omnium semper sapientum senteutiae maximam vim 
assignarunt. Itaque quum ego probe cognosco te,^RAN- 
ciscE Alane, egregium esse formarum spectatorem ; 
quum te cupio esse ditissimum, quum te judico ad digni- 
tatem esse natum ; volui tibi hunc librum ofiferre, in quo 
uno tu, quem unice amo, his universis tribus rebus felicis- 
sime potieris; formas enim hie non has fastidiosas et 
quotidianas sed lectas et lautas illas, et Caesarea majestate 
dignas, et libere sine impedimento et tuto sine periculo et 
Buspicione contemplaberis. Hie virginum et matronarum 
vultus Yen ERE ipsa venustiores, non maties minaces, non 
mariti truces, non infensi ri?ales, non parietes, non sera 
ab oculis tuis excludent. Divitias hie porro, non ipsius 
Crcesi misere collectas gazas, sed illius universi et urbis 
et orbis impeiii cumulatissime congestos thesauros accipies; 

i: \/, 

t:x; tteiu ^t-nrmmnnn.. inuit 

:xzL iQHeL. "nit* i^ tvhl 

f Qsmaat' miCBMMr. 

-FIT- a. HDTnnigpgr. :£nr: m. 

nn. ibbul vrm. :Wk. 

-ecreiiJcijF Tcrmt: nvmsmuc yvatu. 

juecerrst ;«&. Tnnfc- rttsnuwr* .n^- 

Wm vma jinttat -mcL mm na iliit xu .^sESKumit. ^f« it 
^pi Oft rBGBDtt^ jaiiumn gr. bbr ju' :?s:i ixcu :sxm ^mi«i^ 
<iia^, se ai 'jumi .<: TKssutsusf tsdr innim. ^n :«ir«c3ai^ :«m 
BitttXL «d otestsb Aut nrruuL Ju. uniumsn "tsn-^ 4K 

abwiiift Qithft. dC tiuuft sdh ^isnsuif jidtuni^ t$ :u; ml 
. ^HgyiimTwm ,iiuuL jtTuriair jl iuclu iit <>3M(n^ 
^ aymt jaidnc. w iimtpB— «B»»pimng tsay ^ ;:^ 
f&cr «lftmK ^whrmir i^ faoK cms at y arj a w ^ ttvsnfiMMk*^ 

■llm, JMifaft libti,. atiBennMMr«wldK«RU$:»att»Ma«^ 

be giilMiMiBmi<rrfiu totem? f^mi^^wiift *JLtnMiWtii 
dJiripKM tote fdmtv, ubt, q«i te totun <iTi;;i vinn 
indidisti, mm jociada soIom ad ie^nHiuin, «>l <>|4iil(i 
fUmrn ad nsum fbturi est. De diniciiM iio«tf« |MMt« H 
ptiids dicam; oe, dum te Hbenter el merito kiuvWui^ 
meipsiim obiter ei impnideoter reprehemietuUiiu t^xhU 
beam : nam qaonim Toluntates, 8tudia» ei tit Ali(|\tii i»liiim 
re, ipsa consentitmt vota, nihil fere neo Inude iteo vltto 
digntun inter eos separatum esse potest t benetoleitUa veru 

t9S asoham's littkrs. [1561. 

mihi, omnium in bao Aula, K^'^ta; oertorum bominum 
etiam Jucuiula ; %ed tua lane iuprimit optata mibi oontin- 
git, cujui bumanitntem tantam etteer^^a roeinpe expertu« 
ium» ut nemo nit de quo vel mibi vel meit plu« poliiceri 
quenm. Kt» quum multa vincula ttudii et amorlf not 
inter not conjungunt, nullum puto, aut ra ipfta flrmiuii 
aut utrique notirum optatiui eMe,eo favore et gratia, qua 
optimu« et bumanitnimua praotul utrumque nostrum aibi 
tot meritit arotiulme devinxit et obligavit. Itaque, il 
forma sine malii illecebris ; fti divitiflQ tine curit ; ti dignitat 
tine periculit ; ti doctrina cum maximo utu ; ti amicitU 
cum pari itndio, tibi probanda fuerit, boo meum, tpero, 
contilium tibi o(ferendi buno librum minime reprebendet. 
Deut optimut maximut et te diutittime incolumem tervet, 
et utrumque nottrum utriutque voti quamprimum compo* 
tern faciat, Vale. 


Baji tlittt thti timet aro ?orj bttd, that Atohtm's po«it(on ii 

among eye» and ears (ipiea and listenem). Jlo intenda to 

writo A l^rofaoa and Lif», to be placed before the worka of 

JUiotr, Strasbourg, Juna 16, 1&&L 

^annea Slurwiua, Rogaro Mohamo^ /S',i'.— -Ifit ex 

bit quat ad u\g anteu miterat, et ex multit 

literit qunt ad MoNTiUM oommunet pott 

deditti, plane intelljgo, me abt te amari atque 

etiam amari conttanter, nulla olfentione tilentii 

mei. Kgo vero ad amicot raro tcribo, non toluni ob 

quotidianot luboret ntque niolettiat; ted etiam propter 

tummum ittud Cbrittianw reipublicte temput. Quit enim 

qiiir(|uam tcribat, ut de boc non cogitet? ut non geroat? 

ut non conqueratur? prootertim ad amicum: ted videt 

qutiDto id fiat cum pcrieulo. Nibil tutum babemut prffiter 

oogilationet, prccutionet, vota; quea ti gemitum aut 

vocubim edant, tutpiciotum ett, et objectum calumniit 

1551.] ascham's lsttsrs. 298 

iacinus ; nuUus bomo tQrpis est qui tibi tuique similibut 
viri8 ac mihi non sit inimicus. Et locus isle vester totus 
mihi ex oculis atque auribus videlur esse coasdificatus. 
Yeruntamen nulla injuria tanla nobis adferri poterit, ut a 
Yeritate religionis declinemus. Tibi tamen gratiam habeo 
quod scribas; et amo quod me amas, et diligo quod ita 
scribas ut scribis. Nos hie nihil audivimus : omnes 
gentes aut mutoe sunt, aut sunt in otio. Quid autem 
magis agitatum et exereitum quam Magdeburgum ? et 
tamen de hoc etiam nihil certi : etiam Parmeiises hominum 
opinioncs obmutueruut. Consiitui in libris Buceui, quos 
ad Edvardum regem scripsit, praefari .ejusque vitam 
oonscribere : in qua confectione nihil mihi molestius erit, 
quam vitare KoXaKiiav quoties opus esse videbilur. Yerun- 
tamen ita libertatem amittam, ut a scrvituie tamen me 
vindicem ; tu quod potes, in hoc labore, mo tuo judioio 
opeque juvabis. Salutat te Toxites mens : qui ita te 
amat propter me, ut tuus esse velit etiam solus, qui meus 
totus solummodo est. Yale. Argeutorati, XV mensis 
Junii, Anno Domini 1551. 

CXXYL— TO STURM, (1, 6). 
Bays he will help Sturm, if he can, in writing tlie life of Buoer. 
Telle him nbout the early life and the learning of Redman, 
and that Cheke had promised to write something about 
Buoer — seemt to refer to the preceding letter. 

June [July P] 18th, 1661. 
^geru9 AtchamuSt Joanni Sturmio, S.P. — l^iteree 
tu8B, prudentia3 et suavitatis plcnisaimoe, una 
cum duobus libris a D. Toxite dono ad me 
missis, redditee mihi fuerunt XXII Junii* 
Suaviter scribis de mea offensione silejitii tui : 
quanquam sic gratus es, quod scribis, optatissime Stuumi, 
ut etiam si non scribas, non possis non esse mihi gratissi- 

204 AIONAM*! tKTTfiftf. [IBBL 

tfiU9« Amidibm onitn tneiitit, tton InDiHrrnt liM et niolf* 
•Um, •«<! opportuiiom ei ^raiiittt proUre oupio, thfi 
ooctipAiion«i« tttim, ium)(te »lo otio fiiveo, ui «g»rritii0 tpM 
ferittti, »1 ullii ttjiii niloimA pnm ttb j^rUhhUoU (/iahgi$ 
iui», oi /KfioiiiNiii l>KM04iTiiKNiiqui oontimiimtllm*, ad 
iiUii« r«i» itbitrnbitiur. Qiutnturn ntiiem ToxtYfen notirmii 
ttmo, (it) boo oJui» In tio» oommunl viuilb «i Amort, il« 
botmvolfitUln vtil pUinio potiim, quM pittrUtm ttteum, (fom 
prlnolpom mmim ojiorrmvit, <1« nttlmo in verniti r«%bn6tii 
CHUirri, de Jttdido in elQ^iinkm (l<Hjtrlniim HruMMit, dt 
malti» detii(|tu» iilil« vnrie iirniitiiiio vinmtli«» quitni« m« ilbi 
in p«rpetuuttt conjnnjiit, I)r6vl liiorls tn#l«» iwniper omoi 
officio riieo, illi d«alnrnt>o. 

Ko^MPi, ui t« jiidi^io mmi @i (ipo juvem, in oonfooiloiia 
vitio Uuoistii. Quit in ra quitm((iiim op« ttMA optii tioA 
httl)««f volonUii Um inmten nliqnid, 0iinm«)l non AAiii, 
Ub(9ni^ fooliHiifm, nif»i lil^rtim ilium i$% Anglitt de obiid 
BucjKiit fuiio oontmripintrt, nd Id prln» qtnini hA« HtttAA 
porvontnrum InUillnxiMmn. Miitun vdnnU»» betievdentifli 
tii An^lifti in (kmtunintn, tit (/MntAbri)(lH» in Xr^miitmm, 
ei utriunqun ^^mi\^ rri urbU windintn Ifi vornm roli^bnem^ 
in iilt^nm, in NtinotiMiinuin ai dooilMlmum I^uokmum, «x 
lib libro fhvMG pnrMpit^i poto>ii. Adinlrnbild est qtiod 
Cahuum noniiir ik Rkdmanno riffori : ut m\M qn4ili» hie 
vir nitf \mnm v(i\HiUitn, (hinmiUmti proximo MUin((ii 
CirunKwrvH ToNMTAiit^UM npifti^opurn Dnni^lftHmiem ; 
cjun 0on«ilio in niudio liifrmrnm n punro vm'sntus e«t« 
Cnniiibrigiiti i^t Oxonii nliquoi nnrion vixit. Poni Luieii«Bi 
vidit : ubi diu fommottkinn ittndetn rrdiii in AngbAtn Ante 
Yicitnintuni jinn utinum nut plu« (to ^ in»truotn» «» periito 
Urwcm \jni\mi(\Hti Hn^nin, ai m oxouUus diligonti Cicsiio* 
xm lm;iion« nt ttjim nive linidin itmulniion«, iive prtecf^p- 
iioniii imiiMiion^, JoANNMCiiKCUnei TnoMAi ^miyhua, 
ikiwudum Juv«tM)», ei omnibuv tnmliv wquulcv, excnUii, 

155 L] A80HAM*8 LBTTER8. 295 

sfiretu WiNiromm sordibus, uberrimum ilium prudentis 
doquentis suocum ex Platonis, Aristotelis, et 
CiCBiONis foiitibu8 exhauserunt, quem, in borum dlsoi- 
pulis et meis conjunctissimis amicis, H addon o et Cakro, 
aQimadvertis abundare. Rbdmannus, de quo ego insti- 
tin sciibere* totum se sacrarum literarum studio tradidit, 
tot pnesidiis ingenii, doctrinee, eloquentiao munitus, ut 
omnes fere superaret. Usus est semper suavissimis 
moribus, modestUsima vita, communis et bonus omnibus, 
eiiam adversariis, nemini molestus aut durus. Tarn 
pneclarus artifex in concionibus suis ad forraandam 
Christianam vitaro, qualem ego profiteor me vix unquam 
audivisse. In doctrina etiam de coujugio sacerdotum, et 
aliis controversiis rectissime in publicis scholis Cantabrigieo 
sententiam et judicium suum declaravit. De justi Beat lone 
autem solius fidei, nonnihil a nobis discrepavit, et id 
semper laude et sine aculeis, non tam (uti ego de illo 
exiatimo) quod dubitavit de veritate illius doctrinee, quam 
quod mietuit de licentia vitse, in quam virtutis manes et 
taatum verbosi quidem homines praecipites ferebantur. 
Hoc igitur illustre judicium Redmanni, sive hominis 
multiplicem doctrinam sive probatissimam vitnm spectes, 
BuoEHO impartitam, universis Babylonicis, Ecciis, IMilicis, 
et reliquis audacter potes opponere. Scriberem ad te co- 
piose, qua pietate complexa estBucERUM nobilissima dux 
Suffolciensis, qua cura et curatione ipsa prsesens noctes 
diesque ilium fovit ; nisi uxor D. Buceri, omnia, ilia 
opportunius commemoraret. Uunc locum et banc claris- 
simam principem, scio, non prseteribis, mi Sturmi, vel 
propter exemplum reliquse nobilitatis, vel propter eam 
benevolentiam, qua heec nobilissima femina te etiam com* 
plectitur, qua: de te in Angliam accersendo ssepe cogitavit. 
His etiam proximis superioribus diebus D. Cuecus pol- 
lioetor aliud separatum scriptum de obitu Bucebi : quum 

^06 ASCHaM's LETTEBf. [1551. 

recepero, statim ad te mittam. Commemoratio barnm 
renim, mi Sturmi, sensummibi comtnovet doloris acerbis- 
simi, summique desiderii istius sanctissimi iriri ; qui ei 
multum me amavii, et plurimum doctrina juvit : cajns 
unius opera, base nostra inter nos amicitia, qua uibil mibi 
dulcius, arctissime firmata est. In recentissima mea 
▼igent memoria crebri illius mecum instituti sermones, de 
religionis, de reipublicse et statu et motu, de literanim recto 
cursu, de te, de tua sin^kri bumanitate et doctrina, de 
eo ejus consilio, quando nos conjunctis literis nostris te 
ad Aristotelis explicationem concitare vobiinms. At 
silebo, ne dolores et augeam meos et non minuam tuos : 
quanquam in malis, malorum etiam refricatio in sinu et 
sermonc dulcissimi amici nonnibil consolatur. Yale in 
Christo Jesu. Satis est si inteiligam te bas recepisse, 
et quum satis otii et laxamenti a gravioribus rebus nactus 
fueris, vel brevissimas literas tuas, de tuo Aristotelb, 
^sciiiNE, et Demostuene loqucntes, omnibus illis Tur- 
cicis, Fapisticis, Italicis, etc., antepono. Si quid fuerit in 
Month nostri literis, tecum communicabit. Juuii 18, 

Had just received foroe letters and epigrams about Baoer. 

Strasbourg, July 6, 1851. 

■f^j^oannei Sturmiun^ Rogero Aichamo 8. P. — Quum 
has ad te scribere incepissem, commodum mihi 
Bl'ckri diaconus • Joannis Checi et Ni- 
coLAi Carri de Buceri morte epistolas 
attulit. Adjuncta etiam bis sunt multorum 
epigrammata : placet mibi pietas vestrse gentis, placet 
doctrina ct orationis genus. Kt tnroetsi tu mibi tui 
lit<:ris mngnum desiderium ejus libri excitabas, tamen 
yicit voluptas desiderium ; ut nunc magis gaudeam me 

1551.] ascham's LKTTCmS. t^l 

kgisse, qnam antea videre desiderabam. Ergo ego in 
▼ita BucERi describenda, non solom vactd/ntaUi tesU* 
moniiaque horum juvabor, Ternm etiam exeTn(>lo» imit*- 
tkme, invitamenio. Gaadeo etiam mihi oeeasionem datmii, 
at utriusque in meo scripto meminis«e possim. Ammi 
▼irtatea fere easdem video, et doctrinam utrio^^'ie ex^^ 
leDtem. De principe SvrrohciM dtiee ant^^ frx aim 
audieram: sed quid in me tan torn ? f^iktu mibi tatMm 
ejus benevolentia est, et ego de ipsa )donei« k^ K<m^ 
rifice quoad potero, de filio etiam, de qoo in <|ii^^m t« 
ad me epistola. Fui auctor Ioxum, ut a/i t^gi^U^m H 
ad te sua§ commentariuneolas mitteret : <|U^ ia /< ir^ ''ii*i4 
erroris est, id mibi ascribes. Vale. Ar^ev,i/^f»u, VI 
mensis Julii, Anno Domini i5S]. 


About Lady Jane Gnjr— obtaiM • KS, yE#ef^>>!« />vm F'/d^ 
— Sends his salototians to Jobn ftkidsm, Tsi^wtfi;^ l>y' 
thrsus, and llicbsel ToxiUs, Aaff^<Br|^ A»^ 2^J , li^l . 

7]pfferu4 JichamtiM Joamni Himrmfj H, P, — f1«« 
et nostras tmidtkt et Uue huiroiajUdi q'i»m 
mese TerecoDdise tribui, WMdmiffie HnvitMi, 
quum literia meis sapervynb^ia wi Mojiiivm 
nostrum scriptis ded^nrem, f^oaisfi e^^em e%/i» 
cnpidus, ut iBscHi5ES et l)tMO%JBt»t%Jb TifMt\\%%'imm 
Virginia Jaxje Gkai.c nomine apparerent. Neque tma 
quidem ignanis fui, quam operosis impJieatus esses oego* 
tiia. Si quod peccatum ergo foerit, (faisse nullum spero,) 
aaaignabia Moktio nostro, qui de divulgatione iiJanim 
orationum paulo ante ad me seripsiaset. Nam quod tii 
via, maxime probo, et id tamen scripsi, quod ego uniee 
opto. Opto enim te aliquid dedicare lectissims virgioi, 
tni aemper, quod ego novi, et tuorum studiosiaaimsa : 

298 ASOHAU'S LBTTBR8. [1551. 

oiyus est cultior animus doctrina Platonis et eloquentia 
DiMOSTUBNis, quam fortuna illustrior, aut regio genera, 
aut accessione amplissimflB quideni sed luctuosissimn heera- 
ditatis clarissimi ducis Suppoloibksis avunculi matemi, 
JaKuB Graijc, qu8B ejus nunc facta est heeres ex parte* 
dimidia. ICt semper mi hi ante oculos versatur spectacu- 
lum ilJud, quum offendi clarissimam virginem legentem' 
PHiEDONBM Platonis, de qua re, opinor. tibi aliquando 
scripsi. £t quorsum heec ? Minime, mi Stubmi, ut in 
hac aut ulla re velim esse molestus, sed ut ostendam, 
quum diu fuerim utriusque vestrum amantissimus, quam. 
▼estrsB etiom routuffi inter vos amicitin conjungendae nuna 
qooque sum studiosus. Amioitia nee tibi dignior adjungi 
nee ilia optabilior offerri potest. 

Scripsi ad D. Chegum in gratiam Toxit^ nostri, et 
id perstudiose: scribnm etiam, si ita vis, ad Dominum 
Pagettum : si in Anglia essem, multum navarem et 
aliquid perficerera. Ru mores Turcicos, Parmenses, Sax- 
onicos fuse perscriberem, nisi qui has perfert lileras, com- 
munis nosier amicus opporlunius ea omnia explicaret. 
liter mnnsurus legutus, an uterque abiturus, quid certi 
babemus, Monti us noster referre potest. Hieronymu8' 
WoLFius prseficitur bibliothecae Fuggeranas. Impetravi a 
FuGOEHO scriptum uEsghinem cum commentariis ; sed: 
libiimi uondum invenire potest Wolpius. Incidi in 
commentarios Simonis GRiNiEi in secundum librum Rhe* 
ioric, Aristotelis : euro mihi describi ; sunt] enim mea 
opinione eruditi. Si intelligara te ita velle, mittam ad te, 
quanquam puto haeredes Grinjei, qui apud vos sunt, et 
haec et multa alia scripta illius viri habere. De recupe- 
rata valtitudiae tua cupidissime aveo scire. Vale in 
Christo Jesu. Saluta quseso Joannem Sleidanum, 
Valentinum Erytiir-«um, et nostrum Michaelem. 
ToxiTEM. Augustas Vindel. XXI Aug. Anno Dom. 1551. 

1551.] ASCHXX'fl LXTTSHL f9i 


Aeknowledgm a ^tft, nid tpeiJu of Aatham** queen, hk pnpi!, 

itf. tha FrinoeM Etiatbetfa, to wKom he eende a book. 

8tra»boiirg, Aug. 2S, I»L 
;^//fli0 FirOy Howuniqwe ZhHiuimo Royer9 
J$ehamo Amioo 8mo Miehad TarUei S. P. D. — 
Gratum tibi esse ttudium meam, BoeEmi 
AscHAMB, erga te g^ntemque iuam et Hte* 
rarum stadiosos, noa soltmi ex Uteris tois ad 
JoANKEH Sturmium MoHTiUMQUE datis intellexl, vemm 
etiam ex munere mihi a te misso clarisime perspexi. 
Q^a ex re non Toluptatem modo summam percepi, sed 
animum etiam sumpsi, ad caetera quoque publicanda qti» 
promiai. Tribuo enim jiidicio tuo tantam, quantum ei 
tribuendum est, qui in linguarum artiumque optimarnm 
cognitione, in philosophiiB pra3cepti»» in sacrarum lite- 
rarum mysteriis, non tam disoenJo quam etiam agendo 
exercendoque, magna cum laude est irersatus. Neque 
enim eruditss solum sunt epistolae tus ac 8ua?es, sed 
pia etiam et Christiauae : unde apparet, te et spectasso 
▼erum studiorum finem et assecutum eum esso, ut cum 
eruditione virtutem ac pietatem conjungeres. Quotiea 
igitur lego tuas, toties et te admiror, et reginte tuae, 
quae te praeceptore usa est, totique Angliae gratulor, cui 
aliquando tantuni utilitatis adferes, quantum adferre et 
Tir optimus et homo doctissimus potest. Sed nunc de 
ma pauca. Ego tibi, Ascuame ornatissime, commenta- 
rium meum miseram non aliam ob caussam, quam quod 
benevoleutia tua et humanitate frui oupiebam: quibus 
non minus, quam Sturmius, ut de se ipse et tu de ipso 
scripsisti* in amicilia contentus esse soleo. Verum tu, ad 
amorem benevolent iamque erga me tuam, munus etiam 
addidisti, quod ego a regibus ac principibus, quum datur, 
aoeipiendum, ab amicia nee sperandum nee petendum 

800 ascham's letters. [1651. 

cssejudico. Quum igitur expectationem meam viceris, 
nee verba aolum pro verbis sod aurum potius remiseriB, 
gratias tibi immoriales ago, meque datarum esse operam 
polliceor, ut me tibi ex animo favere intelligas. Quod 
reliquum in Quinclianam citius ad te non niisi, fortuna 
sive Dei potius consilium in caussa fuit. Nam quum .vix 
dimidium impressum esset, alter compositorum, ut ita ap- 
pellem, cegrotare cojpit, alter ob amici segrotantis vaca- 
tionem abire est coactus, ut diu cessare ab opere typo- 
graphus etiatn coactus fuerit. Nunc tamen mitto, 
rogoque ut librum, quern reginse tuse una mitto, ad earn 
perferri cures. Nam quia ejus feci mentionem honorifi- 
cam, cupio meuro de ejus virtute atque pietate cum eru- 
ditione conjuncta animum ab ilia cognosci. Miseram ad 
Sturmium, quum adhuc in Helvetiis essem, hunc librum 
ut eum in Angliam una cum aliis mitteret : sed nescio 
quo casu ille inter suos libros eum rcliquerit. Quem ego 
quum in ordinem libros nuper redegissem, fortuito inveni. 
In fine Quinciiance apok«giam addidi, quoniam sunt ctiam 
apud no8, Aschame, qui tametsi quidquid in literis 
asscquuti sunt, id totum a Sturmio habent : tamen et 
ejus lectiones negligunt, et hoc meum institutum repre- 
hendunt. Malitiosum est genus hominum: quanquam 
enim dissimulent fraudem, tamen latere non potest. 
Sturmium non audiunt: quid itaP Quia sibi belle 
videntur docti, et quoniam nonnuliis quoque docendum 
est : corradunt undique annotata Sturmii, curant describi, 
inde postea sesquipedalibus verbis ambitiose declamant, 
et omnia sibi vindicant, pudetque Stuumii ullam facere 
mentionem. I lias ego corniculas dcplumare meo insti- 
tuto statui. Magnos labores impendo, dum studeo omnia 
proferre, et ea proferre quam emendatissime. Non pauca 
addo, muto, adimo, et omnibus modis lectori satisfacere 
cogito. Si id fit, agam Domino gratias: sin minus. 

1551.] ascham's letters. 301 

tamen aliqut, ut spero, volantate mea oontenti eniot. 
Idem enim ego meiui, quod tu : ne oomipU ab aliqoo 
Sturmii annotata ederentur. Id quod jam futaram erai 
aliquo in loco, nisi pnevenissem. Extorqueri base a 
Sturm 10 difficilliroe aut nunqaam potoisseot, none nan* 
quam possunt, cam accinctus [sU] tarn immenso operi. 
Ego, ut tibi gratiiicer, si uUo modo fieri possit, ex JrUlo- 
tele ejus Rheiorico, quantum est confectum, mitum ; ei 
subinde mittam quae ab eo oonficiantur. Carabo itaqoa 
ab aliquo describi: sed vellm tibi senres, nee plonbus 
communices, antequam abaolratur. Dirisit eum in iibrot 
novem : primus est perfect us, sed nondam emendatos a 
Sturmio. Hac in re, me tibi gratum esse Cactunim spero. 
Dbmosthbneh statuit a principio legere, quemadmodam 
CiCERONEM ; qua in lectione dabo operam, at ipse anno- 
tet artificium, et edat. Yak, mi Aschame, et m 
ama : et si quid est quod me exequi vet is, manda. Id 
enim tibi concessum esse toIo. Argentorati, X Caleud. 
Septembris 1551. fiaptim inter multa negotia. 

Aug. 31, 1551. 
7 my eUeemed friend* Mr Edward Ratem and Mr 
fTiliiam Ireland, Fellow* of St John $—8. P. in 
Chri9lo Jetu. — My good Mr Raves and Ire- 
land, I marvel not a little the cause of your 
silence, and that so many letters cannot de- 
serve one word again. I have written, that Mr Stephen 
Hales, in the White Friars in London, can readily convey 
your letters. I fain would know the state of Cambridge, 
and my affairs there, and especially how my friends do. 
I cannot think so on you, that you have forgot me. I 
measure your good-will towards me by mine towards you. 


I would hear of all, and namely of Mr Madew and his 
liouse, Sec., Mr Pember, Mr Haddon, Mr Barwick, &c. 

The Turk is in Hungary with two hosts ; the one of 
one side Danubius, and the other of the other side ; SOOO 
horsemen in either : his navy of galleys at Mileta Insula, 
where St Paul was cast up, 28 Aci§, 

The French give the bishop of Ehene's men great over- 
throws at Parma and Mirandula. 

The Emperor, 27 Augusti, hath banished the preaches 
protestants of Augsburg the whole empire. They were 
ten preachers, that all went hence the 28th of August. 
This day schoolmasters are called before the council. 

I have written at large to Mr Leaver, for he only hath 
written to me ; and yet I would have written at large to 
you, if I had leisure • for I neither can nor will forget 
you, whatsoever unkindness I find in you. Yet I do not 
think it unkindness, but rather some just stop that ye 
have. As for you, Ireland, ye have been but awhile at 
home ; and I know you be slow to write of oldes ; there- 
fore I can better excuse you. And as for my Edward 
Haven, I know there is just occasion, or else I had had 
letters ere this. 

My lord is merry, and one that doth God and his 
prince as good service as ever did ambassador. Mr 
WoTTON cometh home, and we tany; and methinks I 
know what your Papists at home have talked of that 

I beseech you leave not Cambridge for none occasion. 
I never loved it so well as I do at this day. I am a great 
man in Demostuekes, and I trust to make him better 
acquainted with Cambridge than he is there yet. 

Keep my chamber, books, and stuff well. I would 
gladly hear that Richard Abtlet did well. Farewell in 
Christ. With haste^ the last of August, 1551. 

,TT7TT— ^ji6n';U>. Tv ETITSi. 

s- :— Km. 

A. ^ 


Jhuanom iuLLKsnm. JastsmarnxL TRvsmscL 
vim. XL. «csa- lI■ak^ iu.* v:*- «u r^. irenueKL. 
€1 noOv ncr. narntTnn tiIl 
audm Ihantmk Tniainwfc' 
wiSb^pma»QBmn^^naami lascttttrii'VK: atsxstaam HktmoL 

isqar fmvnor snm^. a: muti lamm;. txmniiu ii: espr 
jadim) : mam let sbbk' XMmm. -tsi. n. nmm »innMiiint& 
r jywuuir jR' iBcuRrr. Uhuimul Tcnm Aisr^iMTiHk 
, ill ouiuK TwrnaM te mus- multK' «auMK> nnb 
anmm -pmdflnxiK, iiiii^renuB:. atsuiiaitjs isiick. Temtn!^ 
CK. Izb^im;, mi Stckiq. ^ acuUTonuL iuwimiub, ia«ub 
frhinipmp qui snut setMis «s it^ieuin, ^4 itiniiii bm^ 
Im «ii|miiiibiiE aniik. imdr im miKtt» « 4«m^ 
I cctitertiBL, smrr n^ik, neno pcdm» ikik 4)«t- 
, qn sores linminuin melius nnwirii, -qui MotiffN^ 
evMH fmAwtiiii pffonderii^ «iii dilEoiliom rvtmu |qy««fMi 
pute «pcMM«A ^ , fanias prokihiicrit. Lii«nir«iA «NiMPf 
sommo, eo^itioae i«ro pnPoiUra in>Nitm ctst. l^«Me ^(jm 
\mm» eo major existit, quod ikmi ex qoiHw A<^iemiiiniii(i 
fooiibus, aed inter medios Angticos tnHMiVfiit<>» il^Klrn^ 
peritiam Laiinae linguae perfocum, ()rKH>Mp nHsiu>oi«m, 
ItalicflB abaoluUm, Gallic«e aliquam, ot vi^itttiAt H 
etiam QermanicsQ nonnullam exliAuacnti «i ail hn^ 
omnia eat, mi Sturmi, at tuas axccUenlU docirin« ad- 

804 ascham's letters. [1661. 

mirator summus, et arctiore consuetudine tua fruendi 
cupidissimiis. Libros tuos avide legit, et sermonem de 
te mecum frequentissimum habet. Cogitavit adire Italiam, 
sed totus traductus in admirationem eruditionis tus 
tuique amorera, ArgentiDam repetit. Digressum huuc 
ejus a nobis eegerrime fero, sed triste hoc desiderium ejus 
solabitur frequens cogitatio vestree inter vos amicitise, 
quam ego gaudebo esse sumraam : ut non tantum ipse 
doleam propter suavissimum usum ejus mihi ereptum, 
quantum gratulor utrique vestrum utriusque et gratam 
et jucundam conjunctionem. Quum Yestras notitis 
coDsuetudo et vetustas accesserit, turn haec omnia, mi 
Sturmi, illustriora quam a me praedicnntur apparebunt. 
De immani et mutua crudelitate, quam TurcsB Hun- 
garique inter se exercent, de expilignata Tripoli, de 
mari infero universo Turcicis terroribus circumfuso, de- 
▼astationibus Fedimontanis, de summo motu belli 
inter Hispanum et Galium non amplius expectato, 
sed reprsesentato, de legatis utrinque domum missis, 

Quicquid dclirant reges, pleotuntur Aohivi. — [Hob. Ep. 2, 1.] 

de fortitudine et constantia Farthenopolitarum, de ca- 
lamitosa conversione religionis in hac urbe, de moerore 
hujus populi, et ejus constantia, et aucto odio in 
falsam doctrinam; — de multis aliis rebus longissimum 
tecum instituerem sermonem, si non hsec omnia Dominus 
Halesius opportunius sermone quam ego scriptura tibi 
fusissime declaret. Si CiESAR Spirae subsidat, uti hie 
rumor percrebescit, libenter visam Argentinam : interea, 
si nihil scribas, quanquam literae tusB sunt exoptatissimse 
semper mihi, nihil displicebis tamen: plus enim faveo 
laborioso tuo otio, quam ut velim tibi ullo modo esse 
molestus. Et quam gratum est tibi, ut ad me in quadam 

1551.] asgham's letters. 805 

epistola scripsisti, me tarn constanter atnare te, sine offen- 
sione etiam silentii tui ; quanquam tu non siles quidem : 
tain mihi quoque est jucundum, quod in eodem loco 
scribis, te aliquando effecturum, ut intelligam te non 
pigrum fuisse. Gratulor immortali laudi Veetbkoiium, 
quod tuo consilio et eorum merito tecum in tuo Rhetorico 
Arutotelico colloquuntur. Tu enim hoc modo efiicies, 
ut nomen bujus familia) non solum nobilitntis, sed virtutis 
et eruditionis insigne posteris esse videatur. Exemplum 
Yebteeorum usurpavi et ego, et in niultis literis meis, 
ad excitandum nobilitatem Anglicnnum ad idem studium 
et similem laudem. Quum ad hunc locum vcnissem, 
ecoe tibi has literse mcse, satis impudenter ut solent ct 
fortasse nimis imprudenter, a me visas sunt qusrere, 
ecquid illis de more mandem ad te de Aristotelr, de 
iEiSCHiNE et Demosteieke, de Analysi Ciceroniana, &c. 
Substiti tacitus, et quanquam suaviter mecum ridens, 
nonnihil tamen reprehendi superius factum illarum, quod 
non solum beec omnia abs te impense rogassent, sed nimis 
importune flagitassent. Commemoravi varias ct multi- 
plices tuas occupationes, et quantis oneribus prcmererc 
jam rerum susceptarum. Ostendi te, pro tua prudentia, 
notare illarum non nimis verecundum os, quanquam id pro 
tua humanitate minime significares. Conticuerunt statim 
rubore suffusae, atque si post beec, mi Sturm i, me in- 
sciente et imprudente, pergaut porro tibi esse molestee, 
intelligant te esse iratum et eas tibi fccisse eum sto- 
macbum, de quo ipse suaviter scribis ad Julium pontifi- 
oem Nuburgensem. Sed taceo et ipse, ne justius mihi 
quam meis literis irascaris. Yides quantum tribuo 
amicitiee nostrse, apud quem quasvis etiam ineptias 
meas confidenter promere audiam. Sed, ut quod sentiam 
loquar, mi optatissime Sturmi, quanquam lateor me 
magno teneri desidcrio, tcncor quidem maximo, rerum 


306 ▲scha.m's letters. [1551. 

a te susccptarum et jam institutarum, et sedulo etiam 
superioribus ineis litcris laborabam, ut nobilissima Tirgo 
Jana Gbaia scriptis illustraretur tuU; scias tamen eo 
bfcc omnia spcctarc, ut ego nihil aliud optare vclim, quam 
quod tuo judicio, instituto, otioque maxime convenire 
vidftatur. Vale in Christo Jesu. Augusta;, XXVIl Scp- 
tembris, Au. Dom. 1551. 

This short letter was probablj written between April and No- 
Tember in 1551. For Smith went to France in April, and 
Chcke, who is called Mr Chwk in this letter, was knighted 
in the following October of this year. [1661] 

LTHouoH long since yet at last I gladly do 
that which I have daily remembered. Since I 
came into Germany I might use excuses of 
my own not writing hitherto, your going 
into France, your looking daily to come home, 
the fear tliat we arc in of intercepting our letters, the 
little leisure that I have to write as I would unto you. 
IJut sure no excuse oui^ht to serve me where duty doth 
bind me, and good will bid me to do otherwise. No 
little letter would serve to rej)eat at length the glad re- 
mcnibrana; that I often use of your gentleness towards 
me since that first year I came from Cambridge twenty 
years ago : yoii have bound me unto you with singular 
benefits, which as 1 never sliall forgot, so I will labour 
with good will always to recompense yon. Only you 
and Mr Cheek E have pulled forward by the example of 
your diligence, learning, conscience, counsel, good order, 
not only of studying but of living, all such as in 
Cambridge have since sprung up; amongst whom I 
being one taking least profit by mine own negligence, 
yet taking singular pleasure in both your acquaintances. 

1551-] a«X3Ha:m* lbttbss. 307 

So God proigMsr you in aU vour proeediinge and busi- 

Torn* ever fully aasured, 

11. Amcbjlu. 
Td tiae Bi^ 'IToptiixpful 
Sir "Bioaum &iutb, ExiL, tii£Ki. 


On iiu: public ewaxU of the time. ^ 

Oct 12, iCSl. 
ff^ Ofrnwrei friendis the FeUows of S/ Jnhnt 
Oollepe^ S. F. in CTtnttto Jtufu. — If 1 should as 
often hhvt written to yao, as 1 Lave rftnjcm- 
bcred tbat gocid fellowship and my duty bonnd 
to it, and my good-will bent to evt^rx one of you, 
ye should receive every day letters from me of my 

I wrote plentifully unto yon all, and since oft to Mr 
Batbn of mattiers here, and also to Mr Leaver, which ye 
read, as I guess, in Stridbridge fair time. That honest 
oompany and quiet abiding I daily remember, and wish 
me often among you, and if it were but a problem fire- 
time ; not because I wish me from hence, being with so 
good a lord and lady, but for the good-will I owe to the 
house, to you all and every one. I take pleastire in 
writing this letter, that is, in talking with yoti, in being 
at home for a while in St John's, from whence my heart 
Clin never be absent. How glad I would he of two 
words from any of that house, none of you doth feel, 
that hath not been in like place. I never hoard from 
Cambridge yet. I am content to put the faidt on car- 
riage, and do not mistrust your friendships : Mr Leavkk, 

808 48CHam'8 letters. [1661. 

of all the rest, either is more friendly or more bappy to 
me. I have two long letters fiom him. 

Because the Emperor goeth from Augusta this next week 
towards Ispricke [Inipruck]^ called in Latin (Enopons, at 
the foot of the Alps, and after, we think, to Milan, and 
so perchance to Naples and Sicily, if the French do not 
trouble our journey ; therefore I thought to write in few 
words, as leisure, which is little, will give me leave. 

The Turk cometh on with might and main by land and 
sea. His quarrel by land into Hungary is this. Being 
three kings in Hungary, the Turk chief, next Ferdinand, 
the third Joannes Vaivoda, king of Transylvania, which 
is tributary to the Turk. Joannes Yaivoda is dead, 
leaving a young prince to be ruled by the queen his mother, 
and two governors. The one is called Fra. Oeorob, a 
friar, a bishop, a papist, and therefore this last day made a 
cardinal. He is wise in council, and hardy in war. The 
other is called Petrgvitz, a count, a wise and worthy 
gentleman, and one that favoureth God's word truly. 
Fra. George hath laboured secretly this twelvemonth to 
make Ferdinand king of Transylvania ; so that the young 
prince Vaivgda be provided for honourably in another 
place easier for him to maintain. The queen and count 
Petrgvitz did not incline at the first to Ferdinand, loth 
to fall out with the Turk, which doth keep his promise most 
firmly where he doth make it, and doth revenge most cruelly 
him that doth break it. The Turk preserved [?] this practice 
all this year, and therefore laboured the queen not to break 
with him, promising her aid and help, as to his tributary, 
against all persons that would do the young king wrong. 
At the last, Fra. George hath brought the queen and 
count Petrgvitz to Ferdinand's mind, and came all 
three to the king with all their power. This done, soldiers 
were gathered on both sides. The Basha of Bud^ (look 


vkoe B«da itaidi in jonr 3nii|> an Baiiubioi''' wits xiir 
Tifk*s pmaaH lor a vidk. Hir eaxat this «miiit«r iriiiiim 
six DfOA mak^ €f Ticnua, md guvt ibe Hunguijixts a 
Ibai ofotkmr. He IdQed a |;KiMt ton ; for of £re nta^nt 
tkat vaol from bone with Fnsn^AiiiD, iliere itannwd 
boae bai iftr pcnoet ; md he mxncd into Tiutcr vitk 
him 7000 Gkiiitiaa aook, mem, vomoi, and c^ilditm ; for 
tbcy bid BO better bout tban to canr men awav : tbfj 
nnioai lev, but kill or earnr avaj alL Fxidixand's 
tide, after t^ gave tbe Turis an OTcrtkrow; so that 
maeli emehj hatli been used on both sides. A noble gen* 
tleman of Feedikaxd's court, which hath sen-ed stouUj 
against the Turks, was taken and brought to the basha of 
Boda. Great ransom was proffered, but none received. 
Certain great dogs were kept hungry, and after manj 
spites and villanies done to the gentleman in prison, ho 
was brought forth, and tormentors appointed did cut gob* 
bets of flesh from his body, even there where the viliany 
should griere him more than the pain, and did cast these 
gobbets so cut to the dogs, that ate them in the gentle* 
man's sight When so many gobbets were cut off, and 
oast to the dogs, as life would afford, then the dogs wert 
let loose, and so tore him all in pieces. Afler this the 
Hungarians took three lords of Turkey : 6000 ducats 
were offered for their ransom ; but word was sent to the 
basha, that if he himself came to their hands, as they 
trusted he should, all the gold in Turkey should not sa?o 
him : and because the Turks will eat no swine flesh, they 
would prove if swine would eat Turk's flesh ; and so kept up 
swine from meat, which very cruelly devoured the Turks 
up.* But now Belierboolie Mahomet, that hath mar- 

* He tails the Mine itory in the Bsport and Ditoonrtg on 
ik$ 8laU of Q$rma%if, 

810 ascham's letters. [1551. 

lied the Turk's daughter, and is general ruler of all the 
Turk's dominions iu Europe, whole Thrace, Macedonie, 
and Greece, is come into Hungary with two main hosts, 
of either side Danubius one. He hath written sharp 
letters to Fr^. George, accusing him for the stir of this 
war : and even yesterday came word to this city, that Bb- 
lierboglie hath won a great city from Ferdinand, and 
hath cut in pieces all the Christian folk in it, and cometh 
on, bringing great terror to all Hungary and Austria, and 
especially to Fra. George, that he knoweth not which way 
to turn him ; insomuch that many that came to the king, 
be gone to the Turk's side. All Christendom ought to 
pray to God, as a most merciful Father, to cast the rod in 
the fire : for even thus stands the case of Hungary. 

Maximilian, the king of Boheme, Ferdinand's eldest 
son, is much missed in this war, being now in Spain to 
fetch home his wife : for an Hungarian told me, where his 
father should have one soldier for his money, he should 
have three for his love and good-will owe him. The 
Hungarians hope it shall be Maximilian that shall drive 
the Turk out of Hungary : and it may well be so ; for 
he is, as I wrote once, I trow, to Mr Raven, a goodly 
person of stature and favour, liberal, gentle, wise, learned, 
speaking eight tongues, hardy, painful, loved of all, except 
where envy repines; pleasant without wildness, grave 
without pride, lowly to every one, and reverenced of all, 
and one whom all Germany, protestants and others, love 
and commend. 

The Turk's quarrel by sea is this. Andrea Dobeas 
took the city of Africa, which standeth in Africk, from Dra- 
gunt Eas, a Turk, anno 1550. The great Turk required this 
city again. Whether a promise of the delivery was either 
not made or not kept, I cannot tell ; but the Turk's navy 
is come so big, that they and the French rule all mare 

ISSI.] aschjlm's lstteks. Sll 

MedUer ramewm . V^hen tbev were once past Eubopii, and 
the pcnnt of aurnuwi prowumtoriuwi^ we bad letters even- 
week from Venice of them. They are ISd great galleys, 
besides a huge galleon, full of wonderful great ordnance, 
wherein, as one that was in it said, there was 4000 
saddles of men of anns. This great navy brought such 
terror with it, that the Venetians were fain of frershe 
[ofrMl *^ double-man and victual Corey ra. Sicilia was 
afraid, Naples was afraid, Rome was afraid, Genoa was 
afraid, aU mart MedUerraneum did tremble, whither this 
great navy would go. At last they light upon St Paul's 
isle of Mileta, now Malta, kept by the knights of Rhodes. 
Whether they would not or could not then win it, from 
thence they departed and came to Tripoli, a Christian city 
in Africa, over-against Sicilia, kept by many knights of 
the Rhodes, and well manned and victualled. The Turks 
gave such cruel assaults, that the gun-shot was heard to 
Malta. They within asked respite for certain days, and if 
aid came not from Malta, then to deliver the city. 
Respite was granted, and in this while they conveyed out 
of Tripoli 2000 of old men, women, and children, which 
came all into the Turk's hands. After that the city could 
not hold out; they gave up upon condition to have their 
lives. The Turk came in, and thirty knights of Rhodes, 
most part Frenchmen, were sent to Malta : 200 of the 
strongest soldiers were put in galleys, and all the rest, 
young and old, were killed without mercy. The Turk's 
promise was laid unto him, and he bid him lay the blame 
on those that had taught Turks to break promise. Thus 
was Tripoli won this last August ; such a haven as scarce 
is like in mare Mediierraneum, which will receive 300 
ships. Tripoli may keep Africa from victual, and is like 
to be an ill neighbour to Sicilia and Italy. The thirty 
knights of Rhodes went to Malta ; but the great master 


calling a chapiter, hath banished them, as both lb- 
French. Thoy sailed from thence, and by mgec^ 
was driven up in Hicilia, and by the viceroy an. 
every man, and cast into prison. -— _ 

Wo looked tliat the Turk would straightwaf jk. 
upon Malta ; but the whole navy is gone over iBlft__ 
Ambraclum, where Augustus gave Antony the ovini 
and there, as we hear say, have taken up thdr ■*- 
for this winter. News were brought hither, thtiir- 
the Turk's galleys were drowned by over-thwarti.__ 
seas ; some said forty, some sixteen, some niii6| ^ 
ambassador of Venice saith, that he heard in B& 
that any ship took harm. And thus much of iht ^ 
stirs both by sea and land, as is most credibly knoiC 
confirmed to be true in this town and court. . ^ 

Now Mijvtvduitdtdl the pope is in a wonderftd^ 
he abhors Germany : he is thrust out of France s £ _ 
trusts the Emperor; and yet the Emperor haih 
cause to mistrust him : the house of Farnese hafa r 
him of his treasure : the si(*ge of Parma is given u^ 
Mirufidula cures not for him ; his own househoir 
liUthcrians; none will come to his connpiracy nt " 
but such us urc sworn that no good shall be done V 
and if for curst heart he do not hnng himself befc 
October is puHt, he cometh to Bononia ; and if \r 
into Italy, and happen to meet with him, as we areF 
1 will (leMcribe him to you from top to toe. 

Now to come to quicquid duUrant regei^ mI iriv 
\a6Q i I bchhrcw their hctarts, either because ihef V 
now, or elce because they begun no sooner, whilst 
weather was warmer j for now we must over the « 
Alps, even now full of snow. The Emperor ( 
little yet ; but the French be a great deal aforehaud. 

Of those ships taken in those seas towards you. 

1551.] asoham's lsttses. 818 

know ; and the prior of Capua the same time came to 
Barcelona in Spain, and using the cloak of the Emperor's 
arms, came quietly into the haven, and took away with 
him, in the sight of the Spaniards, seven goodly galleys. 
The French have a great host in Piedmont, and have won 
divers cities, towns, and castles, and have well manned 
them, as St Damian, Cirasco, Cheir, &c. This Chire is 
bigger than Norwich, as they say that have seen it. The 
emperor took a foul injury in it ; for the citizens opened 
the gates to the French, and they will keep the gates the 
faster close against the imperials, lest they drink for this 
treachery. We look that all the war will be in Piedmont, 
and that the Emperor and French king will be both there 
in person. We imperials crack France out of measure, 
that it shall be beat down of all sides with one mighty 
army out of Spain, one other out of Flanders, the third 
out of Italy. If I have convenient time and carriage, I 
will not fail to let you know the cause of all these stirs^ 
that even now begin to bnist out on all sides, and I will 
be very glad to mark them, and as ready to write them 
unto you. The Emperor hath many irons in the fire, 
and every one able alone to keep him work enough ; the 
Turk by land and sea ; the French sitting on his skirts on 
all sides, besides Madelburg, &c. 

The Emperor is wise enough, and it stands him on 
hand even now to be so. The Turk nor the French can 
neither be made weak enemies, nor sure friends : and 
therefore as [to] Madenburg, the duke of Saxony, and 
the lantsgrave, here is even this day fresh talk, that the 
Emperor will use the gentler choice of those two which 
the father gave to Pontius his son, when the Romans 

• The ** Report and Duoourse** is probably the fulfilment of 

314 asgham's letters. [1561. 

were shut up in Furca Caudina. Te know the stoiy in 
Livy : for that way is not now to be taken, qucB neque 
amicos parat, neque inimicos tollit : and therefore ambas- 
sadors from duke Maurice, the marquis of Brandenbuix, 
Bremen, and other sea-cities, from the kings of Denmark 
and Pole, are within six miles of this town : and, as 
men think, they are come not without the Emperor's 
means. If I should talk of Madelburdg at length, it 
would require more than a letter. They are thought 
more strong and stout than they were this day twelve- 
month. It is said that the Emperor required three per- 
sons of Madelburdg, their chief captain, the count of 
Mansfeld, their chief preacher, Flaccius Illtbicus, and 
another : but the town would not losd one hair of their 
heads : and so they are all forgiven. In this matter of 
Magdeburg, and the two princes captives, I cannot as yet 
assure you the truth ; for the mattiers be now in brewing : 
but, God willing, ye shall know shortly. 

How the good preachers were banished this town the 
20th of August last I wrote to Mr Leaver. This busi- 
ness, if it were to do, it should not be done now. The 
Emperor's council lay the doing to the heads of the 
town ; and then lay it again to the bishop of Arras, the 
Emperor's chief counsellor. The papists' churches be as 
desolate as ever they were ; and yet here be more sayert 
than hearers of masses. The protestants constantly will 
come to neither. They have obtained to christen in 
Dutch as they did, and to marry without mass. Every 
one in his own house, morning and evening, see their 
whole household kneel down, and sing psalms, and the 
good man doth read a chapiter of Scripture. Now pro- 
testant preachers are sought for ; but none dare come, for 
fear of the former handling. 

Ys are weary, I am sure, of my long talk : therefore I 

1551.] asoham's lbttses. 815 

will bid you all farewell, and I pray you pray for me. 
Commend me to all my friends in the town. I count good 
Mr Madbw, Mr Pember, and Mr Zone, St John's men. 
Commend me to Mr Redman, Mr Haddon, Mr Blythe, 
Mr Sandes, Mr Car, Mr Barwick, &c. ; for if I 
should name all that I would, my paper would not serve. 
I would I were at your problem-fire when you read this 
letter ; then I would desire Mr Dean, and Mr Leaver, 
to remit the scholars a day of noule and punishment, that 
they might remember me, that can forget none of that 
house, praying God to make them all virtuous and learned, 
and especially in the Greek tongue. Fare well in Christ. 
— From Augusta, 12 October, 1551. 

Yours, R. A. 


In continuation of the last letter. Nov. 17, 1551. 

^harissimii amicia meis Edwardo Raveno, et Ouli- 

elmo Irelando, iociis Collegii divi Joannia Evang, 

— My good Raven and Ireland, I leave 

chiding you, but I will, not leave loving you, 

write you or write you not. I will be your 

friend, and you shall be mine, whether ye will or not. 

From Mr Leaver's letters you shall know how all things 
stand here, of the Turk, of the Imperials, of the French, 
and of Germany. I have not leisure to write twice of one 
matter ; therefore I will him to communicate to you, and 
then you may do so to other my friends, as Mr Madew, 
Mr Blythb, Mr Haddon, &c. 

8turmiu8 goeth forward in Rhetor, Aristot. The first 
book is sent to Mr Chekb, which was purposed to me, 
but I had rather it should be sent to him. Mr John 
Ualbs, my singular friend, sent me a piece of this rhetoric 

816 aiobam's lbttbm* [1551. 

this week. I nerer saw any thing more to be compared 
with antiquity, and so I truit Mr HiDDOif will Judge. 
Vahan ii writing it out a-paoe : if he ilnbh it before the 
poet go, ye do reoeive it ; if not now, ye ehall hare it 
ebortly. BTUBUiue* ie in hand with AnalyHt (Heeron.; 
eucb a book ae I belie? e waa nef er set out in our time. 
Nobilisftimi Wiktiri fratrea do give him to find him 
writers 400 crowns a-year, for four years. Stubmius 
teileth Mr Halis, that a better and more plentiful 
analysis might be made of the Greek tongue; and be 
would make it, if he had help towards the ooete. Mr. 
Ualbs will write to many of the nobles and bishops in it, 
as he writes unto me ; but I writ unto him, that temporal 
lords will rather win this praise, than bishops be brought 
to bear the charges. It were a shame if EngUnd should 
lack this honour, and all learning this profit. 

Ye must either content ye for news with Mr Lbatbb's 
letters, or ftstd ye with the hope of my next to come. 

I am sorry Mr Lanodalb is gone from that college, 
althou{(h he did dissent from us in religion ; yet we know 
that Ciod calleih men at divers hours at his pleasure. He 
was learned, virtuous, diligent, and was once my faithful 
frieud, and, therefore, 1 cannot but be sorry for bis 

Commend me to good Mr Pbmbeb, and tell him I trust 
he received my letter in I^ent. Tell him also that yester- 
day I saw a new coin, which I would he bad, for all the 
old he huth. It was made in this house where we lie, at 
Inspruck. It is very like a great Suffolk cheese as any 
oometh to Stridbridge fair, but somewhat thicker. It is 

* ** Hturmiufl trtniUtion and commentary upon the first book 
of the Politick ii in print and »ent to me, I think they hare f 
in Kngland.'' Marginal note in MB LaatdoMrne 98, p. C^ 

1551.] asohah's letters. 817 

even 80 heavy as two men can bear of a barrow. There 
was molten for it, of fine silver, (for I saw the making of 
it) six thousand and four hundred guilders: every guilder 
is worth 5«. English and more, except our money be well 

Noble Maximilian and his wife be come out of Spain, 
and be in Italy coming hitherward. This country of Tyrol, 
where we be, which is under Ferdinand, doth present 
this goodly coin to queen Mary, Maximilian's wife, 
which is the Emperor's daughter, because she was never in 
Germany afore. This rich gift is given for Maximilian's 
sake, whom all men love above measure. There is of one 
side of this coin all the arms belonging to Maximilian 
and his wife ; on the other side stands queen Mary his 
wife's face, most lively printed, as the old antiquities be. 
Above her image be these words in Latin : ** Sereniss. Dnee 
Mariee Beginse Boemise, ex famili^ Begum Hispanise, et 
Archiducum Austrise progenitae, jamprimum in Genua- 
niam venienti, Tyroliensium munus, 1551." And although 
I favour Maximilian, yet I would Mr Pember had it in 
his chamber. Tell Mr Pember also, I do not forget old 
coins. I have the fairest now that ever he saw in silver, 
and Domitian cum anchor^ Aldi. Besides the Fuggeri, 
which have pecks of them, there is a worthy merchant called 
Mr Bem, which had me into his house, and let me see a 
wonderful sight Greek and Latin. He gave me four at my 
coming from Augusta : the first was Sulla Coi, ; on the 
other side, C. Fompeius RitfuB C. F. Cos.: the second 
had on the one side, Fasces Imperii ; on the other side, an 
elephant, and under his feet Casar : the third had on the 
one side, Casar. Imp, Font, Max, Illvir ; a goodly face, 
yoirng ; on the other side a stout, and about it M, AnUh 
mu$ Illffir ; the fourth a goodly face, and about it M. 
Brutus Imp. ; on the other side, two daggers, and in the 

118 ABOHAlf's LITTERS. [1552. 

midst a thing like a bell, having written underneath, Fide 
Marlii, I bought also at Augusta, a strange old face, 
with long hair ; on the other side, in Greek, IIYPPOT 
BAZIAEOZ Mr Rem showed me also a coin, with a rude 
face in silver, thick, and about it, in Greek, ^lAinnOY. 

Commend me to good Mr Pember, and all my friends, 
because 1 will leave out none. Commend me to my 
hostess Barnes, Dr Madew, &c., and to all at Wittam. 
I tell you once again, Mr Stephen Hales at London can 

convey your letters. Farewell. My lord calls. ^From 

Inspruck, the 18th of November, 1551. E. A. 

I am gkd Vauan writes to you. By him you shall 
know more. Gentle Bayen and Ireland, lobk to my 
duties for the Greek tongue and my oratorship. I would 
be loth but to hear tell the scholars went forward therein. 

CXXXV.— TO STURM, (1, 9). 
IlaB heard from England tliat Peter BamuB has written against 
their lettc^rs, printed at Strasbourg, about Aristotle, Cicero, 
&c. Describes himself as short of stature and something 
of a buwnmn. Halle, Jan. 29, 1552. 

J"~^of/eru« Mchamus^ Joanni Slurmio, S, P. — Diu 
ct id avidc cxpecto, nunc pene uecessario 
require literas iuas, ornatissime Sturmi. Ex 
^^^^^^^ Anglia enim ad mc scribunt certi amici mei, 
pKTitUM Uamum ricscio quid scripsissc contra 
meas tuas(iuo literas, per te Argentorati imprcssas. Scis 
tamen, optime Sturm r, quid ego in aliis Uteris meis de 
Ramo scripsi nd te, quantum ego illius ingcnio, doctrinae, 
et etiam instituto tribui ; quod cxistimarem euro ineptos 
et frigidos alicjuos Aristotclicos potius conscindcre, quam 
ipsum rcfutarc Aristotelem. Scis etiam, nisitibi e rae- 
moria cxcidit aut nicac scissa; sunt litcroe, quantum ego 
Pktrum Uamum autcposui fratri illi Joachimo Peuionio 

1552.] asgham's letters. 819 

CUJU8 ego ridebam Ciceroniauos contra M. Bugerum, et 
P. Melanghthonem inepte consutos et male concinnatos; 
quum putarem Ramum recte sentire de Christi doctriua, 
et hoc modo, his temporibus et eo loco, suum consilium 
tegere; studium tamen declarare, scribendo contra eos 
quos animadvertit iutendere se apertos adversarios in veram 
religionem. Et hoc meum de Eamo judicium, postea 
AugustfiB, noster HiERONYMua Wolfius, qui Lutetias 
fiiit, verum esse confirmavit. Et in illis etiam Uteris meis, 
quanquam licentiam oris reprehendi, neque nunc probare 
volo, ingenii tamen et doctrinsD laudem, et aperte tribui, 
et tacite quoque comprobavi illius iustitutum, meis verbis 
insequentibus, quum dico me existimare prseclaram *' Aris- 
totelis doctrinam, et minus ornatam videri, et magis 
obscuram esse, quam ut multorum in eo possit vel studia 
allicere voluptas, vel labores compensare utilitas, quia 
ubivis fere docetur, sine accurata exemplorum appositione." 
Nosti etiam quomodo ego requirebam, ut ad omnem artis 
cultum imitationis etiam usus adhiberetur ; ne cursus stu- 
diorum, vel obscuritate inutiliter imped itus, vel erratione 
licenter abductus videretur. Ex animo profecto faveo 
Eamo, et si ita res est, doleo ilium rejicere meam amici- 
tiam : et suspicor certos Anglos Cantabrigise, qui nonnihil 
religiono^a nobis discrepant, eandem ob caussam Eamum 
in nos inflexisse, ob quam ipsi, relicta Anglia, Lutetium 
concesseruut. Sed quomodocunque res cecidit, de me 
minus laboro, de te minus miror. Nam, ut hoc verissime 
sed apud te dicam, mirum est illius cerebrum, qui nuUos 
alios quos exagitet sibi proponit, praeter Aristoteles, 
Cicerones, Sturmios. Invidia non solet suscipi, nee 
ulla iuimicitia geri cum mortuis [Ar. Rh, 2, 10]. Sed 
fortasse, quia hoc etiam docet A ristoteles, maluit Ramus 
inauditum et inhumanum consilium sequi, quam non in 
omnibus pugnare cum Aristotele. Contra morem autem 

820 asoham'i littbbi. [1559. 

ct ooimuetudinem suam facit Bamcs, qui tne petit bomi* 
nem obtcurum, qui an esiem nunquam andifiitet, absque 
te fuiffwet. 8ed hoc condonandum est ^ua sBgroto animo. 
Nam Kgroti ut Mumper ngiciunt optima, tic quum nan- 
quam requictcunt, resiliunt mi extrema. Neque miror 
neque mulitim tef^re fero, si ego displiceo Ramo, cui Asit' 
T0TELB8, CioEEONBi, Stukmii placero non possunt 
Urgebit, credo, et majori impetu in te irruet Ramus, quum 
intelliget te inventionem, qunm ille reroovet a sua sehola 
rbetorica, ad artem dicendi in primis referre, et actionem, 
quam Hamuli isti faciunt, vere te quidem, et cum Aris- 
TOTRLE et erudite, in exercitatione potius quam in doctrina 
collocare. Sed ego Kami consilium intelligo; Mtfiffr^c 
esse non vult, ne videretur sequi Aristotelbm. 8i hoc 
fnctum est a Kamo, tu opportune scire potes, et prudenter 
statues, quod consilium nobis ineundum sit. Tu fortasse 
aliquando audivisti a D. Halehio me aliquem esse arcu 
et sagittis, et esse etiam non magno statural bominem. 
Quid ergo impcdit quo minus ego tnnquam Teucer clypeo 
Uidun Ktukmiano, out arr;eam aut contemnam ictus istos 
Kami ? I'oics in Nidrusiano tuo sf^rmone, apto aliquo loco, 
vel tribus verbis, et illius refutarc insolentiam et meum 
purgarc consilium, quum ego non eo animo quicquam 
scripHi, ut publice convcllercm Ramum. Sin magis place* 
bit tibi silcntium, et id qiioque in primis placet mibi, 
projtcribo ergo Hilcnlio hoc tempore hunc scjrmonem, et 
refcrarn rne in ju(;utuJiMsimnm illnm cogitntioncm, quam 
indies u*)urpo, Icgcmt tuum Nidrusianum sermoncm. Bed 
ecce iWiii ipssD cogiiationes verecundia perfuse rccondunt 
Mi iterum ct pudcntes tuum vcrcmtur conspectum ; at stulte 
quidem faciunt, quum is sit noster inter nos amor, qui 
ncc inHJdiiis adulationis cum suspicione mcluit, nee ap<jr- 
tam et liberam veritntem propter ruborem repellit. Cate- 
rum, (|uanquam cupiunt quidem educi, tamcu non possunt 

1552.] ascham's letters. 821 

ute cogitatioiies meae ; sed alio tempore et loco so hoc 
facturas redpiant. Interim seepe mecum mirantur ipsam 
Hbri ingreuioiiem tarn expectato institutam, turn accessum 
ad canwam tarn mature abs te factum. Idoneas personal, 
Sapibum, ot suscipiat causam naturee, quia poeta eat, ut 
difficiliores proponat doctrine quaBstiones, quia et gravis 
eC pemmdituB est : Yestesos fratres, et cupidos audieti- 
di« propter studium, et verecundos ad interrogandum, 
propter aetatem. Quibus magno judicio abs te tribuitur 
▼erbomm explicatio. Quo in loco si ego in Nidrusiuno tuo 
interessem Testro sermoni, nonnihil juvarem illorum pu- 
dorem : nam plura de conjunctione utriusquee lingu^a abs te 
Bummo in utraque lingua artifice, sciscitarer propter mmm 
imperitiam, et frequentius te ob eam caussam interturba- 
rem propter meam impudentiam. Et nisi pluriifium 
amarem nobiles Yerteros, optarem eos, istos eerte uovcin 
dies, ob eam ipsam rem, aut minus eruditos aut magis 
impodentes existere. Atque hoc loco, mi optime BrvuHi, 
▼ideris mihi suaviter irridere stultas istas meas ei inaries 
cogitationes ; sed me aut stultum ferre, aut amicum non 
agnoseere debes. Cerasi tuas anteponuntur, roeo }iidkio, 
platano Cbassi, quia imitatio ilia in Ciceronis, iium 
opinione, non satis tegitur: et hie, credo, me Uahvm Iku* 
daret, quia aliquid in Cicerone notare audeo, J urn, mi 
8turmi, reeteque reprehendis theologorum errorera, qui 
non explicant partes concionia, quae ab illis dkirihuita «iiit. 
£t quanquam te maxime hortari cupio, ut ho($ liovcm 
iibros quam oelerrime perficias, quia tamen mina« tribuo 
meo desiderio quam tuse laudi, quae parietur tibi immor' 
talis ex oonfectione horum librorum, propterea in \)i)Uii9 
matorare hoc opus quam properare ullo mode cupio : aic 
tamen, ut hoc semper ob oculos prae&xum intuean«, quod 
in concionatoribus soles reprehendere, Sermo iiie tuus 
inttitatiiB de anctoritate legum, de judicum officio, quo 


322 ascham's letters. [1552. 

contineri debent, supra modum mihi placuit : quanqnam 
81 omnia, qusc mihi in hoc sermone primae diei placent, til^i 
fuse explicarem, librum potias quam ad te literas scriberem. 
Grempium ilium Argentinensem August® libenter vidi, 
sed nltcrum ilium Grempium Stunnianum multo libeutius 
audirem : nee dubito quia ille vir gravissimas res horum 
temporum, non aliter quam L^Lius Philus, aut SciPio 
quidam, pertractaturus est. Locus nunquam tibi aptior 
dabitur, mi Sturmi, explicandi gravissimum tuum con- 
silium, et judicium de rebus istorum temporum, Turdcis 
inquam, Italicis, Gallicis, Gerraanicis et Anglicis : et for- 
tasse hoc modo multo commodius, quam si oertum aliquod 
opus de illis rebus instituisses. Multum amo Philippum 
Verterum, quia te amat, et studia literarum colit, et no- 
bilissimam suam familiam splendore etiam literarum illus- 
triorem facit ; sed plus amo, quia ipse tarn cupidus est 
audiendi te fusius dicentem de Christi religione, et te 
hortatur, quod ego quoque efflagito, ut creberrimum sem- 
per longissimumqne sermonem semper de Deo ejusque 
doctrina reliquo colloquio tuo annectas. Et soleo te ante- 
ponere omnibus setatis nostra) hominibus, quum de quavrs 
re sermonem instituis : sed te tibi quidem prasfero, quoties 
de Christo loqueris. Et ocquum est, ut is qui tibi seor- 
sim pra3 caeteris summam doctrinam largitus est, abs te 
prcc cajteris, vicissim dono suo, luce ingcnii tui ilhistretur. 
Neo te credo aliter judicarc, quam ego ad te scribo : sed 
fortasae molestus tibi sum longo meo sermone. Atque 
quum ipse cupidissimus sum longissimi sermonis literarum 
tuarum, prolixior esse volui, &c. Halaj Tirolcnsium, 
XXIX mensis Januarii, An. Dom. 1552. 

Referfl to some supposed oflfcnco, wliich ho hopes the bishop has 
forgotten or forgiven, and offers his lordship a psalm written 
in senarian Terse the year before, when the Turks were 

1552.T jLSCiux'i ZJETSEm,. £21; 

to Bffnm^ imec Tet,. 2£, ISSL^ Htm tm- 'Zmk w * rtrmtaf 
wiA m pmtL jiemm mtmmx ^ttape^* s itur to»f, Zut 
t «tf til* jfltter tuarifm- mupti i» 1SE&, wmt £ ws ime. 
iwrnktUBLiL GmsatmtD%. 

> Jjak, Dxastirremm l&riWBig prmmL sLffnn^ 

L — ^vxoL It. im» immmi £usm&.. firxf£Cj»-- 

i;nC3uarimif: caDxuum. cpifwinmttuiatf: pitiinm>- 
noB, guTtnjf lesmzL neosanmaL vlk an: nauxai 
intereeHSi, ojoepsm ftuma : ^^ dni ptne&. cfiiftsu. um 

dommKhrmtm tsKo. usjcit&TBifdl siudio esLamiDiidL Q-uad 
to labieoihift iHannift^ oumumL muhniL diuqut jtensmmmui^ 
De aliqia «Bxm: im iar.!. «asie: affeiHa iLmniL usaxparaa. 
iaiqiiiutie, qabat in» iniL, sive coiiaiiic prtypitf* iiiifMs> 
tiam, svt judia:.^ prrgner sruaeiL, uautat uoanieiipMM 
dedebaBna. Fid: taniex QttW3 hk- aempcr niuoe cDisscua- 
batar, qsaa «^ xnukaiiazL exuaixaareoi, tanuuD uitwe^ 
eexKtoe aonc teapffriir«cit ad affeaoeDdont, cfuaotnxs 
pnukaitiK toe x&oderaiisiicaxi ei tieBevoksitat capi lue 
vftagtatf, »d igxissgrnrnmi rakn potoiaaeL 3^eqiie 
proleelo nuae eosaxDir^erezL, opiiix»e pxsao], m boniZL 
tau p on m itoordalaaDe GOiuuxaL impnideoti &sio meo 
j auifnid e i n oUactaiD reSncartm, nkd uitam kane ru]paiXi 
adofeaeeaitaB meap ftfrosi essie tnbixiaic, tsamKaiiCjQe <^ 
n an oriam aezopifcerDa qmdaiD orbdifiane dfrlrtaTn ac peniuis 
extineiam eaae potaresn. Ilaoue quimi basic meam co^ 
latioDem tibi boc tempore taftdU^bTt studerean, et quod 
muDosculiun de mofrt tibi eaaet aSeraiCTnii cunun&pioerea, 
ego IsociLATis xad ffestexitiaiD IRienier aeqautos, bod cx 
hit rebus, qoanua tu abTHMiares eopia «zo labararem inopia. 
mibi aliquid t^tp : Md tak quiddam, quod quum eaaei 
Stihi ad tribaoMlam aptlwimuTn et tibi edam ad redfnen- 
dum DOD omiiiiio eeaet iDJocandum. Hone ergo psalmum, 
jam foe aste ammm qomn Tarca Hon^arae immiiieret. 

d24 A»ctfAM'» tiLmnu, [16$1 

lid HindUfnorum nofttrortim miionein, in inc»do« §mmU/9 
illigAiuDii e/i quo no\e9 vultu ncdpUi% i quo nihil miM 
grfttius ftut ofiiAbiliiM p<M»it eveniri;* Deoi doimniiiicrnetD 
iuurn (iiuiiMinie lenret incolumem* 

CXXXVII.-.8Ti;UM TO A8CIIAM, (5,6), 
Af/f/ui CUim/§ work 1)$ IU^li4ta» SirMVurf, J«fi« ao, IMl 
fjpanmn Hturmiwi JUfgero AiKhamo, 8,P, — Of* 
flcium qood tiM iim\mu\\$ literii ded«ire 
(l<;l)ebftm» id tibi in opmi cnjundrnxi emfec' 
tiono lionoriflceniicrre pnesUbo, Hot dtiM 
ircrr»Ofi volo tibi in bo6 tempcrre pro d«tii Mr, 
ei pro crxciiAfliione (;Me, dum perwolmm qood '6ehm. 
Qmu\m tibi plAcere Melorkum mtmm ArikoUtsm, new 
quofl Illiquid i^mk; putem, led quod gmtuni milti »ii ittmii 
Judidufn: vcruntamen et quod oontextum e«t rdidumi, 
nbi non plm^bit, et pergfim, etiam m ftb«oloiiim doetriM 
opii«i non po«»um, tamcm laborc H opirrft c^ mugnitu/line 
plenum i'Amnnmmntfi. Dominufi \\kh%%\vi% ti ego librom 
nacuuthim tibi brcvi dc;<icript(]im mittfrmuif* He4 ecGHt 
A»f;«AMB, quidarn in bac vidnin mihi promii»it Ubfos 
CiCKaoNiB e^e njmhlkat mx\fM mm ml fr«im ; »i adfo* 
rantur, ww, (jujd potirrit c»wj buatiui? BeniitcmAm pm 
ni*T t(ravitftt<irn hx^m^ ftx antiqim di»dplino, »i obtini;b9. 
Hcd, lit nunc liofnini^«i »un1, valdc mfrtuo nc fit nihil ; wd 
ni v(;rurn Mit, niittam irtiam tibi, nt mecuni «Mipiii» Bo* 
nianam curiam, iX forum, irt rostra; irtmim puriiculiitho, 
nt, %\ naj/icutia tc nupcrarc non poMum, timip<:rro «»!«• 
wdam. C^uam vcrcor nc *it nihil I Vertintiiniim in 
(TT/iMt/;la quam ad mc Kcrip<tit, attingit loca qtm^ta ei 
conjm argiimcnta, qua; non puto mm dc nihilo« Vtim 
pntavi mc tarn prolix urn fore: dabi» vcminto, prseserthn 
quum nihil hab^Tam novi, id qn^xl proprium eMe debet 
cpi^tlolarum, ut inane* c«»*c non videantun V«te, Ar- 
j/cnt<;rati, XXX miniiiii Jannarii, Anno Dofnini \hh%» 

1552.] ascham's letters. 825 

Quotes Ascham's answer [Jan. 27] to bis former letter, written 
in Dooembei', to which he had replied [Feb. 1], telling what 
had been done at the last sitting of the Council— About 
European politics generally. Trent, Feb. 28, 1552. 

" rnatisaimo viro, D, Rogero A$chamo Anglo Jo* 
annea Sleidanua, 8.D. — Ad mca» Deccmbri 
mense scriptas, accepi responsum tnum datum 
vicesimo sexto Januaril. Calendis Februarii 
rursum ad te scripsi : qnibuf quidem ex literif 
intelligere potuisti, quid ad postremam sessiooem hie a 
nobis actum sit. Tertia die Februarii cum altero Saxoni- 
CO legato Yenetias adivi, per Patavium et Yiennam : ct 
Yeronam hue redii ad decimum sextum hujus. Yenetiif 
nihil erat rei novee, et alioqui sunt magni silcntarii. 
TuTca fertur ab iis petiisse transitum suis copiis per 
ipsorum fines: an impetraverit plane ignoro. Yidimuf 
armamentarium, quo nihil esse potest instructum magis ; 
parant novas triremes aliaque navigia, et his rebus omni- 
bus destinatsB sunt, ut quidam nobis confirmabant, mille 
sexcentas operse. Tentatum ibi fuit nuper nescio quid, 
et ex suspicione comprehensos esse aliquot, mihi turn qui- 
dam arcane dicebat : hie autem fertur senatus scribam 
esse compreheusum, sed affirmare nihil possum : ut suit 
rebus diligenter invigilent, caussam habent : et hand scio 
an ipsorum interitus atque ruinte initium ab ipsismet 
aliquando futurum sit : nam in illis sestuariis fluctuumi 
affectus etiam suos habent sestus. Hie plane nihil agitur : 
superiori quidem sessione decretum fuerat, debere llieo- 
logos interea de matrimonio disserere, sed plane cessatur, 
idque in gratiam nostrorum, ut quidem pr® se ferunt, 
quos adesse velint : equidem optarim Petsuh Mastyrem 
posse hue etiam traduci, et Calyimuk et ^pinum, ut 
una cum Philippo dogmatis facerent et confessiouem et 

826 aicham'i LBTTCm. [1552' 

Pridie quam hue redirem, audkbam in itlnere concilium 
iri prorogatum, propter bellorum tumultni $ bie ettam ita 
mujitatur, ctti alii negant. Quod li pacem cum Gallo 
faciist JuLiui, non attenticntc Caxolo, turn oerte credi' 
dcrim diMipationem ette futuram condlii. Cardinalii 
TuaNOMiui EomiD dicitur magna cum betitia fuif»c ex* 
ceptufl, ct diligcnter agere de pace. De Turca non eadem 
eet fama; parare dicitur ingeutei exercitus et terra et 
mari. Sunt qui dicunt e«fe tenuiffima raletudine e^ 
phthifi, cjunque filium natu majorem confociatte arma 
cum Perfii. Gallue regit edictum in Lutberanoti ut 
babet titulu»» divulgatum Scptembri menae ridiaie roi 
puio : Patavii lum illud adeptut excutum. Habet Juuui 
per Italia partem illam $\xm ditionif et aliia etiam in locif 
inquiMtoref acerrimof* Monacbi quidam duonuperab* 
ducti liint liomam captiri, Bavenna« unus, Ariminenfif 
alter, qui de ccelibatu tacerdotum, et cccna Domini li* 
hcrinn qua;dam dixi«iient, Venetii» mibi Jam recent scri* 
bitur, monacbum queudam captivum ordinia Auguatini* 
aui, Uorna remiii«um a Julio Venetian, impetrata venia, 
palatii in condone doctrinam, quam antea profesnus fuerat, 
miriAciii modk abjurasie ac detevtatum eine, legato quo* 
dam pontificio, ei quatuor prmientibuA epiteopit, ita qui* 
detu ut populuf etiam offenderetur ; fuit boc deeimo quarto 
bujun. Pofiteaquam Julius inteUexit, cujunmodi noatra 
sunt poutulattt, et quaj doctrinas confe»t»io per Wirtemberg 
exbibita, parum opinor afficitur. Hie etiam rumor e«t, 
kgato bio »uo valde iratum eiKHc, quod, tali ut vocant 
«alfro couductu nobi« caverit, quodque tesnioniii proroga* 
tionem indul»erit. Non eadem otnneii upectant in bii 
actionibuf, quanquam in boc uno mirabilem etiie puto 
couM^riKUtn, ut videlicet doji^ma itfiud omne petiiundetur, 
ei abokatur in prpetuum. VjKNNKNSif bic mortuu* 
e»t ad »cxtum bujun, et ali^juot po«t dicbui domum relatus. 

1552.] ajcsax'^ Lwr^'rmK l^iT 

TEKTimnrsD e& JmrffwrninhiBL ^wgainmww .fetmum Tt^ 
petit. Qneoi ^p» iiutt viaiut muninTtum 4ULi^iiui ^' 
1JIKGU3, ia ffmeioatt 'ioha:^ iuijua msniBtt iitt ^dmi2v 
per oceaaiomtm ejaa jxl ^kE «9S <ift liiasmuft. siqior£»»sic£ ul 
tritico : mvlui Aetas ie aisresasft aounouu^ue ousiiii ^^^ 
leocUsy iia uoMm ai irkiiffnm lusa IiBsknecnr. JLiu ^^luiieoi 
hoc ctiam aAtkJiwr ipKOL iesshnu^ ruia ta&t mibui pul^ 
licam terfaadaa Uot : ^itt i^«&km n^ <?ntgnfcfc., Snxaousiii 
kgatus alter qui kk xcaaouerac, aii CjCiJLftU imr Le^iktoa 
questos est. AttmaaA mnaaiAffia nt rarioounn r«ii)diefi£& 
sol dicti, DCgmiit koc posseruki ; <k haenstieei vao loqao- 
turn te dicefaat ia geDeze» eft Hhm aeripcane lotaun lie 
inteq>retatuin ewe, de Acccsrnn ^ententa : £aebtttar 
etiam, quod si altcnua illnd dmaiiei in psoam se capita 
iDCurrisse, propter noiatom coDcilii deccetom. Septima 
hujuSy publid foeniDt hie ignes exciuti ab Hispaaia et 
Itaiis ob electioDeni : nceaima prima Tero propter con>> 
nationem JuLil, et postridie miaaa peracta soknnis ean- 
dam ob caosom : et centum opinor annonim indcdgeatue, 
at TOcaDt, iis qui interessent attribute. An non pulchre 
resipisdmus ? An nos anteactonun posnitet? O ludi- 
brium! De Domino Ebdmanno quie scribis, magna 
cum Toluptate legi, quibusdam etiam hie redtavi, et sane 
exempium est, quod omnium permovere possit aninios, 
venim accidit hodie, de quo, post Esaiam, Christus 
etiam loquitur, ut plerique sapientise titulo turgidi, non 
videant videntes ac audientes non audiant. Theologorum 
Parisiensium articulos doctrinse superioribus annis editos, 
nuper autem renovates, pro concione rex jussit dicbus 
quibusque festis ad populum recitari et explicari ; vidisse 
V08 illos puto. Qunm sunt astuia et iasidiosa hominum 
consilial de Mauritii ad vos advetitu, non idem est 
sermo. Lusitani iilius hoc mense fcrtur uxorem duxisso 
CJB8ARI8 alteram filiam : de reditu filii rumor etiam est. 

328 asoham's letters. [1552. 

Emi Venetiis bistoriam Bembi de republica Yeneta : num 
ea sit vobis aniehac visa, nescio. Paulus etiam Joyius 
tomum primum sui temporis bistoriaram edidit. Quod 
de roeo negotio nibil adbuc certi cognosoam, valde miror, 
inprimis vero D[ominse] R[egin8s] silentiuin. Oro plu- 
rimum, ut dominus legatus ne cesset interpellare ac solli- 
citare. Nam progrediente regis estate, facilior deberet esse 
ejus rei confessio, quam ipsemet recte potest inteliigere, 
Te quoque rogo, ut quantum omnino potes, tarn prfficUnim 
et utile institutum promoveas. Priusquam domo disoede« 
rem, quod fuit initio Novembris, copiose scripseram ad 
dominum Ciiecum : ad ea nibil esse renunciatum, qui fiat, 
nescio, rauUumque Bie fallit expectatio. Domino legato 
velim esse quam commendatissimus. Yale. Tridenti, 
ultima Februarii, 1552. 

CXXXIX.-.TO SIR W. CECIL, (b, 7 : and M, 1). 

Mostly about Sir John Cbeke's reooyery from sickncfs. 

Villach, July 12, 1662. 

j^ the Right Honourable Sir William Cecily Knt^ 
one of the two principal Secreiariei to the King's 
Majesty, — Your short letter, so full of good 
will every word towards me, bath brougbt 
me more comfort in tbis my far absence from 
my country (the tidings only of Mb Chbke's recovery 
excepted) than anything that bapt unto me tbese many 
years. Most glad I am tbat it pleasetb you I may be 
yours ; and as sure I am I shall case to be mine own, 
when I shall leave to labor to be otberwise. And I pray 
God ray ability may be so bappy in doing somewhat, as 
my purpose is precisely bent to mind all duty and service 
toward your mastership. And if ye sball hereafter find me 
no less ready to deserve good will than to desire profit, and 
as diligent to please you with duty as to trouble you with 

1552.] asoham's letters. 329 

suits, than [ihen] let your promise of gentleness and my 
wish of your favour be sealed up with that sign of good- 
will, which did well appear in every word written in your 
most gentle letter. These few words thus meant shall, I 
trust, for this time, do the message to your mastership of 
my willing duty, which hereafter shall be as ready, God 
willing, to do you long and loving service, as my letters 
are now, of purpose, short, for fear of troubling your most 
weighty affairs. 

Mr Leaver wrote unto me a joyful letter of Mr 
Cheke's most happy recovery, praying to God in this letter, 
that England may be thankful to God for restoring such 
' a man again to the king : and well prayed truly ; but I am 
thus firmly persuaded that God wist and would we would 
be thankful, and therefore bestowed this benefit upon us. 
God's wrath, I trust, is satisfied, in punishing divers 
orders of the realm for their misorder with taking away 
singular men from them. As learning by Mr Buobr, 
counsel by Mr Denny, nobility by the two young dukes, 
courting by gentle Blaze, St John's by good Eland. 
But if learning, counsel, nobility, court, and Cambridge 
should have been all punished at once by taking away Mr 
Cheks too, then I would have thought our mischief had 
been so much, as did cry to God for a general plague, 
in taking away such a general and only man as Mr 
Gheke is. 

Sir, if I might be so bold, I doubt not but your mas- 
tership is well ware in seeing our letters fitly deciphered, 
lest the /aUax of composition and division (as you know 
better than I) do sometimes so invert the sentence as in 
the self-same words thus joined or so separated, a clear 
other mind may appear in reading than was meant in 
writing ; and because I perceive this in ciphering, I think 
other may perhaps light upon the same in deciphering. 

380 AiCnAM'l LRTTEEI. [1661 

And thus for thU time I will take my leatre of your 
maitertbip, purpoiing elvewhan to trouble you with the 
talk of longer letters, if I may learn that your gentleoeM 
will warrant my boldnesf therein. The Lord keep you, 
my good Lady Ckcil, and all yourt.— From ViUacbo in 
Carinthia, the Uth of July 1652. Yours and command 
me» 11. AsKBAic. 

CXL.— TO CKCIL. (R, 8 { and M, 8). 
About Sturm, Obeke, his own prospsots, and other lessor mattsn, 

Spirss, Sep. 27, 1662, 
IB : so great thanks for so little a token, must 
needs prove, both of more gentlenen in you, 
and of great good will towards me. 

There is a chart, purposely for Hiramduu, 
yet so containing the confines about it, that 
ye may see the whole plain of Lombardy from Piedmont 
to Venice, e? en as a man would wish, Rome is stamped 
so likewise with the best part of Tuscany about it. 
These two charts^ I would I had to send them to your 
mastership, but Mr OisoiiOR TiiaooiCMoaTON hath both 
these and other mo, as he told me, which I know ye may 
l>oth see and use at your pleasure. And 1 am glad your 
inducement to have particular charts doth confirm mine 
opinion in the same. 

Bir, i would be very glad to know of your mastership, 
if 1, in place where I am abroad, may, without shent- 
ing at hotne, sometime as occasion serveth talk with 
the Po|je's Nuncio's men, as I do with other agents and 
Italians here. Hitherto 1 have not, nor would not do it, 
for still I knew tmt whether i might do it or no, nor 
hereafter will not attempt it, except your wisdom from 
home would warrant me thereunto, i believe you 
have better advii3o from Jtome of the whole state and stirs 

1552.] ASCHAH's LBTTXB8. 831 

of Italy, than all the rest of ambassadors baye, and I 
would trust so to observe my talk as I should get more of 
some of them, than any of those should win of me ; and 
I would also do it so as neither any at home should have 
cause to mistrust, nor those here occasion to hope that I 
thereby should become papistical. 

We were at Argentine, and sorry I was that we saw 
not Joannes STUfiicius there. Wbrteri/raleres, to whom 
he wrote NobiliiM Uberaia, did very gently show unto me 
divers things of his writing, and amongst the rest, the 
two first contraria oralionei excellently, as I think, trans- 
lated and at large as I saw commented by Stubmius. I 
had no leisure to peruse it much, but only then I did 
remember and wish that I had known the hard place in 
Demosthenes which your mastership once at Shine did 
show unto me, and I would the gladlier know the leaf 
and line thereof in some certain print, because when I 
read that part of Demostbbkes not long sithence, I did 
as a blind horse doth which has cause to stagger in every 
plain, and yet sometime doth not stumble in the roughest 
way, because he doth not see the peril of his passage, as 
I myself did not feel mine ignorance when I am sure I 
understood not the sentence. 

Sir, I talk and trouble your mastership too boldly ; 
but impute this to your own and old gentleness which 
maketh me to misuse thus your leisure from better busi- 
nesses. I cannot express how much I take myself bound 
unto you for that which ye utter, both in my lord ambas- 
sador's letters and mine, how ready and bent you be to 
do me a pleasure when any occasion shall serve thereunto. 
And seeing ye will needs have me bold, surely for this 
once ye must bear with me, being although indeed far too 
bold. It is your pleasure to do me good — I beseech you, 
hear my fond advice how ye may do it most easily, and 

382 ascham's lettebs. [1552. 

where I would enjoy it most gladly, and yet desenre it, or 
serve for it, as I trust somewhat fitly. 

Many times, by mine especial good, with Mr Gheke's 
means, I have been called to teach the king to write, in 
his privy-chamber, at which times his grace would oft 
most gently promise me one day to do me good ; and I 
would say, " Nay, your majesty will soon forget me when 
I sliall be absent from you," which thing he said he 
would never do. 

Sir, I do not mistrust these words, because they were 
spoken of a child, but rather I have laid up my sure hope 
in them, because they were uttered by a king. Next this 
promise of the king's majesty, my trust is in my lady's 
grace my mistress, and that rather I trust so, because I am 
assured in my conscience that I did her faithful and good 
service ; insomuch that master Astlbt this last year sent 
me word from her grace, by Mr Leaver, that her grace 
would either speak or write to the king for me in any 
reasonable suit. And surely I have reason, which I 
should desire, that if I have a benefit done, I might have 
some cause to thank her grace for it. After these, you 
and Mr Cheke be the only stays to whom I do lean ; and 
three ways there be, in one of the which I would be glad 
to lead the residue of my life: the first, as it is most 
easy for you to obtain, so is it most my wish to enjoy ; 
and that is that I may, setting out the Greek tongue 
in St John's, be bound to no other statutes nor acts 
in the University. Secondly, to have some comer in 
that office in the court, of the which my lord ambassador 
made mention to your mastership not long sithence, and 
in that place perchance, being under your mastership's 
correction, I could do some good, and besides help for- 
ward with some piece of learning in the court, as my lord 
ambassador hath oft told me I might. If neither of these 

1652.] ASCUAU'S L£TT£B8. 883 

two wuys may be sped, then I would wiali I were able to 
serve my country abroad in this court, or in Venice, or in 
Maximilian's court in Hungary, or in some other place ; 
and I would not doubt but mark as warily, and write 
home as diligently such occutrents that do happen, as 
some of these strangers do which have so good stipends 
out of the realm ; and in this point I am sure I could do 
your mastership some pleasure in speedily making you 
partaker of the affairs abroad. I blush, sir, in writing 
thus boldly for myself, and I promise you I will not 
greatly use it hereafter. And in very deed, if I had never 
come from Cambridge into the world abroad, I would not 
much htbour either to change the state of my living in 
Cambridge, or else to increase it otherways abroad. 
Marry, seeing these four years I have served in good place 
a king's daughter at home or a king's ambassador abroad, 
men might think strangely of my behaviour if need should 
compel me still to run to mine old hole, where I must be 
subject to the pleasure of men's talk concerning my re- 
tuniiDg thither. At good times in England, the poorest 
man commonly hath either a new coat, or else his old coat 
turned ; and in very deed, I love mine old living so well, 
that I had rather have it turned than any new provided { 
and I know it to be so fit for mine use, that I am assured 
I could do good service therein to the common wealths, 
and if it were not so strait but that I might stir myself 
in it, as I would, surely it should last me as long as I 
should live ; yet it should be a great deal the warmer if 
your mastership would help me to line it a little better, 
and specially against this winter, which drawcth towards 
me very fast. In summer time I know light and unlined 
garments be fittest for men's use ; but if it shall be mine 
iU-iuck still to wear mine old Kendall coat in winter, I 
must with much shame — Pardon me, sir, that I make not 

834 ascham's letters. [1552. 

an end of my sentence. Mr Turockmobton calleth so 
fast for my letter that I must make an end. 

Sir, I pray you to think that that which I write, as 
yearning to talk with every man in generallie, doth only 
proceed of a good will to do diligent service abroad ; if 
your mastership think otherwse, then I pray you let this 
be written only to you. I am most glad that ye some- 
what commend my service here ; in very deed, if my abi- 
lity were able to march with my good will, diligence, and 
truth, I should do some good therein. 

I am ashamed to trouble your mastership with such 
ragged and ill-ordered letters, but my hope is, you will 
pardon all. The Lord keep you and my good lady Cecil. 
— From Spires the Wth of September, 1552. 

Tour mastership's to command, 


Roger Ascham's communication with Mons. d* Arras at Landau, 

Oct. 1, 1552. 

3i^fter your hearty commendations done, according 
to your instructions, I desired his lordship, in 
your name, to take in good part this my coming 
to the court, trusting that he would consider 
that the desire of doing your duty to the king's 
majesty did move you to send me to him at this time. 
For now, when you had learned that the ambassador of 
Portugal was in the court, and that you were sent from a 
greater prince than he was, you trusted his wisdom would 
consider that you could not make a good reckoning at 
home, of your duty abroad, except you might be both in 
the court and in the camp, as well as he. Therefore your 
suit was, that you might also forthwith come thither ; for 
his lordship might be well assured, that he of Portugal, 
nor the king his master, could be more glad, the one to 

1552.] ascham's LETTERa, 335 

write, and the other hear, of the emperor's most prosperous 
success, in all this journey, than you were, both presently 
here, and also to write it diligently home ; nor no prince 
nor country more in daily expectation of the emperor's 
majesty's lucky proceedings, than is the king's highness 
our master, and all his whole realm of England ; and here 
I paused. 

Mons. D'Abkas's answer was : — As concerning the 
ambassador of Lusitania (for so he named him always), I 
pray you desire your master not to think much, that the 
emperor at this time hath given order to the ambassador, 
and to Secretary Gkoss, to intreat for the convey of his 
daughter to her husband, the king of Lusitane's son, 
which is the only cause of the abode of that ambassador 
in this court. And so likewise, if your ambassador had 
any matter of intreaty betwixt the two princes, he may 
come or send at his pleasure. Likewise I trust he will 
consider, that it standeth the emperor much in hand to be 
well assured, that under the pretence of the ambassador's 
retinues, the enemies have not too open means to look 
into his majesty's matters and doings. Therefore, except 
some special matter of the emperor and princes whom 
they serve, do require otherwise, all ambassadors must be 
content that his majesty, for his own private affairs, do 
as his wisdom shall lead him thereunto. And concerning 
the king your master's glad expectation for the prosperous 
success, his majesty thereof is most assured. And here 
the bishop with a friendly countenance said unto me,}" Ye 
know these matters do belong not a little to the king your 
master, for ye are not ignorant how this year the French* 
men have lobbed England above J6I 5 0,000; and beside 
all old spites of France done unto England, we trust 
the king's majesty, his honourable council, and realm, 
cannot forget how unjustly not long since the French 

886 aboham's letters. [1662. 

king hath dealt with him, in hia younger years, even when 
he was troubled with stirs at home, neo id raUoneJmti 
bellit Bedpoiiua ir^usii latrooinii, ut alias coMumt facere 
(these were his words), as the emperor's migcsty wai 
always England's friend, as his ancestors have been, and 
will continue unto his life's end." His words were 
earnestly spoke in these matters, which being too deep for 
me to wade in, I thought not good to enter into them ; 
but this muoh I thought it meet to say, that I knew the 
king's wisdom and his council did so weigh, he his honour, 
and they the safety of his person and wealth of his realms, 
as neither wrong would be borne, nor benefits be forgotten, 
which were done to his grace and his realm, and so 
turned to my errand again and said, 

*' Seeing the emperor's mi^esty will not have the 
ambassadors with their retinue in his camp, yet because 
my master knoweth that certain agents be suffered to 
tarry in the court, at least it might please your lordship, 
that John Beunaudin the king's mnjcsty's servant, may 
attend likewise there, who might without fail there spoodily 
write home his majesty's good proceeding in this jour- 

His answer was, •• Indeed certain agents belonging to 
cities and princes under his majesty, as from F. Oonzaoa 
PiETBA di Toledo, Piaccnza, &c., remain in this court 
to serve the cinp(;ror*8 own purposes for these places, but 
all otluT must bo content to follow his order ; for assure 
yourself, no agent, secretary, or man of any ambassador 
shall be suffered to write or tell out what is done here, 
but if they be taken, they must suffer such order as is 
appoint(!(l by the emperor's maj(!Hty. And John Beb- 
NARDIN less than any otlu^r. For, when I was on the 
other Hide of the Koan, Bkun ahdin came unto me, as he 
said, to take his leave of me, f6r on the next morrow he 

1552.] asoham's letters. 887 

would take his journey into England, saying he could not 
agree with my lord ambassador, purposing, belike, hoc 
sermone me capered which thing I was not content to 
hear, but so dismissed him. And surely if he come any 
more to this court, jubebo ilium apprehendi et compre- 
hendi vinculis, and I pray you tell him so for me, if it be 
your chance to see him hereafter. And I pray you com- 
mend me heartily to my lord ambassador, and tell him he 
shall, of all ambassadors, be the first certified of our affairs, 
and in his private matters he must be content to send 
neither you nor no other of his men, but write by some 
belonging to this court, and I will friendly and speedily 
dispatch his requests. And thus I, having speedy access 
at my coming, and gently dismissed at my parting, came 
my way, E.A.* 

CXLII.— TO STURM, (1, 10). 
Begrets that he bat gone to Stnsboiirg, and fonnd that Storm 
was from home— Venetian ambaatador at Spiref — Sir 
Bichard Moriton ia now writing an anawer to Stuim's 
letter. Spiret, Oct. 20, 1552. 

J^erus Aichamw Joanni Sturmio^ 8,P, — Non 
ego scribere, sed tu fadllime cogitare potef , 
omatissime Jo. Sturmi, quam libenti animo 
ego Argentinam accessi, et quam moerenti 
desiderio illic te non reperL Libenter pera- 
gravi G^ermanis magnam et Italise aliquam partem : sed 
nihil, in tota hac peregrinatione, cogitatione mea aut 
jucundiori aut frequentiori exoptabam, quam aliquando 
videre Argentinam quidem, sed potissimum in suo Nidru- 
siano meum Sturmium. Cogitobam ego, longo sermone, 

* Thi« letter (together with one firom Sir Bichard Moriaou), 
it found in Hardwicke's State Papers, Vol. I, p. 48, at tnntcribed 
firom the original! in the State Paper OiBce. 


888 A80HAM*8 LCTTIRf. [1652. 

tuto et •oliiario, iu tuum tinum infundere, quomodo hit 
•uperioribuf temporibus, in bao auU CiBtarea tinguln rt% 
gestae, reri excitati lermonet, ficti jactati rumoret fuerunt. 
A fuga enim (Eiupontioa ad hodiernum diem, merooriam 
aingulorum dierum coDtinenti ordine contervavi. iiisisies 
audient me narrare, quanto metu Yillaoi, tecuudo Julii, 
imo longe majori quam (Bniponti decimo nono Maii, et 
univerti nos tacti et tinguli fere disjecti et ad fugam tffuti 
•umus. Quem terrorem revera Pan aliquii, aut nympbu 
ex Alpibu8 m no8 immiaerunt, inanea autem, et rumorea 
de Turcis, et auspiciones de Yenetia nobia attulerunt. 
U»o et multa alia tibi narravissem, et a te quoque 
plurima, quea aliia in locia aed iiadem perturbatia tempori- 
bua geata aunt, accepiaiem. Bed iatam jacturam aiiqua 
ratione aliaa fortaase reaarcire poaaumua ; iilam vero ego 
non queo rediroere, quam feci apei mei inter? eniendi tum 
icmporis eruditissimeD illi diaputationi Nidruaianee: id 
quod ego inepte credo et moleste, sed cupide acio et fami- 
liariter feciasein : pra3»ertim quum puto mc potuiase inci- 
dcre in ilium diem, qui sermoni tuo, cum Oeempio 
iiiatitucndo, nsHignatus c«t. Antoniub ct PuiLiPPua 
tam veri nobilcs quum Germani fratrcs, praeaentiasima sua 
humanitatc, nonniliil levavcrunt mcum absentis tui deai- 
dcrium; ostendcrunt mihi secundum librum, atque profecto 
gratulatus sum moro) atque nogotiis Grkmpii, ct in co 
loco opinor video tuum consilium ; certe multum probo 
tuum judicium; quod Gukmpium, ni fallor, rcscrvas ad 
fusissimam cxplicationcm carum quiiique rerum, de quibus 
potissimum, in omni republica, grnviisimoQ deliberationcs 
instituuntur. Si besc prtuscns oudivissem, et ex ore 
ulriusquc vestrum, pro^sentibus auribus mcis, suroma con- 
bilia, ct iilustria cxcmpla, non priscorum solum, scd potia* 
aimum nostrorum, imo istorum ct principum et tcmporum 
cxcepisscm, putassem me non minus felicem esse, quum 

QsEidp 3e» aii fyrraaiTi. s gwimnii' nuitar :ir xuocruK, 
TjoBBotL mat VBpu^ nafc tuii mi 


jirniiHi Tmhimnii ittadnm^ 
jfTTiininnni nittiiin^ iiw» juihannu^ 
dnguBiittk. JBiiini jmifenu * «mmm ijtmd ^(t^ t& ladrss 
» «gD iinal%u. (^uDXtnm BiilK» lonr ittb* 
mnfari, jmam 3iiiamECii» jkbnma ii)|ficr«x« 
tiu) n&iaiii fliwmr^*^, acqur uniniuni ^miuuiiul .dnodttni' 

evBOtiv AOB^ mi Situo, ct fatwr nomzi Tis» ^^ 

o jnittsUi jndksk^ qao ^sae uns esl» ^iii 
nga%^M im le on u aido owM»kiiiioni» 

pato, qmm iSe ^te mtdligaidi dkndiqvo pnMeptoi^ 
quod is an— ftil te wnut, ^o ad sinnnuim amki kudem, 
ad fHrnentcm maiiiamn usiua, ad post€fam et Bttiiquaiii 
intUntanm admiritinnffln imukia referre ndoor. Yeitor, 
mi Stuemi, stultiu tibi nderi, ineptus atque intokiit, in 
toto hoe looo; si doq quantum semper eeiuune tui» 
prudentisB ego soleo tribuere» tantum nottne amicitiw, 
quum ad te scribo. putarem abs te oonoedL SeU pergo 
ad alia. 

Est bic Spine una nobiscum olarisaimus vir D. Mabous 
Antgnius Damula, Yenetus legatus ad CiSttARXM, tui 
studiosissimus, et mei amantissimus, multiplioi dootriua, 
linguarum peritia, et usu magnarum rerum, quibus, in 
insulis et reliqua Yenetorum ditione, summa cum laude 
prudentisB et abstinenties prsfuit, mirifioe exoultus. Egd 
ab ilio multa audio de Contaeeno, Bxubo, et Sadolito ( 

340 ABOHAM's LITTEBS. [1552. 

et ille vicisf iin saepe a me perquirit de Sttjrmio. Aiebat 
mihi 86 misisse ad te donnm, quum etaet proxime Argen- 
tinsB, et maxime indoloitae quod turn cara^ expectata 
consuetudine familiaritatia ta». Bogavit me, ut ciiquam 
diligentiam, in 8uo studio erga te declarando, et te nomine 
8U0 officio8i88ime salutando, adhiherem ; et nisi hoc tem- 
pore in lecto infirmtw decumberet, banc meum mibi sane 
pergratum laborem 8ai8 ipse Uteris longe gratioribos 
levavisset. Intelligat qusso proximis tuis ad me ant si 
vis ad ilium Uteris, et me memorem et te gratum existere. 
Accessione prfficlaree amicitisB nuUas opes prsBclariores 
esse duco. llogavit me ut eras ad se yenirem, et mecum 
adducerem Ehetoricum tuum AristoteUcnm, ut iUo dulci 
sermone acerbos doloris sui aculeos, quibus pungitur, 
veluti ablineremus. Atque quum ego Ubenter legam et 
iUe auscultabit avide, uterque profecto gratissimam tui 
memoriam usurpabimus. Vide quam proUxus sum, mi 
Sturm I, quoties ad te scribo, quod facio, Tel quia te 
plurimum amo vel quia tecum loqui videor vel quia te ad 
longissime scribendum elicere cupio. Quum essem Argen- 
tinae, putabam me veterem Spartam videre, exoeptis ves- 
tris fortissimis mcBnibus : et multum laudabam Laconicam 
illam et frugalitatem in victu, et tristitiam in vultu, mores 
simpUcitate rustica potius horridos, quam ad yersutise 
levitatem comparatos : animos quidem magnos, sed eos 
quidem Laconico more valde cunctantes. D. Legatum 
scias tui esse studiosissimum, qui sic in AngUam de te 
scripsit, ut nee melius nee aUter ego ipse exoptarem. 
Quando ad ilium scribis, scribe diligenter, nam inter 
omnes Anglos neminem repperi, qui, quod prudenter et 
erudite scriptum est, aut eestimet graviori judicio aut 
accipiat gratiori animo. Toxites noster fuit nobis longe 
gratissimus, quem oUm eruditum virum ex Uteris, nunc 
optimum hominem ex consuetudine et moribus facile esse 

1552.] ASOHAM's LBTTSR8. 841 

judico. D. Legatui credo mino tibi rescribit; ex illis 
8pero literU plora intelliges. Saluta qiueso nobiles iUos 
fratres, Amtonium et Philippum Yerteros. Yale in 
Christo Jesu. Spine, XX Octobr. Ad. Dom. 1552. 

CXLIII.—TO CECIL (E, 9 : and m, 5). 
Still on hia own plant for bettering his income. 

Spiret, Not. 28, 1552. 
[U — How mach I am bounden to Mr Mortsin, 
Mr Cheke, and to you, for moving, furthering, 
and obtaining the suit made for me to the 
king's majesty, I cannot now signify in a short 
letter, but will labour the length of my life to 
show myself unto you all three with duty, good will, and 
service ; although not the fittest man for that office, yet 
never unthankful to any of you for the benefit ; trusting, 
though I do not satisfy the place fully with ability, yet to 
content your wisdoms so with my diligence, that it, 
waiting always. Sir, upon your good advice and counsel, 
and at all times being thoroughly instructed by your wis- 
dom, and gently corrected by your judgement, may, though 
not be worthy to win praise, yet be able to eschew blame, 
and shall either I trust not much deserve to be reproved 
of other, or when in fault, be both ready to amend that is 
past, and very wary to offend in the like to come. To Mr 
Mortsin I was much indebted before, to whom as I am 
most willing to owe, so am I also most ready to repay 
him with service, or to content him with good will. I 
esteem not the benefit to belittle to have spent these years 
with him in seeing so many countries, in marking so 
diverse manners, in being weekly partakers of the greatest 
affairs, that chance almost anywhere ; and this life thus 
led hath been to me both more pleasant, as I feel presently, 
and more profitable, as I trust for time to oomci because 

842 ASCHAM't LITTIKI. [\hht. 

it was spent In hit company, which boldeth straight forth 
in all his doings, that way only, which Ood's glory, his 
prince's honour, his country's profit hath pointed him to 
follow. Mr CflKxr/s readiness in forwarding that suit I 
do guess of his long continued good will toward me, and 
of the love wherewith I hare always reverenced him. To 
your mastership I acknowledge myself to be so much the 
more bounden than to nny other, as I have less deserved 
it of you than of some man else. And the further I was 
off being so remembered, with the nearer bond my heart 
and service shall be ever more bound unto you ; and in 
communing thus with my whole duty unto you, I will foOow 
the manner of wayfaring men, among whom though some 
^ rise rerf early, yet other that lie longer, do so recovo" 
their late rising with speedy riding, that they were not so 
far behind the rest in setting out as they be before all in 
running to their inn ; so likewise, though I have overslept 
my»elf, and did not rise with the timeliest to bring you 
my s«;rvice, till 1 was called up and awaked by your 
gentleness, yet, Orxl willing, I will make such speed with 
ready good will, whieh sbnll, I trust, content you so well, 
as though 1 had set out with the first. And as this bene* 
fit is surely greoter for itself, greater for you three which 
did move it, further it, and obtain it, so is it greatest of 
all for him that did grant it ; a king, by nature n)y sove* 
reign, by favotir my good lord, and by virtue such a king 
as is most worthy to l>e king of many kings and kingdoms. 
For rriysely, i dare promise no more, but good will and 
diligence ; yet thus much I am boldened, because that 
kind of learning whieh sometime was most pleasant for 
my study in Cambridge, shall now be most necessary for 
my duty in the court. But being come thus far, WiiTOH, 
my lord ambassador's man, bringeth me word what stop 
is in the matter, at which sudden frowning of fortune 

1 552.] ASCHAX'S LSTTEBS. 34S 

God be my judge I was no more iowiidlj sad, tbaa I was 
at the fonner fawning of the same, outwaidlj glad. No, 
I that have seen in one half year two of the greatest princes 
subject to soch tosses and tomes of ups and downs, had 
learned very little, if sodi two great examples ooold teach 
me nothing ; but most glad I am to see your mastership's 
good will, expressed in Mr Mortsiu's letters, so bent to 
do me good, and therein as I will ^adly follow the choice 
of your wisdom, whatsoever yon shall think fit to bestow 
upon me, so do I now like those that will catch what they 
can, be it benefice or prebend, or what dse, though they 
be neither able nor wilUog to discharge it. If I might go 
to Cambridge with my patent augmented a little, with 
liberty to be bound only to set out the Greek tongue in 
St John's, I will not now say how profitable a member I 
could be to the commonwealth. And herein I had written 
a long letter to your mastership a se'nnight ago, long be- 
fore Weston told me of the change ; I let Mr Yaxelet 
read a piece of it, but because I know your businesses 
ought not to be troubled with long letters, I defer it to 
the next post. And now in very deed, for my lord's busi- 
nesses, I have not leisure to finish it and write it as I 
ought to such a man as I know you be. If I might, when 
it please you, do you service in the court, and when I 
could sometime creep home to Cambridge, I had rather 
do so than either dwell at Durham or Winchester. And 
moreover, if I did not yearly give unto you a good reckon- 
ing of duty well done to the country's weal, I would be 
content to lose your friendship ; which loss, as God be 
my judge, I would esteem to be the greatest that ever 
now can happen unto me. I trouble you. Sir, and have 
strait leisure myself. Therefore, Sir, as concerning my 
matters, if it would please you of good will to make the 
lots for me, and when you have so done by your wisdom to 

844 ASCHAM's LETTEB8. [1552. 

draw for me too, I am assured my luck shall be good, the 
which wholly I commit to God's prudence and your 
gentleness. I send you, Sir, by Mr Yaxelit a map, the 
best that ever I found in all my businesses here abroad, 
specially for Germany, Italy, and Hungary : it containeth 
whole Europe, and so much of Asia and Africa as it either 
known by men or spoken of in learning, tare only in the 
east part it stretcheth not far enough to the Modes and 
Persians. And as it is general for the whole, so is it in 
most pkces so particular for erery city and town as the 
like that I have not seen. The worthy ambassador of 
Venice, II Signor Marco Antonio Damula, in this court, 
did give me two of them, the one I send to you, the other 
to Mr CuEKt, which poor token of good will I trust ye 
will both take in good part. And thus the Lord preserve 

you with my good lady Cecil. From Spires this S8th 

of November, 1552. 

Your mastership's most bounden so to be, B. AacHAM. 

CXLIV.— TO HUBERT, (3, 12). 
Prevented from going to see him, Citner, and Micyllus, at Heidel- 
berg by the tioge of Metz having been raiiM. Argnee for 
the new way of pronouncing Ghreek, introduced by Sir John 
Cheke. BrutMls, March 6, 1658. 

^offerus AschamuB Iluherto tuo, 8,P, — Multos 
magno dolore et me non mediocri affecit subita 
ilia Metensis obsidionis derelictio, doctissime 
HuBERTE, quae impedimento fuit quo minus 
Heidclbergam aecesserim : ubi singularem vo- 
luptntem ex suavi consuetudine, et erudito sermone, tuo 
videlicet, Micylli, et Cibneri, percepissem. De recta 
uamque Greece pronuntiandi ratione, quomodo inter nos 
constitutum fuit, commode et fuse disputassemus. Mag- 
num fructum scio ex vestra eruditione, et palmam ipsam 
credo ex meliori caussa domum reportassem. De Huberto 

1653.] asoham's lxttsrs. 845 

meo, boo est, de summa bonitatetuaetmultiplicidoctriaa, 
et de ilia instituta nostra disputatione, 8»pe multumque 
cogito : et ita oogito, ut id literis aliqua ex parte nunc 
tentem inchoare, quod opportune sermone coram plene 
prseatare potuissem. Ex hac tamen una re, et mutua 
scribendi ratione, duplicem capiemus oommoditatem, nam 
iuitam nostram amioitiam literarum crebritate stabiliemus; 
et institutam nostram disputationem magna cum voluptate 
persequemur: persequemur autem eo modo ut modum 
literarum nunquam excedamus : propterea, singulis literis 
nostris singulam quamque Gradcam literam expediamus. 
et sic nostras literse nunquam nimis longse, et materies 
scribendi semper valde oopiosa nobis proposita erit. Aus- 
picemur igitur faventibus musis, et agnoscite caussam : 
nam vos tres, quos habeo adversarios, libenter in hac 
caussa patior esse judices. Prodeat ergo utraque pro- 
nuntiatio, vestra et nostra; pugnent inter se. Quibus 
telisP RationibusP Eacile accipio. DootrinaP Id a 
vobis dootissimis expecto. TestibusP Et ego quoque 
laudo. Bationes scio nuUas habetis, nisi quas subornavit 
multiplex vestra doctrina. Sed testes quos P Excutiendi 
enim sunt. Testem habetis primum, usum, quia omnes 
pronuntiant ut ros exceptis nobis Anglis. Deinde pro- 
ducitis ipsam Grasciam, quae hodie retinet vestram 
pronuntiationem, cujus auctoritas longe anteponenda est 
istis divisis toto orbe Britannis. Si usum intelligitis 
priscae illius aetatis consuetudinem, quum vixit et scripsil 
AKI8TOT1L18, qui adhuc in libris dootorum hominum 
conservatur et viget> usum et ego reoipio. Sin usum 
vultis hunc vulgarem, imperiium, et quotidianum, a prisoo 
illo doctissimo usu longe alienissimum, tot mutationibus 
oorruptum, tot erroribus implicatum, et temporis longin- 
quitate exesum, ego vero non admitto. Usus, nisi doctrina 
et ratione nitatur, praeoeps in errores semper ruit; ethino 

846 ASOHAM's LETTEB8. [1663. 

fit quod nunquam ulla fuerit vel respublica tarn reete 
gubernata, vel lex tarn sanote posita, quin uniui oonsueta- 
dinis vitio sit tandem eversa atque labefl&ctata. Taoeo, 
quot errores solus usus in ipsa veriasima Chiisti religione 
producit, fovet, et tanquam aui porcellum suum in foatido 
sinu ampiectitur, et mordicus etiamnum defendit. Vii 
corrigere, vU emendare aliquid» quod vitiatum ait f Solos 
usus repugnat, et sese opponit, clamitant, Consuetudo 1 
Consuetudo 1 a qua vulgus et imperiti hominea sBgenlme 
divelli possunt. Vot ergo duces acientisB videritis, an 
tantum usui omnis erroris auotori et propugnatori in hac 
oaussa tribuendum sit : preesertim qunm nulla res escstet 
quee quotidianis mutationibus magis obnoxia ait, quam 
verborum sonus et pronuntiatio. Pneterea quum Ghrsca 
lingua diu jam recesserit ex usu vulgari et sermone homi- 
num, et sese omnino abdiderit in doctorum libros, taceat 
ergo et facessat usus vester ex hoc judicio, et prodeant 
libri, quos ''nee Jovis ira neo ignis, nee aetas omnis 
potuit corrumperc/' libri, inquam, antiquioris illius fidei, 
quanquom nullius libri vocem et testimonium rejicio, quern 
V08 ires dignum et idoneum testem judicabitis. Ast libri, 
dicitis, non loquuntur, non possunt exprimere sonum 
literarum. Scio taccbnnt omnes libri et litersd, et erubes* 
cent do vestra corrupta et vitiata pronuntiatione loqui; at 
de nostra copiosa et luculenta dicent testimonia. Sin ulli 
libri (ie vestra quicquam loquuntur, producite, nullum 
rejicio : et ego vicissiin libros doctissimos summae aucto- 
ritaiis pro mea in medium adferam, et id jam ttatim, quum 
ad disceptationem accessero. Alter testis vester est ipsa 
Oreecia. liecte. Gnecia scilicet, quae jam nescit loqui, 
novit recte pronuntiareP Orrccia, qua) jam diu amisit 
suum iinpcrium, gloriam, ingenium, doctrinam, imo nomen 
fiuuro, ct linguam, retinct tamen, si diis placet, ipsam 
vcram prouuutiationem ? GrsDcia tot urbibus eversis, et 

I66d.j ASOHAM's L1TT1R8. 847 

ipsa suis pnlsa sedibus, et tot barbarorum cedens inyasi- 
oniboB, pronuDciationem tamen puram, inviolatam, et 
nulla mutatione jactatam hactenus conservavit? Alii 
profecto testes melioris fati et fortunae quam isti miseri 
Orseci robis qusrendi sunt ; nam non solum cum vobis 
tribus, sed cum QrsBcis ipsis, qui nunc vivunt, libenter 
pugno, quum Qrseca lingua nunc dierum non magis sit 
propria Ghrsecorum hominum, quam lingua Latina Ita- 
lorum : nisi hoc fortasse dicturi sunt, se aliter quidem 
sed melius pronunciare quam veteres illi doctissimi Gneci 
consneverunt, et tunc pugnabo cum his, qui ad invetera- 
tum aliorum errorem singularem etiam suam adjicient 
impndentiam. Quisquis ergo in hao caussa contendere 
Yult, presidio scientise non errore consuetudinis sese 
muniat. Doctorum monumentis, nbi tota jam habitat 
Grsdca lingua, non GhreecieB olim, nunc barbarise regionibus, 
unde omnis exulat doctrina et ipsa etiam lingua, hano 
disputationem contineat. Et haeo de universo jg^nere pro- 
nnnciationis : nunc brevissime de una litera, nt rationem 
literarum non libelli maguitudinem nobis proposuisse 
▼ideamur. De a non contendimus, nisi quum coaluerit 
in dipthongum ai, sed eum locum rejiciemus ad nbstram 
de Tocalibns disputationem : /3 ergo prodeat. Hie bnge 
discrepamus: sed audiamus quomodo yos et quomodo 
nos efferimus, et penes yos tres judicium esto ntri rectius 

Hoc yerbum rvttpvM yos sic effertiB, ehivemo, in qua 
una dictione tres errores admittitis, in », in «, in p, 
Latini hoc yerbum suum feoerunt, neo solum yim in sig- 
nificatione, sed etiam yeritatem in pronunoiatione retinent, 
solum mutantes primam literam tenuem », in suam me- 
diam 7, id quod Grseci yeteres ssepissime fecerunt. Itaque 
nos efiferimus wMftpm cum Latina lingua guberno: sed 
de IT et V suo loco. Nunc testes idoneos proferamus, an 

348 ▲BOHAli's LITTERS. [1658. 

cum Tobis dicendam sit vemOt an cum nobis bemo. 
Producite testes vestros: contioescunt omnes, excepto 
mendaci uau, quem comites sui, error et ignorantia, 
obtorto colio et impudenti facie in huno locum pro?ehunt. 
Audite nostros testes, quos ?os scio non rejieietis. Primus 
est doctissimus Eustathius, qui sic explioat ilium 
HoiiiRi locum, pfi ik icar* OifXiifiwoiot ko. B^, iniquit, est 
ipsissima ?ox ovilit : jam utrum nlla ovis effert vi nt tos, 
an be ut nos, judicetis. Anglss scio omnes o?es et Qtx» 
mansB et ItalsB pro nobis faoiunt; sed fortasse Qnecm 
o?es olim non balabant, sed vilabant, &c. Ast, qualis base, 
dicetis, disciplina est quae petitur ab ovibus P Certe rubore 
non perfundimur discere ab o?ibas, quum in simili caossa 
ille, cui similem nemo potest nominare, non erubuerit a 
cane literam p perdisoere. Et disoere ab oyibus, est dis- 
cere ab ipsa natura, quae constans semper et sui simillima 
existit, nee varietatibus et mutationibus obnoxia est, ut 
usus vester et fluctuans consuetude. Sed altemm testem 

Ecce Marcus Ciorro, qui Greece loquendo ipsis Qroecis 
gloriam, ut ille ait, eripuit, in epistola ilia, satis vobis nota, 
de obicenii verbii, [Ad/a. 9, 22,] dicit, quum audit pivu 
putidum Oraecum verbum, sonat idem quod bini Latinum. 
Sin bi sonuisset Ciceroni vi, quemadmodum nunc sonat 
vobis, mentionem vini, non bini, proculdubio fecisset: 
itaque, aut tunc Cicero pi non recte, aut vos nunc male 
pronunciutis. Tertium testem expectatis? non levem, 
sed in omni caussa gravissimum auctorem, divum Aure- 
LiUM Augustinum producimus, qui planius, si quid 
planius dici potest, quam aut Eustathius aut Cioero 
banc rem decidit.* lu libris de Docirina ChriBtiana — 

^ Et Uta, uno eodemque lono, apud Gtadooi litera, apud 
Latinof olerif nomen eft. Lib. ii, cap. 24, p. 85, Edit. Froben. 
item ToL i, torn. 8. 

1553.] A80HA]i*8 LBTTER8. 849 

caput non ooourrit, quia liber non est ad manum — dicit, 
quum audit nominari herbam beta, videtur illi nominari 
aecunda litera Ghrseca, quo modo nos nunc efferimus : sin 
vero prouuntiasset Augustinus, quemadmodum vos, 
vUa, id est anima, non beta herba, auribus ejus ciroum- 
sonuisset. Quartum vultis testem ? Nisi epistolae modum 
mihi proposuissem, et quintum et decimum etiam produx- 
issem. Yerum sequemur ilium, qui in graviori oaussa 
dicit : In ore duorum aut trium, &c, Et cui Eustathius, 
CiosRO, et AuouBTJNUs non satis faciunt, illi ego satis- 
faoere non laborabo. Itaque aut me falsa retulisse, aut 
istos tres non recte soripsisse, aut nos veram et germa- 
nam, et propterea Germanis hominibus aptissimam pro- 
nuntiationem asseruisse ingenue fateamini. De prouun- 
tiatione reliquarum literarum, reliquis Uteris nostris dein- 
caps ordine, Deo volente, persequemur. Saluta doctissi- 
mos Tiros, Micyllum et Cisnbkum : quorum literas et 
tuas de pronunciatione avide expecto. Saluta etiam Uteris 
tuis clarissimam iUam feminam Olympiam, que sola, 
pro sua singulari eruditione et summo judicio, si patro- 
cinium nostre pronuntiationis susoeperit, de vobis reUquis 
minus laborabo. Vale, optime et doctissime Hubeete, 
et me quod facis ama« BruxeUis, 6 Martu, 1553. 

CXLV.— TO CECIL (B, 10 : and m, 77). 
Withei to return to Oambridge. Remarki on hit pait life, &r. 

Bruaielt, March 24, 1558. 

F I should write oft, ye might think me 
too bold; and if I did leave off, ye might 
judge me either to forget your gentleness, or 
to mistrust your good will, who hath already 
so bound me unto you, as I shaU rather forget 
myself, and wish God also to forget me, than not labour 
with aU diligence and service to apply myself wholly to 

860 A80HA]I*8 LfeTTlES. [1668. 

your will and purpose ; and that ye shall well know how 
much I assure myself on your goodness, I will pass a 
piece of good manners, and be bold to borrow a little of 
your small leisure from your weighty affairs in the com- 
monwealth. Therefore, if my letters shall find you at 
any leisure, they will trouble you a little in telling you at 
length, as I promised in my last letters delirered unto 
you by Mr. FaANCis Yaxelky, why I am more desirous 
. to have your help for my stay at Cambridge still than for 
any other kind of living elsewhere. 1 having now some 
experience of life led at home and abroad, and knowing 
what I can do most fitly, and how I would live most 
gladly, do well perceive there is no such quietness in Eng* 
land, nor pleasure in strange countries, as even in St John's 
college, to keep company with the Bible, Plato, AiiisTOTUB, 
Demosthenes, and Tully. Which my choice of quiet- 
ness is not purposed to lie in idleness, nor constrained 
by a wilful nature, because I will not or can not serve 
elsewhere, when 1 trust I could apply myself to mo kinds 
of life than 1 hope any need shall ever drive me to seek, 
but only because in choosing aptly for myself I might 
bring some profit to many others. And in this mine 
opinion 1 stand the more gladly, because it is grounded 
upon the judgment of worthy Mr Denny. For the sum- 
mer twelvemonth before he departed, dinner and supper, 
he had mu commouly with him, whose excellent wisdom, 
mingled with so pleasant mirth, I can never forget: 
emonges many other talks he would say oft unto me, if 
two duties did not command him to serve, the one bis 
prince, the other his wife, he would surely become a stu- 
dent in St John's, saying, " The Court, Mr Ascham, is 
a place so slippery, that duty never so well done, is not a 
stall' stiff enough to stand by always very surely, where ye 
shall many times reap most unkindness where ye have 

1553.] ASOHAli's LETTERS. 351 

sown greatest pleasures, and those also ready to do you 
most hurt to whom you never intended to think any 
harm." Which sentences I heard very gladly then, and 
felt them soon after myself to be true. Thus 1, first ready 
by mine own nature, then moved by good counsel, after 
driven by ill fortune, lastly called by quietness, thought it 
good to couch myself in Cambridge again. And in very 
deed, too many be pluokt from thence before they be ripe» 
though I myself am withered before I be gathered, and 
yet not so for that I have stood too long, but rather be- 
cause the fruit which 1 bear is so very small. Yet seeing 
the goodly crop of Mr Cheke is almost clean carried 
from thence, and I in a manner alone of that time left a 
standing straggler, peradventure though my fruit be very 
small, yet because the ground from whence it sprung was 
so good, 1 may yet be thought somewhat fit for seed, 
when all you the rest are taken up for better store, where* 
with the king and his realm is now so nobly served. And 
in such a scarcity both of those, that were worthily called 
away when they were fit, and of such as unwisely part 
from thence, before they be ready, 1 dare now bolden my- 
self, when the best be gone, to do some good among 
the mean that do tarry, trusting that my diligence shall 
deal with my disability, and the rather because the desire 
of shooting is so well shot away in me, either ended by 
time or left off for better purpose. Yet I do amiss to 
mislike shooting too much, which hath been hitherto my 
best fiiend, and even now looking back to the pleasure 
which 1 found in it, and perceiving small repentance to 
follow after it, by Plato's judgment I may think well of it. 
No, it never called me to go from my book, but it made 
both wit the lustier, and will the readier, to run to it 
again ; and perchance going back sometime from learning 
may serve even as well as it doth at leaping, to pass some 

352 ascham's letters. [1553. 

of those which keep always their standing at their book ; 
beside that seeking company and experience of men's 
manners abroad is a fit remedy for the sore, wherewith 
learned men (many men say) be much infected withal, 
which is " the best learned not always to be wisest." A 
sentence not spoken of some for nought, yet used for the 
most part in the mouth of such as either know not what 
they say of ignorance, or care not what they speak of 
spite. They think simplicity to be foUy, and subtlety to 
be wisdom ; they judge bashful men to be rude, and past 
shames to be well mannered. And after these men's 
opinions, if a man be not vokvirp&yniav in doing, or will 
not irXfoyccreTv in all matters for profit, or list not 
Ktupo^vXaKiiv all persons for favour, or cannot rpairiKV^iv 
at all times for pleasure, or to speak most fitly in Saint 
Paul, if he do not wholly ffx^fiarlZuv roLo^n^^ he shaU be 
counted of them IdivrriQ dinip6Ka\og and ineptua, how 
learned, well mannered, and fit to many good qualities . 
soever he be. But I am afraid ye will think that I go 
about more earnestly than craftily, either to excuse my 
own fault or too much negligence in study at Cambridge, 
or to hide mine own folly of too little experience in affairs 
abroad: yet in very deed, I will neither fondly accuse 
mine own lacks nor busily note other men's lusty and 
lucky boldness, although examples men say be neither 
old, far to be fetched, nor few to be numbered, but 
young, at home, and of divers names. And thus, by 
chance, in remembering shooting, I have almost forgotten 
my matter and your mastership's little leisure on so great 
affairs. Therefore, sir, to be short, ye bind me to serve 
you for ever, if by your suit the king's majesty would 
grant me this privilege, that reading the Greek tongue in 
St John's I should be bound to no other statutes within 
that university and college : and some reason I have to 

1553.] ascham's letters. 353 

be made free and journeyman in learning, when I have 
already served out three apprenticeships at Cambridge. 
This suit also, I trust, is not made out of season, when 
things are rather yet to be ordered by the grace of our 
visitors than by the law of any statute ; but 1 hear say 
the visitors have taken this order, that every man shall 
profess the study either of divinity, law, or physic ; and 
in remembering thus well England abroad, they have, in 
mine opinion, forgotten Cambridge itself. For if some 
be not suflfered in Cambridge to make the fourth order, 
that is, surely as they list to study the tongues and 
sciences, the other three shall neither be so many as they 
should,*nor yet so good and perfect as they might. For 
law, physic, and divinity, need so the help of tongues and 
sciences, as they cannot want them ; and yet they require 
so a man*s whole study, as he may part with no time to 
other learning, except it be at certain times, to fetch it at 
other men's labour. I know universities be instituted 
only, that the realm may be served with preachers, 
lawyers, and physicians; and so I know likewise all 
woods be planted only either for building or burning ; 
and yet good husbands in serving use not to cut all down 
for timber and fuel, but leave always standing some good 
big ones, to be the defence for the new spring. There- 
fore, if some were so planted in Cambridge, as they should 
neither be carried away to other places, nor decay there 
for lack of living, nor be bound to profess no one of the 
three, but bond themselves wholly to help forward all ; I 
believe preachers, lawyers, and physicians, should spring 
in number and grow in bigness, more than commonly 
they do. And though your mastership get me the privi- 
lege, yet God is my judge, Scripture should be my chief 
study, wherein I would trust, either by writing or preach- 
ing, to show to others the way both of truth in doctrine 


364 asoham's letters. [1558. 

and true dealing in living. Tea, if I do not obtain this 
suit of liberty in learning where I am sure I could do 
mucli good, than [then] I beseech your mastership help 
to bestow some little benefice on me, where I might in a 
corner occupy the small talent which God hath lent me; 
and if I shall be neither so lucky as to enjoy the first, 
nor judged fit to be called to the second, then there is a 
third kind of living wherein I could find in mine heart to 
lead my life for a while, if your wisdom will me not 
otherwise, and that is in living abroad in some strange 
country for a year or two. This last day as I talked with 
a Signior Marco Antonio Danula, the ambassador of 
Venice, to whom I am exceeding much beholden, he 
said unto me if I had desire to live for a year or two in 
Constantinople, Damasco, or Cairo, he would provide I 
should be in place where I should be partaker of weighty 
afifairs. I said, my desire was bent much that way, save 
only, I would not be in place to receive any wages more 
than the benefit of a table. Marry, in reading with some 
great man, when leisure should give leave, the course of 
the Greek stories or other part of learning, I could 
endeavour myself, but I would live surely by the benefit 
of my prince and country. He said if he had known my 
purpose before Navaqerius went last ambassador to the 
Turk, he could so have placed me as I should hereafter 
have caused him much thank. Therefore, Sir, if I do 
not obtain neither of my requests at home, I trust I 
could do the king's majesty good service and your 
mastership much pleasure abroad by diligent advertise- 
ments of affairs from thence, if by your means the king's 
niHJesty for a year or two would bestow some honest 
stipend on inc, that mine entertainment from home might 
so «^ive nic credit abroad, as I might have both liberty to 
learu and leisure to write such things as were worthy to 

1553.] ASCHAM's LITTIB8. 855 

come to your knowlege. Sir, my trust is, you will not 
jodge me unconstant for this university in choice of my 
living, but rather one that would lievest live as I find 
myself fittest to serve my prince and my country ; for, as 
God be my judge, I had rather follow fitness in myself 
than search profit in any living, otherwise I would not 
prefer such a kind of living at Cambridge as I do, when 
divines, lawyers, and physicians, have such easy prefer- 
ment to so goodly provisions as they have. And if X 
might without suspicion of folly declare mine own opinion 
of mine own fitness, then I could say I have missed where 
I thought myself somewhat fit to serve, and that was the 
place which your mastership did obtain of the king'« 
majesty for me ; but your goodness that would do thut, I 
know will do me as good a turn when occasion shall serve 
thereunto. Thus as J wrote once, I ween, to your muster- 
ihip, I have made my lots and set them in order as I wish 
them to chance ; and if it please your wisdom to draw for 
me, even as I know ye can discern the fittest, so shall i 
esteem it to be the luckiest, whatsoever shall come first to 
your hand. And think not that your gentleness doth 
more bolden me now to make this suit, than it doth bind 
me for ever to be at your commandment, as God knowcth, 
who have you and all yours in his keeping. I would be 

glad to hear that ye have received these letters. From 

Brussels the 24th of March, 1553. 

Your mastership's to command, 



Begrets that he was not at Louvain, when Aiohsm went there to 
aee him and Brandeaby— Sends four of FhUo'a work* which 
he had juat printed in a Latin Tranalation at Antwerp. 

Louvain, Ap. 28, 1666. 

366 ASCHAli's LETTERS. [1553. 

^annet Chrisiophorsonus Romero Aickamo 8,F, — 
Mihi Antverpia Lovanium reverso, Aschamb 
orDatissime, sigDificaiuin est, te eo mei solum 
et BBANDisBiEi Qostri visendi caussa venisse, 
diligenterque et valde amice de utroque nos- 
trum a Petro Nan n 10 percontatum esse. Quod quidem 
humanitatis officium uti vehementer equidem amplector, 
(babuit enim permagnam sane tuee erga nos benevolentiss 
significationem,) ita certe doleo plurimum, me eo tempore 
abfuisse, quo uterque nostrum de rebus utriusque ultro 
citroque tam opportune colloqui potuisset. Nam est 
quidem viris, doctrinse liberalis et bonestanim discipli- 
narum studiosis, quoddam quasi penitus insitum deside- 
rium, si modo ulla inter eos intercedat necessitudo, ut hie 
de illius, ille contra de hujus studiis certior fieri magno- 
pere capiat. Quod profecto in me ita jam exardescere 
sentio, ut nihil magis mihi in optatis sit, quam ut plene 
cognoscam,quid Musse Asguami nostri moliantur; sileant- 
ne, quod Cicero ecripsit de Varrone, an celent potius 
ea, quae in hac legatione regia comroentatae sunt : quarum 
indolem ita soleo admirari, ut nihil plane fuerit, quod me 
ad politioris literaturse studium magis incitaverit : quarum 
in oratioue gravitas ea fuit, ut animos audientium non ad 
prudentiam solum erudire, verum etiam ita permovcre 
potuerit, uti quo vellet facile impelleret: quae etiam in 
scribendo tam elegantes esse solent, ut suavitasne ser- 
monis, qui tam concinne et artificiose constructus fuit, 
an prudentia in senteutiis, quae tam crebrae erant in ora- 
tioue positae, me magis oblectaverit, plane nesciam. Sed 
spero me brevi, Deo juvante, tecum coram colloquendo 
istam meam, qua tautopere flagro, cupiditatem omnino 
expleturum. Interea teroporis mitto ad te quatuor libros 
Philonis, quos modo Antverpiae imprimendos curavi; in 
quibus de Graeco in Latinum convertendis si tuo judicio, 

^jooii -ynrpasr uzimisL ibxtl esiimas sdisi. ul iimasifs;. 
ta3L .3erv£ ma xuiuiLL mm. unitu iisrIecuixnK iiuixzuij^utf 
ia nanua inminnm ysmsisu: iiiu& uuioeiL iim. xon. iis:^ 
fitaci i^ xuiuL 1ft unra !!x:Lin9 m sui xmnon szrnom: 
irFip'^t :niaii fsnHrifincL -vuimcBU; ftniri>. Tstjiil miix: 
pmnattmi 'iiuustLv % £ iiiix& za. flnnitfigk im: sbl. vui 
pucypiuf JTiiniiHwm. nasKmiim il iluc rsDasrt esLcthma 

ftiim, & .uoi liuiL u haerst sarwersmL sii. mt xif «:■ 

periuifflaBSiiEr <**rni'wrrn?*'; i f, -pi gwirr*w. 'tma» mf oacosst 

pods* c^u3L TiwTmiEnr TTSXVitsi^Jaat Trinfamrrrr. Ai.qiK 
te, Rogers ^vsiiwTTt^s fciim. K-riiit flhifiTT rn^rx, vi cxxjl 
bi Ebri mat ta:gh it bemeviusscse: iVi'ftii^ rrLZk ^ ic 
missi sisty eos gzaCA iimufc beEiETai& ixioo ass^cis: ixiqn^ 
qui ei propur firrriifa zsl ccizi fCSQCR dxcEiir pnK££&- 
tiam cum prisis povfu, a profv&er iveona Dosaam iwce»> 
ntudiiieiD libeofter tc£s^ jarfkysa (Se iliis llhere £id»s 
mihiqne Tere ci ex animo qud Kntias per literss sicu- 
fioes: Qti licet Doa in his qui jam editi sant^ in aliis 
tamen libris qoot habeo in manibus, tnom consilium mibi 
adjomento esse possit. Vale. LoTanii, IX Caloidas Mail, 

Promisei books — tpeiJu of the liege of Mets, Ac 

Strasbourg, Msj 9, 1553. 

^annei Sturmhu Bogero Atchamo S,P, — Simul 
mihi nunciatum est nuncium discedere, et beeo 
Bcripsi : quare dolet mihi non mo posse esse 
loquacem. Amo te ob amorem tuum erga me, 
et studidrum morumque, ut mihi videtur, simi- 
litudinem : nisi quod tu me sis in scribendo crebrior, in 
judicando prudentior, et experientior usu tractandoque 
ret nostri seculi. Sed tamen voluntas est par : non enim 

1553.] ASCBAM's LETTIRS. S61 

agendi facultatem. Itaque qanm gratis quas tibi xe- 
fenem sunt penitas nulls, et quas tibi haberem, sunt 
etiam perexigus, ego auperatus le, et destitutus oratione, 
referam me ad earn, quae sola mihi ndiqua est compen- 
sandi rationem. Subsequar te Tolimtate, stndio, et per- 
petua mea obserrantia, cujus propositi mei duos luculentos 
obsides mitto ad te, duos insignes Cjsaees, qui ut se 
tibi pneaentes sisterent, ego, reritus nee hunc sreom 
deum nee ilium aureum diabolum, utrumque in literas 
inclusi tuas. Aureus nummus minus erit tibi gratus: 
nam quid pessimo principi cum optimo Tiro ? Sed quia 
materies est purissima, et opus prsstantissimum, fortasse 
juvabit te intueri illam tjrannidem et immanitatem qus 
etiam nunc apparet in ipso yultu, et in ipsis faodbus, 
quomodo in Suetonio etiam scite describitur. .£reus 
nummus est valde insignia, et ita insignia ut ex hac mea 
facultatula nihil habeam, quod tibi tanto Tiro tanto meo 
patrono pretiosius ofiferre possim. Superiore menae foi 
apud Don Diego di Mbndozza, Tirum literamm aman- 
tissimum et omnis antiquitatia peritiaaimnm: oatendit 
mihi magnam nummorum Tim, dedit aliquot, rogat eoquos 
haberem ? eduxi hunc ereum quem prseaentem habui ; 
inapecto nummo, reapexit ad me : Intelligia, inquit, quem 
nummum habes ? Augusti Cjbsaris, inquam ego : Rede, 
ait ille; at ex omni temporum et vetuatatia memoria, 
nullua nummus inaignior iato ad hominum manut per- 
Tenit. Legis, inquit, in Tito Litio, de templo Jaki bia 
daudo uniTeraa pace constituta ; primum regnante Numa, 
post imperante Augusto: quo anno Curistus naaci Toluit. 
Sen. Pop. Que Rom. imperitua proTidentisB Dei, referebai 
banc uniTeraam pacem ad proTidentiam Augusti, et facto 
Sen. Con. aalutabat eum et divum et patrem, feriena hunc 
nummum, cum templo Jani clauso, et hoc verbo provi-' 
dentia, Interrogabat me unde haberem ? Respondebam. 

862 A8CHA1I*8 LiTTims. [1568. 

inoppidulo secundum BlMnum sito. Credibile, inqniftr 
nam paulo post Drusus ei Tibbbiub ilia loca circtim- 
drca bello infestabant. ObtuU ei nummum dooo, qoo- 
niam Tidebam ilium oo delectari, sed noluit acdpere, 
addent dignum eaae, quum in AngHam redirem, qncm 
fiegisB suijestati offerrem. Sed nimioa sum in re tarn 
le?i, prsRsertim ad taleift ?inim, et memor tu» hnmam- 
tatia, imprudent oblitua sum auetoritatit et occupationum, 
quibus distineris. fiecipiea una com his literis ehartam 
MiRAKDUUE, cum maxima parte Longobardias et longit- 
•imo Tolumine Padi flovii. Credo te antea habere ; sed 
quid impedit duobiis loois eandcm affigere ? Nisi expk>- 
rata mibi esset tua bumanitaa et singularts in me bene- 
▼oJentia« nee tam res le? et nee litcras tarn inanes ad te 
mitere autas fuissem« Valei» ornattssime vir. Bruxdlis, 
Julii 7, aooo 16SS. 

CL.— TO SIR JOHN CHEKE, (3. 11). 

Has learnt that Oheke had been chosen into the cotinoil — speaks 

of Hoby (afterwards Sir Thomas Hoby), his own occupation 

of writing in English an account of what was passing in 

the world, and senda a golden coin of Antoninus Pius as a 

present to Cheke. Brussels, July 7, 1553. 

Offer us JtehamttM Domino Joanni Checo, — Is 

raihi nuntius longe gratissimus fuit, onra- 

tissirae vir, quo te in reginm senatum co- 

optari ad nos allaium fuit. Sed quia bsec 

dignitas, doctrinsc, prudentiee, et integritati 

tuse, omnium hominum voluntate, consensu, ei Toce, 

tanto antea debebatur, non earn tibi uni, imo non tan* 

turn tibi earn gratulor, quantum bis, quibus meo judicio 

major prudentim laus in te eligendo, quam tibi felicitatit 

pars in conscendendo ad hunc dignitatis locum aecessura 

est. Gratulor itaque uni verso nomini Britannico : pri- 

mum vero, et quidem praecipue, optimo nostro principi, 




<Amii^ (t iwriui u 1^ 

eifm IVmi «t«dks «>M 
dciBcefM cBfmftefm. ^stekr wiltwM ^«aa«Hi CmMii- 
brii^ qnK te gennt : sod voce oottegio diri JoAXNrSs 
quod te doent : qnk ahien te Ubvit opCMbsiNHMi a)«i«i«' 
BUB, aherun Jlw ui rn H — i n diseipalM^ ntmmqiie mhim 
te Tidet utimqiieopdminiipoteDteaiqveiHitrMiiini. Seor^ 
sim rero akuDO in Umso gniliikrar ipte mibi, um homiiitt 
sui nimiom MBanlis Inc esse nderetur : gmlulor Umtn 
et hnpense gratalor ; sed ea nlioiie^ ut «Um iiiiilim opem 
aHqua mea ci d»eiTAntia oor ip^um ostenderec quam 
Duno Terbit indicare studiam el beneYoleniktti. Uana 
meam ketitiam adaugei hominum in hh r«gionibttt el 
noatrorum et exterorum letans cerlantque de hac tua dig» 
nitate oongratulatio : aeparatim Yero termonct TuoMiV 
HoBBiBi, quoa mecum creberrimot uturpal de tua probt* 
tate et sua in te tinjf^ulari obaervantia t bio jntenit ptie* 
dare ostendit, ex cujus ariifkit prodieril ofHoina* Frater 
^08 DominuB PHiLiPPUa vir prudentiMimut utitur eo 
et utitur solo ad omnes ret pertraoiandaB in bao CwBflrea 
Aula: in qua perfunctione» tarn opportunei diligenUfi 

8^4 asoiiam'b lkttkiis. [U5S. 

conRulcrntc, ft tacitn nn )(crit, nt illorum Mmintifn, qu« 
tu in CO pttrn) Cnntnhri^ifi) jccisti, non nascens jam iliqoi 
•poH HA profcrnt, nod flonmii nnquo ifiMgnis miituritiit io 
00 nunc ndolnscciito fncto lie mnineat, ui reote quidem 
tnno jtidicio ipM fncorflii, li cfTcoeris, iii is inielligiit, ie 
tioti iioluin ilium in hoc curiti libcntcr oum TolupUta 
ipcrinrc, imd iptinm tnin prmclnrc curreniem oum aliquo 
elinm npplnniiu incitnro; quia nullus stimulus ad virtutem 
aptior adliihrtur, cpinm Inudnti viri Ifota ooUaudatio. 
liiino orgo totum tutim tibi adjungito, et saltom aliqua 
Mdiitntionn, in nliorum Uteris, nd mnjorom spom exoitato. 
In sinu moo nonnunqunin oonquoritur, so plurimas litem 
ad to floripsisso, so tamon soiro non posso, an ad tuas psr- 
vonorint manns. Vos voro votulos, obscuros, effosios, et 
tacontos, napaitfAAZopraQ oontemnoro potos, istos autera 
insignioros adolosoontos natos ad luoom, croscontes ad 
Inudcui, ot surgontos ad prfcclaram fortunam, praterire 
non dobcH : (]uanqnnm noo mo qnidom prrntoris» cttjui 
montionctn in litoriH tnis ad Domintnn Mohysinum tam 
nioniorilr.r ot nrnnntcr fnnin. Minus sfopo jam ad to do 
liirruR, (|nin vorror scriboro, prionoriim ad tantum ?irum, 
rt in ro nut nulla nut lovi : proptorcn motuo, no isttt 
liionr nut niniiin nut i n torn pout ivrr sint, quum tibi neo 
niohmtuM CMO, non inoptus vidori \illo modo volim. 8u- 
porioro tniiion mon»o, «rrip«i ml tn, por fnmtilum D. 
CiiAMHRHLANi: luHor, si illir tibi trnditm fuoi'unt, propter 
duos vciunios nummoH, nltorum i). (//fiSAiiis, nltorniD 
P. Oi.oixt, (|uoH in ons includobnm litornfl. Litorm, quai 
proximo nd ino (b^dinti, trnditm niibi fuorunt snporiori 
anno Argontinro ; grntifiNimnn quidom illn\ sod non adeo 
quonuidniodum cfoirrio osso solont juoundm. Judioabam 
mini ipAns vnldo nmnntos, sod opinabnr turn quidom oas 
non nihil onso pungontos; qunrum nouloi milii aliqunndin 
inlupnorunt. Quod ipsum credo mihi nrcidit, (juia nihil 

1553.] A8CHAM*8 LETTERS. 865 

abs te profectum lego, cujiis non singula pondero terba, 
siugulasque appendo sententias, ut ipsum aniroi tui inti- 
mum eruam sensum, et quo pluris te facio, eo mngis sem- 
per sum sollicitus quid de nie in ulla re existimes. Sed 
sorupulum, quern iuanis injccit metus, cerium excussit 
judicium, nee volui committere, ut opinioni raea; leviter 
susceptfiB quam benevolentiie tuae mihi perspectatissimie 
plus ullo modo tribuerem. Et hunc metum mihi concedes 
▼aide amanti, et banc libertatem tusB assignabis humani- 
tati, quffi facit ut libere proloquar etiam ea quos iuaniter 

Si scire cupis, quidnam hie rerum ago, intelligas me 
nunc describere certas illas caussas, quamobrem Par men- 
sis, Salemitanus, Brandcnburgcnsis, et Saxo Cesarem 
deseruerunt ; deinde continentem singulorum dicrum me- 
rooriam coiligo, quid in Aula CiESARis contigit, ab (lino* 
pontica fuga usque ad Metensis obsidionis derelictionem : 
quibus temporibus, magnro amicitiarum, dissidiorum, prsB- 
dationum, bellorum confusiones, mutabiles fortune varie- 
tates, et gravissimsB rerum conversioncs ezstiterunt ; quas 
iserias omnes, dxapivria, dolus, perfidia, libido, avaritia, 
ambitio, tyrannis, et ^lofiaxia, exacta libcrtatc, violato jure, 
fosdata religione, contempto ipso Deo, permiscueruni. 
In his rebus veritatem sequor, omatum non quwro : 
scribo enim Anglioe, et mihi soli ac mcis sociit probleroa* 
tariis, et propterea non luci, sed nocti, ut harum rerum 
dulci sermone et rccordatione proximas has hyemalet 
noctes nos inter nos fallamus. Fuit tempus, omatissime 
Chbci, quum talem materiam ctiam Latine mcdiocriter 
perpolire potuissem; sed succus ille puriorit dictionis^ 
quem ego hausi ez his fontibus, quos tu perfluenter qui- 
dem mihi sed felicissime aliis multis aperuisti, lotus nunc 
exaruit, et stylus, quem excellentis ingenii doctrinaeqiM 
tuse coa mihi etiam nonnihil exacuerat, nunc oninis est 

866 A8CHAM*8 LETTERS. ^553. 

retutus, ad duram hano meam et desperatam etiam ex 
melioribuB studiis meliorem fortnuam : at fortunam bob 
deplorare meaiu, sed tibi gratulari tuam instituL Domi 
hoc coram praesente sermone opportonius fadam. 

Nostrum reditum in dies singulos appropinquare spenr 
mas, quem ut acceleres ctiam atque etiam rogo : id quod 
fiaoio commotus rerum, non domesticarum stulto desiderio, 
nee ezterarum inconstante fastidio, qaum magnam capio 
et voluptatem ex consuetudine prudentisaimi viri* el 
utilitatem ab experientia gravissimaram reram; prsster 
usuram rectse oonscientise in perfungendo illo muneie 
fideliter et constanter, quod tu mihi imposuistL Joanhes 
Stukmius nuper scripsit ad me, petiitque ut ex meb 
Uteris ipse intelligeres, ilium tui esse et studiosum et per- 
cupidum ; sed quo plus ille me amat et melius de ma 
existimat, eo timidius sumo et parcius fado quod ipse 
rogat : itaque rejicio te ad judidum duorum optimorom 
virorum Curistophori Month et Joa)<nis Ualesii, 
qui laudem doctrinse maximam; sed humanitatia, pru- 
dentise, usus, consilii, judidi, et religionis, longe majorem 
Sturmio tribuunt. Compendium fortunae suae, credo, 
non queer it : sed suavitatem benevoientise tuae maxim* 
opere appetit ; quum is sit, qui praeclare possit in summis 
versari nummis. Attamen vehemeuter ipse dolerem, si 
laudem praestaniis illius operis vipi dvdKvfftute utriusqi^ 
linguae aut Gailus aut Polonus optimo nostro prindpi 

Aureum nummum Anton IKI Pii his Uteris inclusum 
ad te mitto : felix illud seculum propter auri puritatem et 
artificii praestantiam, sed longe felicius propter optimum 
principem. His priscis monumentis delector, non solum 
quia fidem vetustissimae memoriae faeiunt, sed quia ad 
ipsius aeternitatis naturam proiime accedunt : soli enim 
nummi, isti praesertim aurei, nuUa temporis longinquitate 

1558.] ASCHAM'b LBTTSB8. S67 

▼itiari possont, qaum csetene ret uiUTersaB tempore eon- 
aumuQtur. Vale» ornatiuime vir, et me at soles ama : 
quia nullum beoeficium majos aut g^^tius mihi ipsa tua 
benevolentia unqoam judicabo. Bruzellis, 7 JuUi, 1568. 

CLI.— CI8NER TO ASCHAM. (6, «0). 
Had reoeiTod bj Hubert two letters from Atobtm at onoe, on 
tbe 14tb of Maj — writes solely about tbe new way of pro* 
nounoing Gbeek. Heidelbai^, Julj 18, 1558. 

^Yoriatimo viro, D, Romero Jtekamo Anglo, amieo 
9U0 obaervamdo, Nicolaua Cisnerus^ — Acoepimus 
ab HuBERTo nostro binas literas tuas, eodem 
tempore pridie idus Mail, que nos partim 
delectarunt, partim perturbarunt. Nam grate 
nobis vehementer est memoria nostri tua, quam taute 
benevolentia et amore in nos deolams: ut plus etiam, 
mibi prsesertim, quam res et Veritas ipsa oonoedit, lar- 
giaie. Itaque nisi nobis omnino de ie persuasum esset ; 
te propter bumanitatem tuam, et studiorum ooi^uuctiouem 
non permissarum unquam, ut ex animo effluarous tuo \ 
valde te rogaremus ut quam voluntatem Hteris sigtiiiioasti 
perpetuo oonser?are velles. Sed quia nobis de tua con- 
stentia nullum est dubium, nos etiam operam dabimus, ut 
cceptam nuper inter nos notitiam, bono literarum, et mu- 
tuis otficiis indies magis atque magis coniirmemus. Quod 
vero non suspicari modo, sed ut certo statuere videris, 
nos a tuo judicio de recta Orooe pronunoiandi ratione 
dissidere, id grave nobis molestumque est. Nam tametsi 
Dominus Uubiktus amicus noster summus significa?it| 
te nobiscum de recta lingusQ Or»c» pronunciatione con- 
ierre voluisse, tamen quia eam nobis faoultatem tuus neo 
opinatus et improvisus a nobis discessus eripuit, non 
credo te cognoscere potuisse, quid nobis in iUa caussa 
probetur. At» credo in eam do nobis opinionemi ei ser- 

368 A8CHAU*8 LETTERS. [1558. 

mone clariaaimi viri Domini Huberti venitti : qui quum 
eadem nos aecum uti pronunciatione dixiatet, quod not- 
tram tueri, vestram infirmare oooatus est, eodem tu 
etiam in loco nos ponendos esse judicasti. Et quauquam 
nos plurimum Domino Huberto tribuimus, nee dubite- 
mus, qtiin, pro eruditione sua singulari, exquisitas ad id 
quod sibi defeudendum sumpsit,raiiones habeat,|tamen qu» 
tibi cum illo suscepta est controversia, eam in nos deri- 
vari nolumus. Nee si in usu convenimus, idcirco eum 
quoque pari ratioue comprobaraus. Etsi enim non its 
sumus affecti, ut a quibus opinione dissentimus, ab iu 
voluniate disjungamur : tamen officio boni viri fungi 
volumus ; opiniones nostras ad veritatem sunt revocandsB, 
quam prudenter evertere, et falsitatem stabilire velle, sive 
id ex animo sive gratiaa caussa fiat, longe ab ingenue 
homine alienum esse debet. Quare, ut et facilior tibi sit 
nobiscum agendi ratio, et certius de nostra sententia judi- 
cium, non alienum esse videtur, in universo genere per* 
scribere, quid nos de recta Greece pronunciandi ratione 
sentiamus. Quod mnllem a Domino Mioyllo susceptum 
esse, qui, quoQ volumus, rectius, apertius, et elegantius 
explicarc posset. Sed quia id ille onus mihi imposuit, 
oujus ncc voluntatcm ncgligere nee auctoritntem aspcr- 
nari licet, peto a te, ut linnc imprudentiu) et temeritatis 
culpam illi potius quam mihi tribucndnm putes. Quum 
igitur consideramus, nos ncc in vocalibus, nee in diph- 
thongis, nee in consonnutibus ctinm, quas cognaiionem 
inter sc quandam habent, uUam fere adkibere in oil'crendo 
soui distiuctioncm, facile damns depravatam et vitiosam 
esse apud nos pronunciandi consuetudincm. Nam quid 
ilia varietas inter t, f?, v, », oi, si nulla soui sit in lis dissi- 
militude P Jam, qui commode in Tiieocriti versibus, 
quod ct MiCYLLUS sirpe nos admonuit, irouvvrat ct ravpbc 
exprimi possint, nisi av et «v, non qf et ^, sed, ut Latine 

1553.] ASCHAX*fi LfifTEftS. 361 

tanruR, et nurus ioiiiiTcmu$ P Quarc el Eiusvim n«te 
in libdlo de pronuuciatioiie judioasse oenscmuE, mx enrun 
inadtutum probaxnua, qui morem corruptum lationr pura 
emendare conantur. Quid igitur est, dices, quod son 
eorum numerum aujo^tia, qui in id incurobunt, ut depriH 
Tatam proQUDdatitmem restituant et corrigaut? IViiiiam, 
qtiia apud not in Ckrronnia, in omni gencir literarum 
prindpet non immutarunt, wd in communi vulgarique usu 
permanent; ddnde, quod pcrioulum est, ut, ne, si ad 
reetam rationein aspirarR vclimus, in contrnriam partem 
biia turbalis bccuHb peocemus; pncscrtim quum non om- 
nium oerta nobis ratio constet. Nam nondum nobis 
eiploratum est, quomodo veteres « et oi di])hthongos, e 
et f conaonantfs pronunciarint. He (?) quoniam omnibus 
fere a^Utibus diversas opiuiones, varias contentiones, 
multos errores, de germana eig usque lingue pronuncia- 
tione fuisae reperio, ut multum vitii in nostro more esse 
fatear, ita baud scio, an cum veterum ratione nimis cx- 
preasua ille ip ^t^rrtMc ambarum vooalium vim suam 
retinentium tonus oongruat. Neque enim tarn obtusas aures 
Atheniensea habuiase existimo, ut non animadvertere dit- 
orimen inter Xi^ et Xoc^^c potuissent, si tam orassa 
ftiisaet et aperta aoni differentia. Itaque ut nos in tanta 
quasi lingue et oris peregriuitate illam rotundam et volu- 
bilem Grmcorum pronunciationem oonsequamur, sum ma 
nobis diligentia, assiduo usu, limato judicio, natura idonea 
opus esse judico. Nam quo horridior est vox nostra, 
apiritus asperior, sonus vastior, eo difficilius ad lenem 
illam, pressam et squabilem vocis modemtioncm, qua 
olim in Grtecia usi sunt, occedere possumus. Quo circa 
timeraus, ne in hao impuritato et insolentia a vitio in 
vitium, ab crrore in errorem, incidamus. Quod scimus 
cuidam nostratiuro accidisee : qui, ut commune vitium in 
auppressione alterius Tocalis in dipbthongis effugeret,dum 


870 JI9GHAM*8 LETTERS. [1558' 

vaatius utramque diducit, omnibus se deridendum prsbet. 
Quid igitur ? satinne hoc est, ut non delinquere videa- 
murP errorem nos quidem, IlooERE, fatemur: sed quia 
auctores nobis et duces desunt, qui pristinam et inoor- 
ruptaiii pronunoiatioiiein apud nos revocent, toUere cum 
non possumus. Ncque enim tantum nobis eruditionis et 
auctoritutis sumiums, quicquam ut nos, nova hao in re, 
pra*stare posse existiuierous. Velim igitur tu apud illos, 
quorum doctriua, existimatio, et auctoritas altiori in loco 
posita est, efficias, cam ut in scholas dooendo inducaut: 
nos quoque operam dnbinius, ue nostro officio defuisse 
videamur. Quod si vobis in An^lia bene bsec pronuutia- 
tionis emendatio successerit, erit id nobis tam gratum, 
quam quod gratissimum. 13eue vale. Heidelbergse, XV 
Calend. Augusti, 1568. 


Ezprossos his sorrow for the death of EdwSrd YI, and begs him 
to write to him at St George's Tavern, Mechlin. 

Mechlin, Julj 18, 1553. 
^ichardus BrandUbfcm Rogero Aschamo 8.P. 
— Optimo et eruditissimo Aschame, optimi 
regis mortom ex animo doleo. Nimium illud 
nunc ViuoiLii de Maucello in nostros do- 
lorcs congruit. 
Ostondent ierris huuo tantum fata, neo ultra 
K^se sinunt. 
Et obnixc te rogo (piid vides, et quid futurum sperea 
nobis pcracribe, ut Pomponius Atticus tibi elegantia 
ingcnii, luorumque et animi sinceritate simillimus, ad 
CicEuoNEM suum scribere solebnt : sed ut tu bene 
Atticus, ita ad Brandisbajum minime Ciceronem 
scribes, neqiie minus scribes, quod parum dignus videnr 
tuis tam expubtis et enuclcatis litcris. Cupio nunc 

1553.] ascham's letters. 371 

quam prolixas literas. Si quid autem ad me scribes,' 
optiine celabitur. Literas tuas Mechliniam mittas quseso 
ad Tabernam Divi Georoii: reddentur optima fide. 
Bene vale, optime et amicissime Ascuams. Mechlioise, 
die XVIIIJulii, 1553. 


About Bembo, Cicero, &o. — advUef Ascham to write a history 
of what he has seen in his tratels. Strasburg, Julj 22, 1553. 
J^gero Aschamo S,P, — Montius noster sero me 
de Abeli discessu monuit. Itaque hoc tem- 
pore tibi tres meos ArUiotelicos DialogoB non 
possum emendatos mittere. Descriptos habeo : 
verum non fido pucro scribse. Mittam primo 
quoque tempore, quoniam in prccsenti fieri non potest, 
atque baud scio an potero ad omnes epistolee tuee 
partes respondere: quare capita ego prsecipua deligam. 
Placet mihi petitionis tuss principium, verecundum pro- 
fecto et liberale atque urbanum : ut faciam quod facio ; 
hoc est ut eloquentisB lumen splendore ingenii, indus- 
trise, et doctriuee meae, sic enim scribis, illustrem. 
Modesti est viri et liberalis, pro se nihil sed pro omnibus 
aliquid magni petere, quod in alterius sit potestate : sed 
hsec tria in mea potestate non sunt, sed sunt in me prima 
ilia duo exigua, doctrina nulla : ergo jocari te magis, et me 
excitare ad industriam potius arbitror, quam recte judi- 
care, aut plane errare benevolentia, et caritate, ut parentes 
in forma liberorum. Licet enim mihi etiam tuo argu- 
mento uti, ne solus sis modestus. De Bembi epistolis et 
de historia ejus recte juclicas, id quod siuui tuo sit com- 
missum, ejus epistolee scriptas mihi magis quam misses 
esse videutur. Indicia sunt hominis otiosi et imitatoris 
speciem magis rerum, quam res ipsas consectantis. 
CassARESi nuUo fere in loco expressit : Herodotum 

872 ASOHAM's LBTTBR9. [1558. 

minus. In principio Ukbiki dnoemi Terbit magit CiOi- 
BONIS qunm animi dolore et senteniiis Itiget. CiOBBO 
▼erius Uobtensium, et ornatu decentiore. Lege nirstis 
Bruium, ct compara uirumque. Vide quantum te ameiOi 
qui hffic audcam ad te, sed tu me provocasti. Oalli 
eodem modo admirantur BuDifSUM, de quo quid sentias, 
ex tuo do Bbmbo judicio possum nstimare. Sed profecto 
▼iri docirinarum studio magni, et cjusmodi, nt nobis et 
auctoritate et excmplo plurimum profoerint : Yerum 
desino laudare, ne dc tna fide dubitare videar. Quin tu 
historiam scribis, Aschamb, qui tarn belle histori» leges 
nosti? non adulor; vere dico officii tui esse hiatoriam 
scribere. Quamnam inquis ? eamm renim, quae in Oe^ 
mania legisti, audivisti, vidisti. Simulata Maubitii ad 
(Enopontum adventatio : Caesabis necessaria foga : pax 
oonnecuta, et ea nunc inclinata : et postremum cruentum 
istud bellum, et Mauritii mors : si verum est quod did- 
tur, an non hfcc mogna, et to digna ? aut tu istud facito, 
quod potcs prn; ceteris, aut desino a me Togare» quod 
luihi est diflicilc ct nrduum. 

Do dinlogis meis respotidi : raittnm propediem descrip* 
tos ct emcndntos. Domino Chboo honorem tantum obti- 
gissc la^tor ; scmol ei scripsi brevi, sod vereor ne fuerint 
importunfc litcrro, atque idcirco nimis prolixn. Domino 
Crcillo mihi plane jam non vacnt scribere, propter 
ftubitnm hujus profcctioncm : cum dialogis mittam; interea 
111 meis literis viam 8terne,ut mollius ad eum perveniant: 
et si poles animum in mo quam priinum tuis litoiis con- 
firma. Nam piidet me ad tales viros : vereor enim ne 
ipse mihi videar aliquid iribucrc, si scribam ad tales, ad 
tantos» prrcscrtim non noius. Sed quid boo est? tu ad 
mo nihil dc regis valeiudine. Doum immorialcm I quam 
omneo boni, et litcris negotiatorum, et rumoribus homi- 
num, de ejus morio, non enim ausim graviori vcrbo uti^ 

1658.] ascham'b letters. 378 

fuimus peroalai ! beri tandem litersB de ejus salute allatse 
fuenmt, dates octavo higus mensis. Inchoaveram Eclo- 

Audiemat iiTmpha orudeli funere Daphkik : etc. 
non Daphnim nominabam : et alius versus fuit, et aliud 
oogDomentum : buno posui, ut videres quern statuerim 
isiitari. Nunc et banc famam falsam repetam, et contra 
istam postremam obducam, et argumentum exstabit 
jacundius mibi ad scribendum. Non enim is sum pastor, 
at oanere postim, et aliis ad legendum, ut ne utroque 
aim molestus ; satis enim molesta res est versus malus : 
mors etty vox adjuncta deterior. Vale, et me ama : non 
ezciiso brevitatem, non enim putavi me tarn prolixum 
ease posse. Vale, salve, atque vale. Argentorati, XXII 
Mensis Jmlii, Anno Domini 1563. 

BxOMMt himself for not having written — refers to Cisner*i letter 
about the pronunciation of Greek, and addi a long argu- 
ment on the same lubject. Heidelbeig, Aug. 9, 1658. 
^pciiiiimo Firo, Romero Jichamo CantabriffienH, 
amieo wo ohtervando, Huhertw Leodiui, 8, F, 
— Quod ad aliquot epistolas tuas, eruditas 
sane et jucundas, hactenus non responderim, 
doctissime Asohamb, ne putes quseso negli- 
gentia tui, aut negotii pro quo scriptse erant, factum. 
Absit enim hoc a me procul, ut tantum amicum negligam, 
Tel reipublicsB literarisB signa deseram, mutatisve armis 
transfiiga in tua castra confugiam. Turbulenta tempora, 
et vertigo capitis, qua dudum laboro, non tulerunt me 
hisce rebus vacare, quse meditatione egent. PrsBterea 
expectabam Olyhpijb ad nos adventum, quas certiora et 
nimirum, in iis Uteris ab ineunte sstate nutrita, doctiora 
•cribeie potuisset, quam a me queas expectare. Sed proh 

374 ascham's letters. [1558. 

dolor ! ea in oppido Swinfurto una cum mariio, longo jam 
tempore gravi obsidione cincta detinetur. Quapropter, se 
le diutius literis nostris fnistrari querare, exora?i CisMi- 
BUM, ut no8iro, hoc est auo, Micylli, ac meo nomine 
rescribendi officium su^ciperet : quod ille non gravate 
fecit, putoque ab eo tibi Baliem in parte aatisfactum in. 
Quod si etium a me ultra quid sentiam requirit, neque in 
hoc tibi deesse volo. Scito i^tur invictum me in acie per- 
stare nee ?elle sacramento abaolvi, aed ut, quemadmodam 
iu, a prjra quoque incipiam, admitterem forsan banc 
literam doq 8onare ut y nostrum factum consonana, si 
▼icissim confiterere, hoc non esse perpetuum : neque enim 
ut malim dicere flAXtra^iov ei ^^(iCapoe per p, ita paiiim 
et Palvu et paXXu badizo et haino et hallo dicerem : sed 
potius per quasi y mihi sonuerint» consulens aurium judi- 
oio. Insuper pioQ id est ?ita, per y quam per 1 1 mak> 
etiam ptfra id est beta, ut Juvenalis, dicamui quam wUif 
et ulphabelum quHm alphavilum, Sed ut certum habeas 
exemplum et auctorem, scribit ICustathius Orsecosquos- 

dam hiK'tirirtjQ pro 4»fXi7r7roc, et alios PaWijvri dvrl rov 
waWripri et loqui et scribcre, propter vicinitntem, et conso- 
naniiarn p cum ^ ct curn w, Ecquid faciunt Bavari, ut 
ex barburiu uliquid priRHidii oBBurnam ? Nonne dicunt pro 
barbarn Warvara ? vX «ic de aliis li habentia, W Germani- 
cum, pro 6 UBurpantcs. Sed dc p satis : nunc veniamus 
ad rj. Non persuades sane mihi earn literam sonare ut 
duplex I f : ncqiic usquam dicit EusTATiiiua ejus esse 
aoni; ciiaui si dicat chbc imitationcm vocis ovium, non 
propterea sequitur cam literam ad amussim sonare vocem 
ovillam. Quod ut verum esse scias et tuo te jugulem 
auctore, ponara ipBissima Kustatuii verba eIq n^v l&ra 

h\b)p fihrotf rb fiovoodWa^ov trvvkcaXrat, 'dirtp^ IqIv, tUq 

1553.] ascham's letters. 375 

rvK ^^( rtjc yl/fi^s Kard fiififieiv Kai aitrb, olh avroi ^atrlv 6fioi<itQ 
fiiftfirucMC 1^ P^t oif fAky /3a( fiifitiaiv vpofidrtav ^(avr^Q, KparXvoQ 

Hsec eadem scribit et Suidas. Audis esse imitationem, 
non expressionem vocis. Aliud autem est imitari, aliud 
exprimere, aut adsequi vocem : quemadmodum, quod pace 
tua dixerim, tu imitaris in scribendo Cioeronem, non 
exprimis, aut adsequeris. Praeterea audis Atticos /3)), non 
Pat vocem ovis esse ^i^i^rtjcdv, quod magis ovinam vocem 
reprsesentaret, siquidem voluisent ipsissimam vocem ovis 
reprsesentare aut exprimere. Veluti etiam dicuiit /3Xijk^, 
ceu pXriKfifia vocem ovis esse dictionem, nihil ut ovis 
sonantem, etiamsi sciam interpositione rov \ fieri, et quid 
sonat Latinis. Balatus simile ad ovis vocem, et tamen 
balare dicitur ovis ; sic latrare canis, sic grunnire porcua, 
et hujusmodi : sic et etiam /3^ non vere exprimere vocem* 
sed tamen esse vocem ovis improprie dixeris, et non j3fc, 
propterea sonare, sed /3e, ri longo. Jam adsertum puto 
fira suam genuinam vocem, et i longum, vel i sonare 
GrsBcis, neque veteres aliter hac litera uses puto, nisi ut 
charactere ab e vel Idra differret, non sono, et lignutn 
foret, longum esse e vel Hora, quod est indifferens, leni* 
terque mihi sonuisse: pari raodo videtur dicendum de 
hliutpbv et &iuya^ charactcre quidem, sono vix quicquam 
differre. Latini scribunt h\ Itali non exprimnnt, nisi 
usque adeo exiliter, ut aspirare non deprehendns; sic 
Grseci etiam aspirationem notant ; ^oles prorsus reji- 
ciunt. Plerique <r non admittunt, ne videantur sibilnre, 
alii II per a malunt exprimere, ne videantur imitari ovcs ; 
usque adeo delicatas habuerunt aures. Diphthongtim u noti 
tuo, sed nostro more sonuerunt, quod ex tuo Gioeroni 
non potes negare in dictione bini, ubi binei illi dicendum 
fuisset, pro pivil. Quod si consulas aures, deprehendis 
longe dulcius sonare per i, et hinc fit quod non immerito 

876 A'SCUAM's LBTTIR8, [1558. 

a Saxonibus et Helvetiis rideantur Sue?i« hianti ore bane 
diphthongnm profereutes, in meum, iuum, tuum. Qua- 
propter, mi Asghame, ne tonuerU mihi /Sltro, aed potioa 
fikra^ vel fii^ra per iwra; neque quum M^icya pronundas, 
Tidearis os plenum pultlbus liabere, vel auriga ease. Quod 
si objicias mihi Dores, admittam apud indoctam ei rudem 
plebem olim foisse moris, ut apud Tueockitum [Id, 15, 
87], iv Zvpa«M9/aic, mulieres quiedam irridentur ab ho- 
mine aulico, et erudiio, non ferente eas Donee garrire, 
boe est, nimium latiori ore loquentes, in his Teraibus, 
na^ffaj^*, & iifQavoi^ Avdwra KtariXXouiat 
TPVro'N££ UKvaunvvTi w\artidoioi9M Sirayro, 

Docti autem et civiliores non multum curarunt «> an o 
proferrent, ut qui w et wc diptbongum in SfMepmy et iv 
mulabant, prout exigebat necesaitas, ut apud eundem in 
hoc versu, 

Mil fiiv \ui€d9riaBt tAq dfiirkXoc^ iyrt ydp Afiau 
ubi Doriee dfiwiXutQ diceudum fuit, et d/t9reX8c communiter, 
ubi 00 mutant in g^, lones solvunt diphthongos, alii 
alitor, ut apparent Graces non magnopere curasse pro- 
nunciandi modum, quern tu tantopere exigis in lucem 
revocare. Habuit una quKque natio suum idiotismum. 
Sed die quseso mihi, quam.e quinque illorum linguis tuuro 
servasse modum, et quomodo probabis? Quod enim per 
characteres id argumentoasserereconariSyOpinionemprobas, 
non screntiam : et quo tempore ita loquebantur, oerte doc- 
tissimum Ciceronis seculum tibi adversatur, quern tamen 
GrsDcissime locutum, etiam admiratione Grsecorum, non 
ignoras, ut tu ipse in dictione bini intellexisti. Prseterea 
scis quam inviti Dores et JColes in secundis et tertiis per- 
sonis et infinitis » dipthongum exprimant, quin potiua 
expungunt : dicunt rvTrrw, rvTrnc, rvirri, et Jiloles r^wriic, 
r{f7rrri, ivtttiv \i\ iiifinitivo, item dicunt Dores K^vQQdvr\ 
TH Ikuvoq : k dvri tqv ilQ. Debeietis etiam atque in primia 

1553.] ASCHAU'S LETTERS. 377 

docere, veteres, quum proferrent vestro nt yultis more, 
melius, suavius, et doctius locutos fuisse, et rectius fedsae, 
quam posterius seculum; teoaciusque retinendum, quie 
mater Evandri et Osci atque VoLaci loquebantur, quam 
quffi aurea Ciceronis stas garririfc. Haberem adhtic 
piurima scribeada, de reliqaia diphthongis at literis ; qiii« 
bus ostenderem, vos imiovatores literarum, ad mille qciiii« 
gentos annos obsenratum pronandaiidi modom Telle jam 
confundere, et ad Phoenioes et Cadmum levocaie, rehe* 
menterque errare : sed nee caput meum admittit, imo et 
amanuensi uti oompellit, et te alias ob amissum jarenem 
regem, nimirum tristem et calamitosum, nolo Tehementios 
oouiurbare. Quare, mi Aschamb, boni consule, et Claris* 
simum Dominum Morysinum meo nomine plorimum 
saluta, atque vale. Ueidelbergae, nono die Aogusti, Anno 
Domini 1553. 

Saji he has written to Paget— he leods back a letter which 
Atchain it to alter and to eeod again to him. 

Lonrain, Aug. 18, 1558. 
)[elru3 Nanniui Bogero Jsekamo. — Admiratio tnse 
eruditionis mihi amorem peperit, non amor 
eruditionis admirationem : quaproper, optime 
et disertissime Aschame, non erro in tub 
dotibus sestimandis, ad quas judiciuln non 
amorem adhibeo ; et soleo in perpendendis et amioorum 
et inimicorum virtutibus, satis incorruptus censor esse : 
sed hoc interest, quod dotes amicorum applansu et 
gratulatione, inimicorum dolore, non invidia prosequor. 
Doleo enim id mihi meisve deesse, quod inimicis superest. 
EpistoUun ad Paoettum scripi, suspenso certe animo» 
quum sensus illius non caUeam, et qua parte teneri possit, 
in tantis mutationibus rerum, non ad liquidum intelligam 

378 ascham's letters. [1553. 

Utut turn (livinatione, utinam felici, certe admodum 
•edula : non austis fui petere, ut tuam fortunam tueretnr, 
.ne oleret illi, me ^ ie ad hoc instigatum fuisse. Adjunxi 
multo«, et inter multos te, ut quod dicerem Tcrisimiliui 
esset, et minime subornatum videretur. Ta judicabiB 
mutabisque ut Yoles : si te aut Brakdisbjeum in consilio 
habuissem, melius ad iliius affectus, et ad rem praesentem 
moderatus fuissem dictionem : nunc id per absentiam res- 
tram obtingere non licuit, etiam si mihi ejus consiliam 
permisisses. Yalde desidero tuum adventum, cum quo 
liberius loquor, quam scribo. Literas tuas remitto, sed 
ea lege, ut, subductis iis quae oculis multorum non velis 
exponi, mihi reddas. Ego enim eruditorum literas, quales 
tu8B sunt, quae optime lucem ferre possunt, libenter aroicif 
ostendo. Vale. Lovanii, XV Calend. Septembris, 1558. 

CLVI.—STURM TO A8CHAM, (5, 10). 
Haf written to Paget about Afcham, and now lendt a copy of 
that letter. Strasburg, Sep. 17, 1663. 

Joannes Siurmiua Roger o Aschamo S. P. — Scripsi 
de te nd Dominum Pagettum; et it libenter 
et vcre scripsi, ita molestiim fuit, quod ad 
hoc usque tempus Doctor Montius tabella- 
rium nullum habuit. Seribo ad cum, te igno- 
rante, ut vides, et certe puto id recte factum esse : tametsi 
tu quidem potes laudari, et pluribus, et amplissimis verbis, 
▼ere seribo. A mo te, et colo, ob eas quas in te intelligo 
esse virtutes. Non possum tibi jam respondere ad capita 
tuarum literarum : nam Montius noster cupit has vesperi 
habere literas, ut suis adjungat, et ego jam sum occupa- 
tissimus. Seribo Domino Pagetto, quo faciat ut intelligas, 
et ex eo non ex me, quid scripserim : non possum tamen 
aliter facere quia tibi meum amorem indicem, et tibi 
earum literarum exemplura mittam, sive isthic sis BruxelUs, 

1553.] ascuam's letters. 879 

sive in Anglia. Si ignoranter feci, ignosces, qui nostram 
consuetudinem scholasticam non ignoras. Yale. Argen- 
torati, XVII Septembris 1558. Uxor mea te saluiat, et 
quoniam tu me amas, ipsa te diiigit. 


Praises Asoham*s virtues and learning, and asks Paget to inter- 
cede, that Asoham may keep the same post at the court of 
Queen Marj, which he had held under Henry YIII and 
Edward YL Strasburg, Sep. 17, 1558. 

Joannes Sturmiua Domino Pagetto 8. P. — Luc- 
tuosissima quidem nobis ad audiendum fuit, et 
adhue ad recordandum acerbissima est, regis 
mors, qui in tanta fuit expectatione clementise, 
prudentiae, doctrinae, religionis, nt non vester 
solum, verum etiam noster, et omnium rex hominum fore 
videretur. Sed de hoc alias ; nunc de quo o«pi scribere. 
In hoc nostro et luctu et moerore tamen recreat nos non 
mediocriter, te pristinae dignitati et honoribus restitutum 
esse; et jam mihi gratulandi occasionem datam esse; 
quum dolendi autea, non consolandi potuerim habere. 
Quanquam non tarn tibi gratulandum sit, quam Angliae 
universae, quam bonis omnibus. Fuerunt mihi semper 
gratissimae Eogeri Aschami, tamen nuUae gratiores 
literae, quam in quibus de tua bonitate scripsit, quae uulli 
nisi sibi ipsa nocuit. Scripsit in quadam epistola, ubi 
de tuis landibus scripsit, te ad juvandum omnes homihes 
natum esse. Credo, si jam scriberet, scriberet te solum 
ejus caussa esse natum. Et quanquam non dubiio, quin 
ei ultro adfuturus sis : tamen ego mea sponte, etiam ejus 
caussa, ad te scribere statui. Et ut videas me nullam 
mihi Yelle apud te novam gratiam colligere, in hac tua 
restituta dignitate, qui in spoliata scribere Yion potui, de 
ine nihil scribam, neque petam aliquid pro me deinceps : 

8S0 ascuam's lettxrs. [1553. 

sed pro Aschamo meo; de eoque scribam, nihil aliod in 
hac epistola oogitana, quam illius ttiidia. literal, otian, 
quietem. Fortauis autem opos dod habet eommenda- 
tione mea, tamen me sollicitum reddont renuDpobliearam 
convereiones, qase absque periculii et injuriifl esse noo 

Ego AscHAMUM amo, prspostere quidem, tamen hoc 
ordine meorum consilioram amo : primom, quia me ab eo 
amari sentio, ex suis ad me studiosissime scriptis Uteris : 
deinde ob similitudinem studiorum, ut non solum idem 
apud auctores intelligere, yerum idem Telle yideamnr, turn 
propter doctrinam, quse nisi maxima esset, non posset ita 
ad me scribere, ut scribit. Postrema caussa est, quam tu 
maxime facies, ego propter adulandi suspicionem primam 
ponere non potui : regni vestri utilitas, quam non solum 
ad commoditatem, Terum etiam ad dignitatem refero. 
Nam ita can^ est multis nostris principibus, et civitatibus 
propter humanitatem, elegantiam, doctrinam, suavitatem, 
quas virtutes ex se habet : deinde propter amicorum com« 
mendationes, quas ejus virtus merita est, ita, inquam, 
gratus, et cams est, ut dignus videatur, qui in perpetuis 
sit legationibus : sed ita doctus, ita studiosus, ita idoneus 
ad literas nostras, ut optandum sit, eum perpetuo esse in 
scholis doctorum bominum. £t quoniam ad utrumque 
perseque idoneus est ; rogo te, ut quern locum ante habuil 
duobus regibus, eundem hac regina retineat : quoniam idem 
AsGUAMUS est, qui fuit excellenti doctrina, ingenio miti, 
mansueto, tranquillo, omnium amans, nulli inimicus. Vide 
quanta scribam sollicitudine, non cupio solum eum manere 
eum, qui fuit : et per te manere, et commendari serenis- 
simse reginse : verum etiam ut intelligat, meam commen- 
dationem sibi apud te profuisse. Cupio enim ei impru- 
denti et non cogitanti adesse, ut eo post me amet magis. 
Nosti enim illud Isocbatis consilium, quod Demon ico 

1553.] ascham's letters. 881 

dedit; illud mihi bono erit, si Aschamus intellexerit suam 
salutem mihi curee ad te in hac dignitate fuisse. Scribe- 
rem piura; nisi antea scripsissem de solo Aschamo me 
scribere : et non velle rogare, ut cogites me tuse dignitatis 
8tudiosissimum esse, et vestri regni salutem, quietem, 
amplitudinem, magnopere expetere. Vale. Argentorati, 
XVII Septembris, Anno Domini 1553. 


Before to his former letters written in English to the Bishop 
He now petitions for one of these three things, either to 
have a pension to study at college, or to be attached to the 
suite of some king's minister abroad, or to be appointed 
Latin Secretary to Queen Mary, as he had been to Hen. 
VIII, and to Edward VI. Oct. 8, 1668. 

1pm, JFintoniensi, — Obitus Edvardi optimi 
nostri principis, vitalis quidem illi, luctuosus 
vero mihi, et meis rebus perquam calamitosus 
exstiiit, optime prsesul. Itaque quum mens 
mea maeroribus confecta, et fortunae meae curis, 
incpia, et solitudine valde implicitse impeditaeque fuissent, 
non laetus ego, sed totus gemens, literas illas meas supe- 
riores Anglice scriptas, minime lautas, sed omnino lugu* 
bres, tibi offerebam. At vero, quum eas ipsas literas 
sermone barbaras, scriptione incultas, prolixitate molestas 
importuneque petaces, tanta humanitate, non solum ipse 
legeris,*8ed aliis etiam ostenderis, committere certe nolui, 
quin et mentem et manum exjcitarem, ut has novas laetiori 
loquentes voce, et lautiori indutas veste, atque gratiori 
institutas ratione, amplitudini tuae offerrem. Intellexi 
enim et ex aliorum sermone, et ex tuo non solum vultu 
sed voce excepi, quam praesenti retines memoria mea 
postulata ; et quam parata animi propensione eniteris, ut 
me tibi beneficio tuo in perpetuum devincias. A quo 



882 ASCUAM's LETTXK8. [1553. 

nexu tantum abest ut me expedire yelim, ut in ea ipsa 
yiocula arctius me induere, omni bbore, fide, officio, et 
obiervantia mea, perpetuo iaboraturus sim. £t quanquam 
spes, quam ip»e miiii proponis, est admodum certa, et res 
qnam ego abs te expecto erit valde grata, voluntas tamen 
ilia tua, qua me tuendum suscipis, est omnium longe 
jucundisftima, et tua voluntas ita expedita est, et sic quasi 
evolat, ad bene de me merendum, ut non solum eam uUo 
meo officio consequendi spem, sed omnem etiam agendi 
gratias pra^currat facultatcm. Et quum gratise, quas tibi 
merito tuo referrem, sunt penitus nuUse, et quas tibi jam 
habeo maximas, sunt illae etiam meo judicio non satis 
dign^, ego itaque, superatus re et derelictus destitutusque 
oratione, subsequar te certe, grata vicissim voluntate, 
parato officio, et perpetua observantia, et sic conferam me 
ad cam, quas sola mihi reiiqua est, compensandi rationem. 
Non est enim mos liorum tcmporum, clarissime prsBsul, 
non consuetudo borum liominum, non tui loci et digni- 
tatiS) Hie dcsccndcre ad usum hominis mei ordinis, imo, 
non est humanitatis, sed divinro cujusdam naturae, tam 
CBHG puratum, sic cstie propositum ad benefacicndum 
omnibus, nique id etiam his, qui nuilo suo officio, nee 
antea promercri ncc postea compensare tantam tuam 
henevolcntiam queant. Et hoc est quod antca dixi, mihi 
proponi cjuidera certam spem, et cxpecturi etiam gratam 
rem, sed tuam mihi benevolentiam longe omnium esse 
jucundissimam : qua tua benevolentia nullum nc tuum 
beneficium quidcm mihi gratius esse potcrit. Et tamen, 
ut ingenue dicam, non tantum gratulor mihi illam ipsam 
tuam benevolentiam, quantum tibi gratulor eam tam prm- 
claram bcnefaciendi naturnm. Imo, non tibi tantum talem 
tuaui naturaui, quantum universac Angliai suam felicita- 
tem, cujus rem, et publicam in Curia, et literariam in 
Acadcmia, inuitis jam jactatam modis, variisque diu afllic- 

1563.] ascuam's letters. 383 

tatam miseriis, consilio nunc tuo juvare, eruditione pro- 

movere, tantopere conaris. Quarum rerum salus tibi 

jam semper cara exstitit, ut jam spes tandem affidserit 

singularem nunc siligulorum hominum tranquillitatem, 

exoptatum studionim otium, totiusque reipublicse quietem, 

in tua jam plurimum unius auctoritate, in excellenti doc- 

trina, in ardenti erga rempublicam studio, deinceps con- 

quietura. Et quum prudentissima nostra princeps maxi- 

mam harum rerum curam tuae unius sequitati, doctrinse 

et moderationi credidit atque commendavit, nonnihil et 

ipse Isetor, tria ilia mea postulata illiusmodi esse, ut sive 

otium studendi in Academia, sive negotium scribendi in 

Aula, sive laborem peregrinandi in aliena regione, tua 

gratia et favore sortitus fuero, omnes vitse mese rationes 

his rebus omnino inservire necesse sit, quibus tua pru- 

dentia prseest et moderatur. Nam si otium in Academia 

ex sententia mihi concessum fuerit, quod imprimis opto, 

omne iUud dico otium, non languidum ad inertiam, sed 

quiet um ad alacritatera, eo incumbet et excubabit, ut 

linguae et liters nonnibil ad meum fructum, plus ad 

aliorum usum, potissimum vero ad tuam laudem, quarum 

tu jam antistes es, colantur et efflorescant. Sin peregre 

profectus fuero, ut vel mea excolam studia, vel reipublicse 

inserviam commodo; bone DeusI quam frequentes et 

prolixas literas, et singulis aptas personis, et accommo- 

datas rebus, et distinctas locis, et partitas temporibus, 

atque omnia quidem fideliter, caute, et considerate ad te 

perscriberem 1 Usum etiam nonnuUum ad banc func* 

tionem adferre possim ; nam istius proximi superioris, et 

Mauritani motus, et belli Gallic! temporibus interfui ; in 

quibus magnae amicitiarum, dissidiorum, pr»dationum,bel- 

lorum confusiones, mutabiles fortunse varietates, et gravis- 

simse rerum conversiones exstiterunt. Ubi prsesens oculis 

meis perspexi, quantum dxa/o(£ta, dolus, perfidia, libido, am- 

884 ascham's letters. [1553. 

bitio, deofiaxla has miseras res humanas permiscent et con- 
turbant. Full tempus, eruditissime praBsnl, qunm talem 
materiam etiam scriptione perpolire mediocriter potuissem; 
Bed 8UCCU8 ille purioris dictionis, quern ego bausi ex opti- 
mis utriusque linguae fontibus, totus jam exaruit; et 
stylus, quern mihi spes sita in Edyardo principe nonnihil 
exacuerat, nunc vehementer est retusus, ad duram banc 
meam, et absque te fiiisset, plane desperatam inopiam et 
solitudinem. At vero si aura favoris et gratise tuas mihi, 
quomodo spero, aspiraverit, ita me excitabo ad noyam 
spem, et comparabo me ad tuum sensum et voluntateiD, 
ut te nunquam poeniteat hoc in me contulisse beneticiom. 
Tertium meum postulatum fuit, ut ad literas regis 
mnjestatis Latine conscribendas ponar, quod mibi officimn 
Edvardus rex benigne assignavit. Ad hoc munus, 
quanquam non ingemum, nee artem, Adem tamen et 
diligentiam, atque nonnullum quum mentis turn roanus 
usuin in siraili perfunctione, adferre possum. Quae tres 
res, ductu prudeutiqe tuae gubernatee, si non laudem 
mereri, repreheusionem certe vitare queunt. Ilaque sive 
in Academia, sive in Aula, sive peregre vivam, ego et 
omnes vitae meee rationes, in tua voluntate, gratia, et 
auctoritate conquiescemus. Et has tres meas petitiones his 
etiam literis repetere statui, ne non te rerum mearum, sed 
me mei ipsius immemorem esse ostenderem. Hoc ab 
humanitatate tua suramopere irapetrare . cupio, ut sciam 
Academisene, Aulse, an peregrinationi me deslinare velis, 
ut ad illud vitae institutum me interea comparem : hos 
enim mihi nimis graves sumptus vereor ut diu possim 
sustinere. Pensionem, quam mihi liberaliter concessit 
Heneicus Octavus, et benigne confirmavit Edvardus 
Sextus, nuUo modo dubito quin confirmatura etiam sit 
nobilissima nostra regina. Itaque literas, quas patentes 
vocant, mihi scribi curavi, ut gratia et auctoritate tua, 

1553.] ASCHAIf's LETTERS. 385 

manu et sigillo legcias majestatis de more obsi^nctitur. 
Dominus nosier Jesus Christus ter eipublicee Utcrnriflp, 
Christians, sequissimum judicem, optimum patronum, rt 
doctissimum prsesulem diutissime servet iucolumem. 
Octobris 8, Anno Dom. 1553. 

CLIX.— TO THE SAME, (3, 19). 

Sends him a copy of the Psalms of David in Qreck vertD— com- 
pares him to Socrates, both having composed poems In 
prison. [1663.] 

fflfem, quum offerret illi Jpollin&rium. — Est hio 
libel] us, ornatissime praesul, re, tractatione, 
lingua, insignia; Psalmos enim Davidih ele- 
ganti carmine eoque Qra^co complectitur : u*» 
et lingua, altera vitse, altera studio tuo aptiji- 
sime convenit. Et quam carmine etiam delectarif, tdo, 
cujus condendi usu, et suavitate, illam tuperiorum tern* 
porum, et castigare insolentiam et lenire acerbitatem 
frequenter consuevisti. Hinc certam facio conjectunitai 
simillimorum hominum simile etse ttudium, consilium 
par, et eundem fere sensum. Te, optime praetui, intelligo, 
et SocRATEM Athenienscm ; uterque enim potenti calum* 
nia, simili de caussa, ingratae jussu patriae* in cutlodiAm 
datos est. Utrique Testrum in tauta et hominum injuria 
et temporum tristitia, et indignitate loci, aequalit fortiiudo, 
constantia par, idemque etiam relaxandie mentis propoti- 
tom fuit consilium. Uterque enim illigando in carmen, 
ille, ut Plato narrat, fabellas ^sopi, tu grandiores ret, 
sollicitam caroeris solitudinem soliti estis mitigare. B«* 
liqua omnia paria, dispar fuit sola fortuna : vitam enim 
illi ingrata abstulit patria, tibi pene restituit gratiot issimi 
regina. Carmen igitur, quod tum in deposits jacentiqut 
fortuna fuit gratnm* in erecta jam atque florenti erit per- 


386 ascham's letters. [1553. 

jucundum; tale praesertim carmen, quod rem optimam 
optima explicatam lingua continet. Nonnus in £aciliori 
versatus materia, Yersu, mea opinione, magis impedito 
magisque obscuro usus est. Itaque hunc libeliom tibl 
offerre volui, ut esset studii atque observaiitiflB mese aliquis 
testis, et pro me meisque etiam rebus apud prudentiam 
tuam, licet non flagitator importunus, postulator tamen 
nou satis fortasse verecundus. De fortunulis meis con- 
stituendis minus jam laboro, quum tu me tuendum tibi 
suscepisti : vereor tamen nonnihil, ne perpetuam potius 
benevolent ise tuse memoriam colere, quam fructum bene- 
ficentiae tuse diu exspectare queam. Tenuitas enim mea 
me jamjam Londino abiget, et officium compellat nunc, 
brevi etiam Cantab rigiam coget, ne exigua non mea sed 
temporis transgressio facile mihi eripiat, quod multi anni 
longaque stadia et vix et diu collegerant. Et quanquam 
non dubito, quin ego tuae auctoritatis prsesidio munitus, 
tuaeque prudentiae ductu gubernatus possim, licet non 
ingenio et facultate, fide tamen, diligentia, et tacitumi- 
tate, munus illud scribendi literas Latine sustinere: ad 
eum tamen locum sollicitus accedo, quum sic in Aulam 
principis ex schola Biantis prodiero, ut non solummodo 
mea, sed nonnihil etiam alieni, mecum apportaturus sim. 
Sed hsec me cura minus perturbat, quoties cogito cujus 
mea et spes boiiitate nititur et res auctoritate constituetur. 
Deus, &c. 

CLX.— TO SIR W. PETKE, (3, 20). 

Solicits hia interest in procuring the office of Latin Secretary, 
and is thankful that Petre yesterday promised him the pen- 
sion of Peter Vannes [a former secretary who received 40 
marks a year], and a half of it in ready cash. [1553.] 

1553.] ascbam's Limsf* 397 

^m. Qui. Peireen Uetpa Seerdarw. — Ex smnoiMr 
domini Cecilli eo^pwm, «i «x omFtro ioUr 
not matoo coUoqttio pm^ivpni, ornatMHriiiM; nr, 
qiuun parsta TolttoUtiJi iiurUiuiiiofie propmKkVt 
at me tibi too beiMrfiino in perpiHainii cknrincttw^ 
A quo benevolentiae nexa taDttun abcst mi hm; «xpedb« 
velim, ut in ilia ipsa Ttocola tne arcitos tndtMrrr, omoi 
diligentia, fide, officio, et obsenrantia hmss fMrrpetaa, prr* 
petuo laboraturos sim. Loiborabo enim sednlo, me vk 
totum ad tuum sensnm et Tolantatem oomfwrare, nt nihil 
exoptem prius, quam ut omne» Tit« mete rationed in too 
unius favore, gratia, et auctoritate oonqoie»cere queant« 
Ad munas vero illud literal Latine coniicribendi, qiian* 
quam non ingenium et artem, fidem tamen et diligentiam 
et tacitumiiatem atque nonnuUum quum menti* tuin 
manus in scribendo utum, mecum ex Academia in Aulam 
apportabo. Magnam elocjuentias vim non coniequutut, 
fied ne sequutus quidem unquam «um : hoc enim in scri- 
bendo consilium tantum mihi propono, at proprietatem 
in verbia, ut perspicuitatem in sententiis semper tuear et 
conservem, ut apposite ad singulas personas, ut accommo- 
date ad quamque rem, ut partite et distincte cogitata 
mentis, sive mesB sive alterius, expHcare queam. IitSB 
facultates, per se quidem tenues et exiguse, prudent iw 
tamen tuu3 prassidio adjutss et consilii tui ductu guber- 
natsD, si non laudem mercri, reprehensionem certe vitare» 
spero, poterunt. Si tuo satisfecero judicio, de reliquis 
meis rebus minus laborabo : inprimis vero sollicitus sum 
de aliquo loco commodo, ubi res mihi impositas et com- 
mendatas et opportune curare et tuto conservare queam. 
Ad banc commoditateni mihi obtinendam, sive inter Aula 
parietes, sive in alicujus nobilis familia, dum res meas 
melius constitutae fuerint, quodammodo mihi pollioeor 
gratiam tuam et auctoritatem : omne enim otium, quod 

588 ABCtlAM*! liKTTKRS. [1559. 

tiiihi rc)i()iturTi orit nb officii mol perftmoiione, libentisstmts 
poiicrcni ifi porlrgriido tiniversntn titriusqtie linguie histO' 
rinni : rt rn libcntius id fncr rem, si is Tnous labor n\ier\t 
(|ui rodrm gnudct Ktudio, itsui esse possit. Hpero, pro* 
(ImtiMime vir, non te propteren minus bene de me existi- 
tnnre, cpind illiis ({tins vomrit prmbendns non ndmodufn 
mihi rxprinm. Bittis mtdti stmt, nimlsque multii qui ists 
fxtrnordinnrin nijitnvis iitiliintis nticupifl nimis nvide con* 
iirdnntur. Istorum bominum consilium non ego impe* 
dire, nco mnltum reprrbendcre stnttii i eorundem lumen 
neo consuetudinem seqtii, nco numerum in Anla nugere, 
unqunm in nnimo bnbui. Ncqtie tnmen sio dnnts si 
ini(ptus mibi ipso sum, ut commodiUtes mens dui negli' 
gnm nut nliis trndere velim : sed rebemenier lieUius num, 
qutim stiperinre die in cubiculo tuo pensionem illam 
rBTHf Vanni, et dimidlsm pncsontem mibi bonefok 
promiscris, ct rcliqunm eiinm integrnm bref i mihi, prw 
rlarn spn, spowpondcris. Hnd bnnc rem et rcliquAs omn(» 
fortiifins mens tiur prudcniim ronsiiiiicndns rdinqtio. 
K^o vrro pnrniu«» sum, ut jurrjurnndo do more fidera 
mnxm vi olmcrvnutinm ndsirinj^nm. ])ominus Jksos 
pnidrfiiiiun tunm diuti»sime servrt incolumem. 

Cf.XI.- TO J.()UI) PAOET, (3, 81). 
Bont with n copy of ()noriui» -upenkn of Pngei And ib© Clitn' 
rrllor | Unrdinrr |, nn oonibitiing t-o benefit liim. 

London, Nor. 14, 1658. 
^mino Vngrito, — Mirn mibi silcndi neccssitss 
impo^itn fuit ifi iitrn(pio tun fortunn, honors' 
tJAfiimn doinine, (pium nco in spolintn, dolorem 
mrum ostrndrrc sine offensione, nco in rcciipe- 
rntn, grntulaiione uii sine ndulnndi suspicions 
poiurrim. (Jrntulnndi tnndem vicit vobmtns, Hternsqae 
Bruxellis tibi scripsi, quns quum nntiqui officii monitu» 

1553.1 A80HJlM*S LITTERS. 389 

novique gaudii iinpetu paravissom, eas tamen pudoris 
ftuasu apud me retinui et suppress! : ne non rationem 
officii sed ostentationem studii, won benevolentiam tuarn, 
sed iisum meunii non rectam opportunitatem, sed tempus 
pricsens sequi tibi viderer. Sed, quuin istis proximis 
suporioribus diebus Vetera tua in me collocata benoficia, 
non solum mihi retenta et conservata, sed per te etiam 
adaucta et conduplicata esse voluisti : atque id eo modo, 
ut multo gratior essct benevolentia tua propter humani- 
tatem, quam beneficium tuum propter comtnoditatem, 
tiolui committere, ut licet a compensandi facultnto aim 
revera inops, a gratificandi etiam studio et siguificutione, 
liabear itidem alienus. Gratissimus igitur tibi et nunc 
oupio videri et perpetuo volo esse. Sed quum gratias 
tibi possem referre quideni nullas, agere vero pcrexiguas; 
et quas tibi nunc babeo maximas, et illto beneficiis tuis 
imparcs siut et indignec ; banc officii partem amicissimis 
meis Stuamio et Nannio imponam; qui, uti spero, non 
minus ostendent so tibi lostos et gratos in oxplicata mea 
fortuna et constituta, quam antea erant soUioiti pro me, 
ao fortasse tibi molesti, in eadem impedita atque dubia. 
Scribondum mihi quidem est necessario illis viris: ac 
scribam nunc Ubenter, non solum propter officium illis 
dcbitum, sed propter materiam abs to mihi datam. Illis 
duobus multum sane debeo ; quorum ad te scriboudi pro 
me studium quia suut aroicissimi, et judicium quia sunt 
prudentissimi, plurimi quidem facio : do to vero, non ad 
te, sed ad illos scribam. Et quanqum soleo Ubenter prn- 
dicare, te natum esse, fatal! quadam providentia, qu! 
solus velis, solusque soleas rebus meis adesse; tamen, 
quum nunc tua et domin! Cancellari! in me juvando, 
conjuncta sint studia, ego postbao restras non separabo 
laudcs : quorum duorum prudentia, humanitate, et mode- 
ratione, non mea solum sed rel!quorum fere omnium, et 

390 ascham's letters. [1553. 

bominiim et rerum salus constituitur. Hoc tempore, 
hunc librum de Qloria tibi offerre volui: munus tibi 
valde coDsentaneum : si enim Gloria nihil aliud est quam 
incomipta recte judicantium vox, et consentiens bonomm 
bominum laus, de excellenti alicujus Tirtute et instgni 
probitate, non alia res offertur a me in boo libro, quam 
omDes homines certatim deferunt ad te suo sermone atque 
judicio. In universo tamen choro laudom tuarom, ingenii, 
(ioctrinse, usns, industriae, consilii, prudentise, modera- 
tionis, abstinentise, morumque suaTitatis facillimse ; nulla 
virtus tua altius emicat, quam ea, quae quum hominis 
maxime propria sit, humanitas appellatur. Hsec virtus 
nomen quidem ab homine, sed ofdcium quidem a Deo 
sortita est ; cujus bonitatem potissimum referre videatur. 
Et quum te semper perspexi, quum natura propendere, 
tum voluntate comparatum esse, ad benigne faciendum 
universis, banc laudem in te non humanitatis, sed divinae 
cujusdam naturae semper esse judicavi. Quum tanta 
igitur in tua et natura voluntas, et auctoritate facultas, 
et in istis etiam temporibus, materies benefaciendi tibi 
proposita sit, perge, honoratissime vir, quod semper 
fecisti perpetuo facere; hoc est, beneficiis juvare quam 
plurimos et bene promereri de universis. Et quum 
in hoc laudis cursu neminem babes, quicum majore con- 
ten tione cert are debes, aut gloriosiore cum victoria supe- 
rare potes, quam te ipsum; age porro banc laudis palmam 
aliis praereptam, teipsum etiam vincendo, ampliorem red- 
dere. Sed quorsum ego haec ? qui non hortantis personam 
induere, sed gratificantis partes suscipere volui; nee 
monentis consilium, sed collaudantis officium, sequi 
institui, quanquam mibi semper placuit dulcissimum illud 
suavissimi poetae carmen : 

Qui monet ut facias quod jam facis, ipse monendo 
Laudat, et hortatu comprobat acta suo. 

155S.1 ASCMAJl's IXTTZKSw 391 

AtUniem koe moia al te scri!ie» sss«s bob f assserru 

nisi quastui dAiwm. uat Voutcd, ub^cb etas £L¥r«}ni 
honori tao et knfi. Ec lEsaer ik te, poncss ac pszve. IV 
OsoRlo Tero aartoce ksfn Ebci ae ^aoe exisdso, Demi- 
nem exstidne, post lEa IL T. Cicekosis ild^icion tern- 
pora, qui ponofc et pradaiiiore ontjoae, ant nujoR 
eloqoentia q[iDeqTixDi scripst, qma Uc kuc gi3iiar mate- 
riam ornaril et popoliTk. Est eaim in mbis diligendis 
tarn pradena^ ct in acntentm eoncinnandis tarn pentns, ita 
aptns et Terecandiis in tnmbm, iu freqnens ec ielix in 
contrariis, ita proprietate eastns, iu perspicuitaCe illustris, 
suavis nbiqne sine ^Kiddio, graris semper sioe molestia : 
sic fluens nt nnnqnam ledondet, ^e sooaos ut nunqnam 
peretrepaty sic plenns nt nnnqnam tnrgescat, sic omnibus 
modis peHedns, nt nee addi aliqnid nee demi quioquam 
ei raea qnidem sententia possit. Nee video jam cur plus 
aut Italia in Bembo et Sadoleto, ant Gdlia in Lon- 
60LI0 et Periosio, ant Germania in Erasmo et Jojlkns 
Sturmio; qnam Lnsitania nnnc in uno Osorio gloriari 
possit. Si banc meam opinionem, inter legendum, judicio 
etiam too oomprobaTcris, rehementer gaudebo : leges 
enim, credo, et libenter l^es hunc OsoRii librum, qui 
non magis monnmenta ipsins ingenii atque doctrine, 
quam omamenta Tirtntis et TiUe tuse; nee tarn laudem 
eloqnentise illius, quam commendationem tnae pruden- 
tis, eontinet et dedarat. Vale, honoratissime domine, 
et me nt facia ama atque tuere. Londini, 14 Norembris, 


About a yoong ladj who was carried off from her parfntt by a 
band oC lawkM joang men— he eaye that he hat now left 
the UniTenity, after a reeidenoe of 23 year*, to tenre tlie 
queen at aourt— therefore written in 1563. [1553.] 

392 ascuam's lbtterm. 1553.] 

ImattMimo cuidam Amico JurUcontulto. — lo 
nulla caussa multum, pro me vero ipse in mea, 
et minimum possum et invitus semper dico : 
hoc tumen tempus me conjecit in earn oontro- 
versiam, ut neoessario milii ad te scribendum 
esse putarem : quod faeturus sum, pro me paucis, contra 
alios parce, et pro rci indignitate valde nt spero moderate. 
fnsolciiH sum e*:o quidem, et imperitus in re uioria : et 
controvcrsia mihi est cum eo adversario, qui re quidem 
lion admodum potcns, sed ipso usu valde gnarus est 
aufcrcndi aliis justas suas uxores : id quod non ita pridem, 
iu cudctn domo, persimili via, et pari credo exitu, 
aggrcssus est. Quum tun prudentia diligenter considera- 
verit, quibus utcrque nostrum, ct ille machinis ad expug- 
nandam simpliccm puellam, et ego viis ad deligendam 
mihi primum, et diligendam in perpctuum honestam et 
ciiBtnm uxorem usi sumns ; facillime de tota hac caussa 
tttutucs ot judicabiH. Circumspice quwao liinc inde, I. B. 
cum glubo, non dico profligntorum ncpotum, ccrtc inso- 
Icniiuin juvciiutn, qui, uti ferunt, nunc sunt illius socii 
coiihilii, ul ))oslca hint cjuudem pariicipcH voti, fdiam 
ab obcdicntia ct coinplcxu pnrcntum, a domini potcstate 
ct (cdibuH, in(li(>;niHsimo plagio abripcrc aticniaverunt : 
(|U()(1 fl]i;;itium gravius Cbt, quani fcrre uiiquam potuit 
n;(;tc iuHtiluta rcHpublica. Pia;tcrfa, si non ilia ipsa 
maxima corum flrmamcuta, ut confcbhio pucllsD, ut con- 
curHUH 8U() tempore duorum tcbtium, non dcprchcndantur 
ct (let a ct faJHa, causHa libcntcr cadam. Kx altera parte 
rcbpicc, quuibo, micBtos parcntes, qui magnis et itineribus 
ct Humtlbua hue pcrvencrunt, ut caram sibi et primo- 
gcnitam flliam, dc huo consilio, niatrimonio conjungerent : 
I't'Hpicc sollicitudinem corum, <quii)U8 hwc virgo commissa 
I'uit, rcHpicc curas et anxietates aliorum, et parentum et 
dominoruin, bi boo modo dignisbimss puella; cuivis pro 

1553.] ASCUI.V'S LETTERS. 393 

sua libidine prodi debeant. Postremo, eraditissime vir, 
6t me respice, qui hoc anno, Toluntate et gratia leveren- 
dissimi viri, ab Academia, ubi Tiginti tres annos studui, 
in Aulam, ubi loco honorato illustrissimae regins senrio, 
accersitus sum. Da boc primum et aequitati et honestati 
nostrse causae : * da hoc Wiktoxiexsis in me studio et 
principis in me beneficio : da hoc literis, quarum et ta 
peritissimus, et ego cultor non mediocris. Hoc itaque 
uno officii vinculo, me uxori, filiam parentibus, et omnes 
tibi in perpetuum obligabis. 

CLXIII.— TO SIR W. PETRE, (a, 2). 
Asking for some means for liring more freely, until he can take 
the oath and be settled in his office. London, Dee. 25, 1553. 
IB, — You gently declared in Mr Cicel's pre- 
sence, how well you took it that I put so much 
trust in your friendship and goodness, and 
said also that I should well perceive, my hope 
was not amiss placed : which gentleness then 
doth make me bold now not only to trouble you with new 
letters, but also to venture to live in the court, which life 
otherwise I should much fear. You told me that after 
this Christmas you would take some opportunity for to 
place me in my service, both when I should receive my 
oath, and what order I might look for, for mine office. 
But seeing care for common affairs doth not give you 
leave almost once to look at your own business, I neither 
marvel much, nor think much, though you forget both me 
and mine. Yet lest I might seem also to forget myself, 
I will leave with you a suitor to me, which shall rather 
put you in remembrance rather of time, than trouble you 
with importunity of talk, and that is this little clock, 
which I desire you to take in worth, as a thing offered of 
him who withal doth offer himself to serve always your 
purpose and pleasure ; it being an instrument of time, 

504 AflCllAM's LETTEftl. [1553. 

nhnll fitly, I tniiit, put you in remembrance of time. 
AnrI yet I linvc Rucli ho|)0 of your good remembrance, si 
nc.itlirr f, nor nny clock, I trust, need be importune to 
you, IcMt you n\\^\\i niislikc, and rebuke us both with thst 
seritirnw.of J*KAUTtJ8,[yY4,l ,86] Afemarqui memaremmmi' 
nil, in tnfmorfm immmnortm/acii, 1 offer this clock unto yoo 
fiH my donrcnt ymvX that I have, to my best patron, that 
] truNt in, wliidi Imtli been dear to me, not for the value 
of the tiling, but for the remembrance of my dear friend 
JoiiANNKfl HTiniMiun, who sent it unto me from Argen- 
U-n, whrn we thi« Inut year lay at Spires. 

Hir, if my servino must 1)6 much present in the court, 
reason seeiiieth to require some place, not so much where 
f may live and lie necessarily, as where I may both do 
rny duty fitly and quietly, and also keep my charge 
sieretly and snfely ; and because you know, that thii 
purpose doth not ri^e of pleasure, but is sought for of 
nee<!ssit.y, 1 doubt not but you wei((h it accordingly. If 
I should 1)0 driven to find but one man at l)oard and 
wllJ(r^, that onr ('.hnrp:e wotdd drive me from the c^urt- 
And ilierefon*. if I had some allowance or some sufferance 
of nllownnre in sorne plnce for a time for one man, my 
grentr.Ht (!nre w(!rc piist. And because the trade of living, 
which was ever most plrnsant for my study in Cambridge, 
now shall be most lit for my duty in C/Ourt, my desire 
slinll be afU'T niy duty duly done in my service, to cour!»e 
over with some man tluj histores, orators, and philoso- 
phers of bolh the tonj^ues, wherein if my head or my 
linnd can do your Mnstership any service or yours any 
pleasure, I shall be most ready to wait on your will and 
purpose. And this the more gladly I now remember, 
because I was then glad to hear you say in your chamber, 
that when great affairs shouhl less trouble you, you would 
use me some time in reading, as you had done heretofore 

1553.] ascham's letters. 395 

Mr CicEL. If I shall not always need to follow the 
court, then I beseech your Mastership, let me receive a 
benefit at your goodness hand, and that is to have your 
good word or letter to my Lord of London^ or to the 
Dean of Paul's, or Westminster, or to some other that 
keepeth common residence at London, that I may be with 
him in his houses, till God and your goodness shall help 
me to maintain some little house of my own. This 
benefit you shall obtain without great suit, and they 
shall sustain without great charge, and I shall receive with 
great pleasure and quietness to myself, and more thank 
both you that shall get it, and also to him that shall 
grant it, I would not be an idle guest in his house, but if 
my poor learning could do him pleasure, I trust he should 
not be weary of me. And seeing my service shall be in 
civil jurisdiction and not in ecclesiastical, therefore for 
prebend, why should I seek the profit, if I either cannot 
or shall not do the duty thereof P And as I will not be 
busy to condemn other men, that take them, so will I not 
be greedy in this kind of life to receive them, but had 
rather live by duty under order in a poor estate, than 
with catching on both sides enrich myself by misorder 
and injury; not doubting but that faith, diligence in 
service shall be sufficient warrants for sufficient living in 
the court, which I will either obtain by honest means or 
else miss of it with honest conscience. And if I durst 
be 80 bold in a private letter privily to say my fancy to 
your wisdom, I believe in those late years, ill men have 
had too much licence to misorder good service in this 
court ; who cared not how they crept into office, neither 
what money they gave themselves, nor what small stipend 
they received for their service, because their mind was to 
raise their gain other ways, than only by office and duty. 
But if a man come with a conscience, to live only by his 

396 ASCHAM*8 LBTTBR8. [1553. 

office, that man will aUo come with 9ome care to live 
honestly by his service : which thing hath made me both 
careful in myself, and troublesome to you, for some quiet 
stay, if I shall serve in this court ; or else surely it were 
better even now to refuse mine office with some reproof, 
than after to forsake it with more shame, if I shall not be 
able to bear the charge thereof according unto the place. 
But I trust your goodness shall soon take away this my 
care, seeing you be so willing to do it, and so able to 
perform it, when there be so many offices and commodities 
besides prebends, wherein your authority and favor I 
know may, and I am assured will, do me good, as oppor- 
tunity shall serve you thereunto ; and namely one way, 
that when I shall purpose to marry, I may have your 
Mastership's letters, or by your means, the Queen's 
Majesty's; wherein may appear good will in you, and 
some testimony of towardness in me to come forward by 
duty or diligence iu this court. Thus under the hope of 
your goodness, I shape myself to be a courtier, desiring 
you to take in worth this my misordered writing, not 
doubting but you will so hear me, in these my requests, as 
hereafter I shull be more careful to thank you with my 
service, than busy to trouble you with my success. And 
thus the Lord prosper your purposes in all your pro- 
ceedings. London, 25 December, 1553. 


Asks him to intercede tliat his patent as Latin Secretary may be 
made out — speaks of his pension having become due last 
Michaelmas. [end of 1553.] 

HOUR lordship being so daily used with im- 
portune suits, will bear, I trust, sometimes 
a pressing letter. To sue importunely I 
neither can by nature nor ought of duty, and 
yet though two men may with less blame be 

1533.] asoham's letters. 897 

most importune, he that forceth a right, and he that with- 
standeth a wrong, nevertheless I even therefore am the 
more earnest, because there is neither right I can make 
claim by, nor injury done I may complain on, but onl> 
a commodity looked for to be received jof your lordship's 
goodness. For when your lordship helpeth a man unto 
his right, or defendeth him from wrong, that debt is as 
due, and the thank which the matter so well deserveth, as 
to your lordship who so well doth, when I deserving 
nothing and receiving much, must needs thither owe the 
whole thanks, from whence wholly and only the benefit 
doth spring. And as I am unwilling for fear of offending 
to be importune, yea even so I am unable for charge in 
tarrying to be a long suitor. I served the king in the 
emperor's court three years under Mr Morysgnb, who 
gave me more at my return than he might, yet not so 
much as he would, for what good could he do to another, 
who was able to do himself none ? At my coming home 
I having more credit thnn money crept without care into 
debt, [6^] the hope which 1 had both to be rewarded for my 
service, and also to receive my pension due by patent at 
Michaelmas last : if the pay of patents had not been 
stopped, your lordship should have seen me and heard 
me much more seldom than you have, till the throng of 
your business had somewhat been lessened. Now as I 
can never forget your goodness, so am I afraid lest charges 
in tarrying will so overcharge me, as I shall not be able 
to abide for that benefit which most assuredly I look for 
of your lordship, and therefore my earnest suit is, if 
opportunity do not yet s^rve your lordship to place me 
as you do purpose, that in the mean while presently you 
will obtain the renewing of my patent as I have it here 
ready written out, and then I shall be better able to wait 
upon your lordship's further pleasure. What occasions 

898 ASOUAM's LETTEB8. [1553. 

King Henry had to grant it your lordship knoweth, 
whose hand with my lord of Norfolk and my lord 
Pagett for the same purpose I here presently have, 
which hands I keep rather for a pleasant memory of your 
goodness, than for a record of that benefit. And for 
what just cause king Edward had not only to confirm it, 
but also to increase it, your lordship shall now hear. I 
was sent for many times to teach the king to write, and 
brought him before a xi years old to write as fair a hand, 
though I say it, as any child in England, as a letter of 
his own hand doth declare, which I kept as a treasure for a 
witness of my service, and will show it your lordship 
whensoever you will. But what ill luck have I that can 
prove what pains I took with his highness, and can show 
no profit that I had of his goodness. Yea, I came up 
divers times by commandment to teach hi^, when each 
journey for my man and horses would stand me in 4 or 5 
marks, a great charge for a poor student. And yet they 
that were about his Grace were so nigh to themselves, 
and so far from doing good to others, that not only my 
pains were unrewarded, but my very cost and charges 
were unrecompensed, which thing then I smally regarded 
in his nonage, trusting that he himself should one day 
reward me for all. But now 1 may complain on vain 
hope and lament my ill luck, who am able to prove what 
good 1 did to a king's person, and cannot show what 
profit I received of a king's goodness. And thus I, who 
have hitherto been always poor, because I was never 
greedy to get, am now also unlucky to keep, and that 
such things which I have most honestly gotten. For if 
I do not obtain my patent I can not only not tarry here, 
but I must be compelled also to leave such livings as I 
have now elsewhere. For though 1 am both Orator in 
the University, and Greek Lector in St John's, yet with- 

1553.] ascham's lbttebs. 899 

out any patent that living will not serve me. No, I will 
never so retom thither again, to spend mj age there in 
need and care, where I led my youth in plenty and hope, 
but will follow rather Isocbates' counsel, to get me 
thither where I am less known, there to live, though not 
with less care, at least with less shame. And thus if I were 
my own enemy, I would tell your lordship how you might 
easily undo me, and that were even at this present to do 
nothing for me. But your lordship's gentleness, I am 
sure, will smile at this my more thoughtful than needful 
writing. And therefore I will end this care even with 
this letter, as one that hopeth for a new comfort at the 
next answer of your good lordship, trusting that Queen 
Mabt, as she is just heir of her father's and brother's 
dominions, so by your lordship's advice she will also be 
heir of her father's and brother's goodwill, which they 
both bare towards me. And I likewise, at your lordship's 
commandment, shall be always most ready to any service 
wherein it shall please her Majesty to use me, for the 
office of writing the Latin letters king £dwa ud did assign 
unto it, not to remove Mr Vannes or Mr Challinok 
from a right, but to join with Mr Vannes in a benefit : 
for what wrong hath either of them to enjoy their 
old commodity with a new quietness, if any other do take 
the whole pains with some advantage when they shall not 
be removed from their place, but another joined with them 
in office? fiut this with the rest of my suit I commit 
wholly to your lordship's wisdom to weigh it, and only to 
your lordship's goodness to perform it, praying that the 
Lord may prosper you in all your affairs. 

Alludes to his last letter in English-HMnds him ft gold ooin of 

400 A8CIUM*8 LF.TTER9. [1553. 

the enpretf Uelmi, ind mjts that he belieret Sir Willkfl 
Petro will loori try to MHtle him in hit dutiei at court. 

London, Jad. 1, 1654. 

' rnatmimo PratuU, Domino Sltrphano EpUcopo 
H^'intonientif MagnoAnglia Cancellario, — Heribo 
fi»!pc quid(;rn et libcntcr tamper ad te, amplif- 
fiitne praiHul, tiniide tatn(m et valde tolUdte 
hoc facio; iic litirraD inea), %\ aliquid negoiii 
adferant, pcrmolcnto) : »in nihil coritineant, non neceitam 
in hoc inultiplioi ncf^otionjm publicorurn concursu, eiae 
videantur. Tibi ciiim, Quum lot iusiineoi ac tania negoik 
iolui, 81 quantulumcumquc scribam, nimitu, ain nulla de.' 
re, inci)tu8 facile videri poaaum. 8cd quia niroia aaqpe 
importunus esse, quam nimis valde injp'atua haberi malue* 
rim, hoc tempore eerie, nullam rationem potiua tuonmi 
negoiiorum hobuisse, quam nullum memoriam taniontm 
in mc bcneficioriim rctinuisse, videri volui : acribo tamen 
hoc tempore rioiinihil crmfidcniius, quam s^deo, quia Don 
ncgotionim tiiorum turimm augcrc, sr*d dulcem tantom 
tuorurn in iric bencficionim memoriam rcjietere statui. 
IVoximis meJH huperioribus Uteris, Anglicc scriptis, hr^c 
sum eonatuH eflicere : at veritus ego, nc turbarum undaj, 
quibus in singulas pene horas obrueris, illas lit<;ras ab- 
sorpserint, idem oflicium jam rcsumere volui, aed nunc 
paucis ac parce*, et re potius, rjuam rationc, cxigua quidcro 
ilia, sed ad id, quod volo, exquisita ct pcrap[)Osita. 
KuperioribtiH meis literis, me, hoc est, mca omnia ofiicia, 
studia, fidem, et ol)Mtrvantiam, ad tuum acnsum, volun* 
tatcm, et nutum, arctishimo quasi ncxu alligavi. His 
literis, prornissi mei veluti arrham aliquam rcprmsentare 
volui : hunc aurcum nummum intclligo, quem animo qui- 
dem grato, omiiic vero faustissimo, tibi ofFero. Atcra 
parte inseulpta est, optima post hominum memoriam 
femina, JIklena AtouaTA; altera parte, dulciasim a feli- 

155S.] ABCHAX'S LETTES8. 401 

I prmcipis, et felicissiinorain temporam vox, JS^cU' 
rUoB EmpubLic€R. O feminam orbis imperio dignam 1 Cni 
nihil tarn fait oordi, nihil tarn alte insederet animo, quam 
aecnritas Teipublics. Hsbc est ilia Helena, quss maxi- 
mam gloiiam ex investigatione Gruds, majorem ex seda* 
tkxne calamitatmn cracis, qnibuB ChriBtianam nomen, 
nimift tnni ssBve et GTodeliter exeroebatnr, reportavit. 
Aodpe igitur, dodissime prsBsui, et grato animo et faiisto 
nwrifw*^ bimc nummmn non tarn illorum temporam infligue 
moniimentam, qnam tuarum reram, tuorumqoe et Btudio- 
Tum et ccmsilioram in republica pisflens atqoe exprewum 
Hidicinm. Hoc monomentom mihi propter materiam, 
opus, personam, tempaa, col rb irvfwv dia fait gratum ; 
CKmm etiam, qaom propter locnm obi iuventnm est, torn 
propter amicnm, a quo datnm est : et nunc qaoqoe jaoun- 
dam mihi, et peropportunam propter te, ad qaem miisam 
est Neque hoc manoa, credo, quia exigaom est asper* 
naberis ; sed ilHos divini pothis poets jadiciam et am- 
l^ecteiifl propter humanitatem, et probabk propter dootri- 
nam, qui in omni benevokntis zatioDe, toties landat et 
incnlcat Hklyov n ^Xw n. 

Superiori anno, TreFerim tou ; incidi in lecreiHnimi 
rev e r end iwrimi Pectoris, qoicom mihi antea Angasta; in 
aula Cssaris mnltos nsns et intima Dsmiliaiitas fait, molta 
ab eo tum peroontatns sum de Treveri, odebri olim 
academia, et nunc roinosa nii>e, qnam oognoveram divi 
HisaoKTiii testimonio, qui eo te stodendi gratia reoqie- 
rat, nobilitatam esse : molta etiam de Helexa et Con- 
stantino Magno, qnorom in ea nrbe et corpora oondi et 
vestigia apparere, et monumenta molta et culta et oon- 
servata esse intellexL Qnam singola meis, non auribns 
solum, Bed oculis etiam exposuisset, ecoe, hunc nummum 
aureum promit, mihique dat : quem illius urbis, illorum 
prindpum, qjus erga me studii i^ue benevolentis gratum 


402 ASOHAU'S LXTTBRI. [1668. 

HVfifUffwov esse voluit, quare si gratius mihi quicquam 
suppeteret, tibi, cui gratisslmus esse debeo, oblatunu 
essem. Quum viderem hunc nummum esse feminae ei 
reginse, et illius, qu89 non solum crucem Christianis in 
lucem revexit, sed securitatem etiam reipublicsB restituit, 
illustrissimsc nostrse reginas Marine cum brevissima 
epistola offerre in animo habui: quia eadem utriusque 
patria, coDsimilis imperii dignitas, par in vita sanctimonia, 
et ffiqualis iu republica constituenda voluntas fuit. At hoc 
consilium, quum vercbar ne videretur esse hominis non 
satis prudentis, sed nimis sese ingerentis, libenter mutavi ; 
et te mihi proposui, cui propter idem studium, eandem in 
rempublicam voluntatem, aptissimum munus esse judicayi; 
ut in hoc nummulo, dum alterius laudem admiraris, tuam 
interim recognoscas, quam natura, doctrina, bonitate, et 
humanitate, omnium bonorum judicio consequuttis es. 
Sed harum rerum tacita apud te potius meditatione, quam 
nperta mea praedicatione, te frui malo. At nimius ego, 
ad tuntum vinim, iu re prsescrtim nulla. Dominus Gulisl- 
Mus Petrees, tc credo brevi,uti ait, conventurus est, de 
inc in nulico moo officio constituendo, sed quia ilia res 
non inagis jnm men est, quam tua, cujus unius gratia et 
nuctoritate, ex otio literario, ad negotia aulica accersitus 
sum, spero, eandem et turn voluntatis, et meae utilitatis 
rationcm habitum iri, hoc est, tuam bonitatem, nisi per- 
fccta re, rcbusque mcis rite constitutis, nunquam de me 
bone mcrcndo conquicturam. Hac spe confidentius ad 
aulain accedo, ubi si mens, aut manus mea rebus tuis in- 
servirc possit, mc, mcaque omnia ad tuam voluntatem, 
Aonsuin ct nutum comparabo. Dominus Jesus ampli- 
tudinctii tuam diutissimo scrvet incolumem. Londini, 
Calcndis Jauuarii, Anno Dom. 1554. 

1554.] ASCHAU'S LBTTERS. 403 


Offers his semces to assist her studies, and reminds her how her 
mother Margaret Boper, daughter of Sir Thomas More, had 
onoe invited him to leave Cambridge and teach her children. 
[London], Jan. 15, 1554. 

^larisaima Femina Domina Clarke. — Insignia 
iste in te, clarissima femina, et virtutis amor 
et literarum cultus, cum tanto ingenio et in- 
dustriaconjunctus, laudem quidem per se mag- 
nam, majorem quia femina es, maximam quia 
in aula vivis, commeretur : alise enim solent esse, quum 
hujuB sexus occupationes, prseter literas, tum hujus loci ' 
deliciee prseter virtu tes. Hanc duplicem laudem tuam 
auget etiam geminum illud exemplum, quod tibi et pro* 
poBuisti prudenter, et sequuta es fideliter, quorum alterum 
hsec aula, alterum tua familia elargita est. Illiistiissimam 
intelligo nostram reginam Mariam, et nobilem ilium avum 
tuum, Thomam Moeum, quo viro uno universa Anglia 
eiteris gentibus nobilior est habita. Ab hac principe nos- 
tra industriam ad virtu tem, ab illo avo tuo ingenium ad 
doctrinam ; ab utroque utriusque facultatis laudem sum- 
mam consequuta es. Quum tu igitur his, quos memoravi, 
ducibus, hunc prseclarum virtutis et literarum cursum tam 
auspicato ingressa es, ut insignem utriusque viotoriam, 
virtutis, femina viris, doctrinae, aulica aoademicis, videaris 
prseripere ; ego certe summa tui admiratione commotus, 
his Uteris tibi, non hortator capessendi novi laboris, sed 
applausor perfruenda; jam partes laudis, esse volui. Sed 
nimis fortasse hsec fidenter ago tam ignotus, at libenter 
sane ad te tam nobilem, et hoc etiam nomine, valde con- 
fidenter, qunm judicarem ab hoc comitatu tot divinarum 
in te virtutum, hnmanitatem abesse non posse. £t hoc 
consilium meum scribendi ad te, non illud totum ab ad- 
miratione tui profectum, sed a mea voluntate nonnihil^ et 

404 ascham's letters, [1554. 

a ratione etiam officii mei plarimum sosoeptmn est. Is 
enim ego sum, quern ante aliquot annos mater tua Mae* 
o ABET A RoPEEA» femina et illo tanto patre, et te tali filia 
dignissima, ex academia Cantabrigieusi, accersivit ad se ad 
aedes domini ^oidii Alinotoni necessarii vestri, roga- 
vitque ut te reliquosque suos liberos Oneca Latinaque 
lingua instiiuerem, sed turn ego nuUis conditionibos ab 
Academia divelli me patiebar. Hanc matris tuse turn 
postulati memoriam mihi perjucundam libenter nunc apud 
te renovo, et ejusdem si non perfectionem, conatum tamen 
aliquem jam in aula tibi offerrem, nisi ipsa sic et prsestares 
per te doctrina, et abundares etiam opere, quum opus est, 
duorum doctissimorum virorum CoLi et Chbistofhee- 
SONI, ut mea opera non indigeas, sin his perpetuo prae- 
sentibus uti non poteris, me aliquando yoles, et quoties 
voles abuteris. 

Et hoc scribo ad te non propter facultatem ullam qus 
in me omnis perexigua est, sed propter voluntatem quae 
in me maxima est, et propter opportunitatem quae mihi jam 
peroptata data est. Amplissimi enim praesulis domini 
Stephani Wintoniensis voluntate, gratia, et auctoritate 
accersitus sum ex Academia, ut illustrissimae nostras 
reginae serviam in aula ; et serviam in eo loco, ubi eadem 
ipsa mihi sequenda est vivendi ratio propter officium, quae a 
me suscepta fuit in Academia propter studium; munus enim 
literas pro regina La tine scribendi mihi impositum est : 
quam provinciam si non ingenio et facultate, cum aliqua 
laude, fide tamen et diligentia, sine magna reprehensione, 
spero, sustinebo. Sed dum meam tibi et gratulandi 
occasionem, et gratificandi voluntatem atque opportuni- 
tatem significem, vereor ne importunitate etiam scribendi 
tibi nimius et molestus fiam. Sed admiratione quadam, 
et amore etiam virtutis tuae, longius provectus sum^ quam 
institui. Te enim tam insigne, quum tui sexus, tum huju» 

1554.] ASCSUl^S LXTTEES. 405 

anls omamentam, et imperitus, si non suspicerem, et in* 
hamanos, si non oolerem, videri merito potui, Et prop* 
terea, ego hoc nobile institutum tuum Teram laudem ex 
Tirtntis studio et literarum cultu adipisoendi, si non ipse 
opera javare, gratuktione tamen prosequi, et applausu 
indtare Tolui : sin vero ad id, quod tua sponte et indole 
ad altissimas cogitationes erecta fiacis; quod exemplo 
principis et parentis suscipis ; quod consilio doctissimorum 
Tirorum instituis; mea etiam, aut manu aliquando uti 
Telis : ad tuum usum, voluntatem, et sensum Ubenter me 
comparabo. Yale, omatissima femina. Januarii 16, 


Jan. 18. 1554. 
T singular good lord, since the time that your 
lordship did commend me unto the queen*s 
majesty, Mr Fbtehs, by the same commenda* 
tion, hath conceived such good will towards me, 
that he hath many times said unto me that he 
would stay me in this court, and would therefore speak to 
the queen's majesty, and also to your lordship, concerning 
what fee I should have for mine office, warranting me in 
hand half Mr Vane's fee, which Mr Ghallonbr had, 
and peradventure I should enjoy the whole, but hitherto I 
may say with Eleotra in Sophocles, 

' E%(u ydip A*xw tiA <yt KoiiK aWov tpSrutv, 
And yet I comfort myself much with the next verse of 
the chorus, and although I answer them, and content my- 
self with Electba, yet seeing I find all things still in the 
former condition, I run to that sweet verse of Sophooles 
in another tragedy, which (Edifus could not say to The- 
seus so well as I may say and do most gladly upto your 


"Ovaio, Oi|(rcv, rov rt yiwalov x^P^^ 
'KoI rfig xp6e ifiigMlKov wpofitiOlas, [Ool. 1042.] 

406 ASCHAM'g LBTTBRI, [1554* 

If I could utter my mind better to your lordship than 
tbii verse doth, I would surely do it, and therefore with 
the same verse I offer myself, with will, word, and work, 
with heart and hand, always to wait upon your lordship'i 
state and lionuur ; and this my hope in your goodness doth 
only cause me so oft to troubh) you so that you must 
begin first to leave off such gentleness before I purpose to 
cease my luitii, and yet I do this, not so much moved by 
my own hope, as reasonable suit, when I offered unto you 
that little gold coin, small in value, but worthy for the 
meaning to be offered unto you ; and whether my suit 
shall be reasonable or no, your lordship (who can best) 
shall be my judge. Mr Petbu knoweth now, not only by 
your lordship's judgment, but olso by my letters, written 
both privately to him and for the queen's m^'esty, whether 
I be ftt for that room or not ? If he think not, then I 
would beseech him I might depart either to mine own 
pr)or living ut CHttibridgo, or else where I might other* 
wiHc Htay my nvMi. If ho think mo fit to Morve, then I am 
HiOHt willing HO to do ; ovon so, roauon, I think, re(|uireth 
i HJiould 1)0 niado Honiowhat ubio to tarry in my sorvice. 
I that huvo Hpont Hirico Hartholomow tide forty pounds 
ounnot live a whole* year on twi'iity, and yet I have been 
nn ware in oxponcoH and att baro in opparcl as any nmu 
could bo. It iM luy groat griof and Horne ithamo that I 
thoHo ton yoarM wau not ablo to koop u man, being a 
Moholar, and now am not ablo to koop myiiolf, boing n 
oourtior; and although Mr PKTEtt moat gontly isaith, I 
shall not uood a whit to follow tho court, yot to lie in 
upon tho penny in I^ondon, as i must noodn do, is a hoavy 
ohargo for my poor living to suntain. Mr Pktkh «uid, 
also, ho would find tho moan tho quoon's majoHty should 
bcHtow Muoh ))robondft on mo as 1 should bo well ablo to 
livo ; mino unnwor was, scoing my service shall be in civil 

1554.] ASCHAM's LITT1B8. 407 

joriBdiction and not in ecclesiastical, and seeing prebends 
were rewards for the one life and not for the other, surely 
1 would not there crave the profit where I should not do 
the duty ; and as I would not be busy to condemn other 
men that took them, so would I not be greedy in this 
kind of life to receive them, but had rather live by duty 
under order in any poor estate than with catching of both 
tides enrich myself with misorder, and pulling from other 
their just rewards. I thought there were too many that 
with mingling of duties have mangled and marred good 
order, and therefore, as I could not allow their purpose, so 
would I neither, God willing, follow their example, nor 
increase their number in this court, not doubting but that 
faith and diligence in doing my duty shall be to me sufficient 
warrants for sufficient living in the queen's service, which 
I would either obtain by honest means, or else miss of it 
with honest conscience. Mr Peteb did well allow my 
answer, and said he would speak the next day both to the 
queen and your lordship for some order to be taken for 
me for my service, and thereupon took a note with a pen, 
since when I met him, he saith unto me, " I lack not 
remembrance but opportunity for your matter," wherewith 
I. hold myself well content. So, my whole trust is that 
your lordship in well doing shall prevent his well saying, 
for I believe his good will, and I owe (as saith Sopuo- 
CLES) mine all and me whole only to your lordship. If I 
durst be so bold in a private letter privately to say my 
fantasy to your wisdom, I believe in these late years all 
men have had so much licence to misorder good service in 
this court, they cared not how they crept into office, 
neither what stipend they received, nay, what money they 
gave themselves, because their mind was to raise their 
gain otherwise than only by doing their duty. But if a 
man come with a oontcienoe to live only by his office, that 

408 ASCHAM's LBTTIB8. [1554. 

man will also come with some care to live bonestly by liis 
service, which thing doth make one now both careM in 
myself and troublesome to you for some quiet stay, if I 
should serve in this court, or else it were better surely 
even now to leave that office with some grief, than after to 
forsake it with more shame if I shall not be able to bear 
the charge thereof somewhat according to that place. But 
seeing your lordship of your goodness in your barge did 
chuse me this life rather to live in the court than return 
to Cambridge, even as I am most willing to follow your 
will and advise, so am I most assured your authority will 
make me tarry in the court. My request is not great in 
itself, nor injurious to any other, and yet very necessary 
to me : first, I would take my oath ; secondly, I would 
enjoy that little stipend which Mr Chalgner had, and 
hath given now for doing Mr Vane's duty ; thirdly, I 
would have, by writing, some assurance both of my office 
and my fee due unto it, for seeing I shall do the whole 
duty presently, it were reason I should have though not 
the whole profit, yet at least the assurance thereof, and 
the rather because I must leave ray living at Cambridge, 
which is not only sure unto me so long as I live, but such 
a living that no student in Cambridge hath a better ; and 
although this whole suit will not be half a living to follow 
the court withal, yet shall I shift with it as well as I can, 
trusting by means of some other commodity of office your 
lordship will help me when opportunity shall serve 
thereunto, and namely one way, that is, if I shall purpose 
to marry, that I may have your lordship's letters or your 
means to the queen's majesty, wherein may appear your 
favours to me, and some testimony also of towardness in 
me to come forward by duty and diligence in the court ; 
and thus my whole trust is that you who only brought me 
to serve in the court, will also bring to pass that I may 

15S40 AMtcMAM* urrsujL 4iM 

liTe in tkeooiat«asdiiKtf jrainiriU«otaIkir^ 
that he who TOKJld do • ^rood torn jfbr rcmr cskr fiinl] «1m» 
do it br j<Mfr aetia. tloas I mar stall ssf idlk Sorao- 
CLfis, fce. 

And then I fhsU erenaoioiv j^utthr ir»k vsSo jtrar kvd- 
ship as (EpiPCt dolk to Tacfcrt in \h/t wrat piber. 
And so I take tmy leare of jovr kniship, onh prarin^ 
that He who revardeth ali and omtih to none naj vdl 
reward jou for me, who pro^Kr joar puqwacs in all jonr 
proceedings. Yoor lordship's most boondm, so to be, 

B. AsKan. 
At London, IB of Jsaosrf. 
To the Bt Hod, snd Bt JLettnad Father in Ood, 
Btepben, Lord Bishop of Wineheiter, and Lord 

Chsnoellor of Engbnd, mj Terj good lord. 


About Bodulpbot'f progreie in writing — ^Thii boj Mems to bare 
been Aiebsm'f pninl — tpeake of the near approach of Palm 
Sunday. Before Palm Sunday, [t.e. March 18, if in 1554.] 

s^^mantUsimo iuo amico Domino ItadcUffb, 8.P. — 
Amantissime Badcljffe, Kodulphus nosier, 
communis enim jam factus ulriusque est, in 
boo totns boo toto tempore fuit, ut tuse volun* 
tati morem gereret et expectationi etiam satis- 
faoeret. Literarum omnium justam formam, aptam con- 
junciionem et rectum ordinem valde perite novit ; et ut 
vim atque potestatem cujusque literse, in quoquo loco, 
perfecte cognosceret, eum quotidie exercui ; in qua re eos 
progressus fecit, ut non spes in eo atque conatus, sed 
maturitas jam atque perfeotio expectauda sit, si ad banc 
facultatem jam comparatam quotidianus scribendi usus, et 
sedula manus exeroitatio acoedat. Quum enim BoouLPBua 

410 ascuam's letters. [1554. 

noster natura sit valde aptus, et iDstitotione etiam satis 
peritus, ut usu quoque tiat admodum perfectus, uterque 
credo nostrum Tehemeoter exoptat : ad quam rem plene 
absolvendam, nee tuo voto, nee Eodulphi commodo mes 
opera unquam deerit. Cospi diligere Eodulphuh toa 
caussa, et nunc suo merito ilium valde amo ; est enim in 
hoc puero ea indoles, pudor, et momm probitas, ut per se 
quidem plurimi faciendus sit ; itaque, et tibi talem filium, 
et illi talem patrem ex animo gratulor. Sed hsec fusini 
coram domi tuse, quod fiet, ut spero, circiter festum pal- 
marum, nisi meum hoc privatum consilium impediant 
publica negotia. Vale amicorum cenissime. Saluta lec- 
tissimam conjugem, et suavissimum meum puerum Uix' 
REM! AM, et fratrem meum carissimum Joakkeh H. una 
cum reliquo coetu tuo, inprimis vero integerrimum virum 
Dominum Hypodidasculum. 


(3, 28). 

fitudjing in Italy — Ascham had heard of them through a letter 
Bent by Peter Vannes, and delivered by Ascham to Bishop 
Gardiner, who made enquiries of him about Tumbull, their 

luobus omaiissimia juvenibua, frairidus, amicU 
suis. — Utriusque vestrum, ornatissirai juvenes, 
singulare in me studium, coram in Italia, ex 
multis gratis ofiiciis : et postea in l^'landria, ex 
suavissimis vestris Uteris, cum summa mea 
gemper voluptate expertus sum, ut antea vestro amore 
calere, nunc plane exardescere merito videri possim. 
Hanc mibi cum vestra familia institutam necessitudinem 
eo pluris facio, quod ea, non ab utilitatis spe ulla profecta, 
sed ab ipso solo humanitatis fonte tota derivata sit, quam, 
sic a vobis humaniter susceptam, et nostra deinceps inter 


Kutat. ikr ^!!iL am si» i^^Otei^. ato^ vk' \<<>^i^ 

FcCcsMBOffUB purentan l^^mimi <e^iitunl hhi^i. 

Tideds. ornatissiuu jut^ne^ qu^m gi^yi^ ^i^^^^oIm- 
tiooaii msiiiielis uon Iiiudi»» (|U«m) Ail^pti ^i\^ «^) 
dignitatis, ad quam r^U via ooa)temUtU« Ad hauo i)ig< 
nitatem, tos docinnam et yirtutem, pureiU^i i^\m\\ ^% 
spem, ego offidum et oommeudationaiu, rev&i^niliiittimu« 
W1NTONIENSI8 gratiam et RuotoiUfttew limul oui\iuu- 
gemos, &c. 

412 asoham's litters. [1554. 


[About April, 1654] 

N writiDg out my patent I have left a Tacant place 
for your wisdom to value the sum ; wherein I 
trust to find further favour; for I have both 
good cause to ask it, and better hope to obtain it» 
partly in consideration of my unrewarded paint 
and undischarged costs, in teaching King Edward's persoui 
partly for my three years' service in the Emperor's court, 
but chiefly of all when King Henry first gave it me at 
Greenwich, your lordship in the gallery there asking me 
what the king had given me, and knowing the truth, your 
lordship said it was too little, and most gently offered me 
to speak to the king for me. But then I most happily 
desired your lordship to reserve that goodness to anothor 
time, which time God hath granted even to these days, 
when your lordship may now perform by favour as much 
as then you wished by good will, being as easy to obtain 
the one ns to ask the other. And I beseech your lordship 
sec whnt good is ofTcrcd me in writing the patent : the 
space which is left by chance doth seem to crave by good 
luck some words of length, as viginti or triginta, yea, with 
the help of a little dash quadraginta would serve best of 
all. ])ut sure as for decern it is somewhat with the 
shortest : nevertheless I for my part shall be no less con- 
tented with the one than glad with the other, and for 
either of both more than bound to your lordship. And 
thus God prosper your lordship. Your lordship's most 
bounden to serve you. 


To tlio Bt Reverend Father in God, 
My Lord Biflhop of Wincheiter hi§ Grace, these. 

1554.] asoham's letters. 413 

CLXXI.— TO SIR W. PAWLETT, (w. 275»). 
This letter is dated by Whitaker Jan. 18, but Asoham was not 
married till June 1, 1554. It is probably therefore a mis- 
take fo r June 18. [June 18], 1654. 

[R, my small time in marriage hath given me 
good experience thai in choice of a wife to 
some men the grief in having an ill, is not 
comparable with the care in having a good ; 
for I see many times the worse theii wives 
wax, the more they make of themselves, and can digest 
that grief well enough. Qod, I thank him, hath given me 
such an one as the less she seeth I do for her, the more 
loving in all causes she is to me, when I again have rather 
wished her well than done her good, and therefore the 
more glad she is to bear my fortune with me, the more 
sorry am I that hitherto she hath found rather a loving 
than a lucky husband unto her. I did choose her to live 
withal, not hers to live upon, and if my choice were to 
choose again, I would even do as I did, so that the com- 
fort I take because I have so good a wife is the only 
cause of my care, because she hath so poor a husband. 
For my own self, I could measure my mind to live as 
meanly as ever I did in Cambridge, but now duty and 
love driveth me to farther desire, and yet because I know 
not what may be thought of my deserving, my desire 
hitherto hath rather grieved myself with inward thought, 
than troubled other with outward suits. Nevertheless, I 
have had ever good hap, and specially in your goodness, who 
not presently to myself, but also in my absence often to 
others of your own accord have declared a friendly readi- 
ness to Set forward any fit suit in my behalf, but the more 
gentle I have found you the less willing I have been to 
trouble you. Your most boanden to serve you, 

At London, 18 January [June?], 1664. 
To the Hon Sir Will. Pawlett, Ent, these. 


A8CHA.m'8 letters. 


Thanks him for haying helped Afoham to get bia old office of 
Latin Secretary. Strasboarg, Jane 28, 1654. 

pannes SlurmiuB Domino Pageito^ 8.F, — Ex 
amicorum Uteris, et sermonibus oertorum ho- 
minum intellexi, Hooerum Aschahuh pris- 
tinum 8ui muneris locum, quern duobus regi- 
bus habuit, hac regina per te ten^iisse. Atque 
id AsoHAHUM fateri: meas literas sibi in eo profuisse. 
Si gratias agere satis esset, scriberem jam isid te in earn 
sententiam prolixissime, sed scio te neque id requirere, et 
me non posse satis, quam mibi illud officium tuum, vel 
potius beoeficium placeat eiplicare. Itaque ego gratiam 
habiturus sum : dum tu mihi aut nuntiabis, aut scribes, 
quid me tua, vestraque tuorum caussa facere velis. Nihil 
recusabo, quod me posse sperem honeste perficere ; hoc 
ita scribo, ut meam fidem tibi obligem. Incredibile enim 
est, quam ego diligam, et amem Aschahum : motus ejus 
et Uteris, et prudentia, et doctrioa, quorum utrumque ex 
Uteris inteUip;o : quae mihi semper exstiterunt suavissimse. 
Sed quo inagis hunc amo, eo observantiam tibi majorem 
a me deberi sentio : propterea quod eum, qucm ego omni 
benevolcntia amplector conservasti. Vale. Argentorati, 
XXIII Mensis Jumi, 1554. 


Writtrn on behalf of the prisoners for debt in Ludgate— Bejoioes 

at the king's coming among them, and petitions payment 

for their debts for which their creditors have agreed to take 

4-9. in the pound. [London], Aug 11, 1554. 

('S^^vv)!'*^ c^/?/trw ei vinctis in porta LudderUi scrip' 

'^ sit hanCy in adventum Fhilippi regis, — Inter 

tot hodie in hac urbe prseclara spectacula, qua 

oculos tuos oblectant : inter tot laetas congra- 

tulationes, quae aures tuas demulcent : ecce 

1564.] ASCHAM's LETTEB8. 416 

vocem et gexnitum pauperum, quae animum tuum, ut 
speramus, etiam commoTebunt : vocem quidem leetitiee, 
gemitum vero miserise. Libenter enim leetamur omnes 
propter optatissimum adyentjam in hoc regnum tusB mfges- 
tatis : necessario autem nos seorsim congemiscimus, ob 
miseram sortem nostree iDfelicitatis : miseri enim nos 
somus, et in ipsam, ut Tides, inclusi miseriam. Sed quia 
fortuna non scelere miseri et aliorum magis injuria quam 
nostra culpa calamitosi sumus, confidenter ad tuee majes- 
tatis clementiam accedimus quidem minime, quia non 
possumus : sed voce et gemitu, et scripto, quod hoc tem- 
pore, et hoc in loco solum facere valemus, divinam tuam 
et invocamus clementiam, et imploramus opem et boni- 
tatem. Hie locus, prfidentissime princeps, non scelera- 
torum career, sed miserorum custodia et est, et nominatur : 
et in banc custodiam nos non intrudimur ab aliis, sed 
ipsi confugimus : et hue confugimus, non metu supplidi, 
sed spe melioris fortunse : fortuna enim sola nos in banc 
miseriam detrusit. Nam elves sumus Londinenses, qui 
vitam ante et satis affluentem inter nostros, et valde, at 
speramus, probatam inter vicinos, traduximus : sed nunc, 
quod ssepe accidit mercatorum sort! et fortunse, vel crebra 
pecunieB nostrsB depravatione, vel variis Gallorum in man 
latrociniis, vel tempestatum jactationibus atque naufragiis, 
vel creditorum valde gravibus usuris, vel debitorum nimk 
levi perfidia et dolls, in cam miseriam collapsi sumut, 
eoque tam gravi sBre alieno obstringimur, ut nisi ab eodem 
sre, divina tua ope et bonitate levemur atque liberemur, 
in his duris vinculis atque foedis carceribus vitam miser- 
rime simus consumpturi. Et quod nostra neque libidina 
neque insolentia, hoc ees alienum contraximus, sed ant 
maris tempestate, aut hostium vi, aut debitorum fraude, 
in has rerum angustias devenimus, testes non magis ido- 
neos proferre possumus quam ipsos creditores nostros, 

416 A80Ha.m'8 letters. [1554. 

q\ii quum probe intelligant D08,iion studio faciendse injuria, 
sed communi quadam mercatoram sorte, atque infortunio, 
in hunc locum confugisse, memores bumanse conditionis 
atque vicissitudinis, ita faciles, itaque bonos sese nobis 
pnebent, ut quum nos qui triginta numero bic sumus, 
decem millia librarum et eo plus eis debemus, duobus 
millibus contenti, quod reliquum est condonaturi sint. 
Per tuam igitur, optime princeps, divinam bonitatem, 
per bunc tuum et in boc regnum, et in banc urbem feli- 
dssimum ingressum, per spem non tuam unius, sed uni* 
verssB AnglisB optatissimee tuse sobolis, majestatem tuam 
rogamus, ut banc nostram tarn deploratam, tamque depo- 
sitam fortunam, amplissima tua munificentia benigne con- 
solan atque in integrum erigere* velis. Deus Optimus 
Maximus ita convertat mentem majestatis tuse, ad earn 
commiserationem nostrsB miserise, ut cum Da vide vere 
cantarcy primum Deo, proxime tibi possimus, propter 
vocem et gemitum pauperum, nunc exurpam, dicit Dominue, 
spem itaque voti nostri consequendi eandem nobis promit- 
timus quam in hoc fausto die, abs te felicissimo principe, 
expectare debemus. Deus majestati tuse annorum et 
liberorum longissimum numerum, in bac Britannia floren- 
tiasimum regnum, in ipso orbe universum imperium 
benigne et cito concedat, feliciter et perpetuo conserYCt, 
E custodia et vinculis, 18 Augusti, 1554. 


Sent with a copy of a book containing selections from Cicero and 

the Poets. London, Aug. 21, 1554. 

lomino secretario Buris, quum offerret illi libellum 

qui continebat senteniiaa ex Cicerone etpoetis 

priscis coZ^6fc/a«.— Omatissime vir, quum libris 

multum delecteris^ quum que multos, neo in 

itinere commode circumferre, nee in Aula per 

1S54.] ASCHUl's LBTTB&S. il7 

negotia legere possis; himc unum, insUr muUorum, 
libenter tibi mitto. * In unuin emm libellum hunc, quio- 
qoid pradentis eloquentiae ex ipso Cicerone colligi ; quic* 
quid suavis et sanas voluptatis ex. optimis poctis decerpi 
potuerat, erudilo delectu et exquisito ordine illigatur, 
Itaque, si grato animo hunc libellum, mei in te cuUus et 
observantie testem, accipias, efficies, ut aliquid aliquando 
migus, quod non tantum alieni ingeuii, sed laborem mea? 
etiam industrise referat, tibi confidenter offeram. £ memo* 
ria enim mea excidere non potest, quod prudentia tua da 
hujusmodi instituto semel mecum egit. Qui mens labor, 
quia magna ex parte cum magna laude experientin, 
moderatiouis, et fidei tuas singularis, in illustrissimam 
principem nostram conjunctus esset, levis mihi et petju- 
cundus foret. Sed de hao re, opportunius coram et ser* 
mone. Deus te principi fidelissimum consiliarium, mihi 
optimum patronum, diutissime servet incolumem. Lon- 
dini, XXVIII Augusti, 1654. 


Knd of 1664. 
' the Lord Chancellor : JeiM^ help 1 Amen, — My 
very good lord, these letters are to thank you 
for your benefits, not to trouble you with any 
suit, because by you I am more bound to do 
the one, than I have need at this time to do 
the other. Indeed of late not the lack of business, but 
Mr Peter and his gentleness hath been the very cause 
why this good while I troubled your lordship neither 
with letters nor suit. And because I receive such gentle- 
ness of him not of my desert, but from your lordship's 

1. — II — ' — 

• Elttob thinks this book was Libellum Ptiri LagnerU Cbrn* 


418 asoham's LiTTiKi. [1664. 

good will towards me, and judgment on me, what time 
you obtained my patent^ atid office for me ; therefore as I 
owe this benefit also of Mr PaTKR's good will to you, so 
of duty I thought fit to make some account thereof. 
Tour lordship knowoth how Mr PsTia troubled my patent 
with a proviso wherewith you were not best contented, 
but now he hath made amends for all, for ho hath gotten 
out the patent for my office during my life, with another 
proviso in this to cancel the former stop { and though it 
be to your lordship small pleasure and some trouble to 
hear of this, yet because you have been always so ready 
to do me good yourself, I trust you will not be miscon- 
tented to know who doth me good for your sake. No 
time since I was born so sticketh in my memory as that 
when I, unfriended and unknown, came first to your 
lordship with my Book of Shooting, and what since that 
time you have done for me, both with King Uxnry, King 
Edward, and Queen Mary, I never shall forgot, nor 
hitherto hnvo hidden, either in England or abroad. And 
thus seeing with such deeds you have indebted me, how 
much blnmcworlhy were I, if at least with words I should 
not be rendy to repny you ; and because you should guess 
the deeds thnt I would do, of a few words that I will use, 
five sureties 1 offer unto your lordship for the payment of 
my debt unto you ; thnt is, my will, word, work, heart, 
and hand, evermore to wait upon your honour and state 
as long ns 1 shall live ; and this memory 1 gladly use of 
your goodness, not so much for the matter which privately 
hath coined to me, as for the praise that commonly is 
given to you, when you are counted of all men the best 
friend to every man that this country hath; and I do 
think you more happy for this judgment of men than if I 
should sec you bear greater part than did cardinal in Eng- 
land. Tlic giTatest staves were never the surest to stand 

1554.] MsemMM"* ixmaoL 41S( 

in this reilfli ; fer wiMB^knar ihk imik hMsk heem tiie mjjmi, 
gOTernmeoi of smdk m Sid rstk, or t^ wmi^f vmmrt ei 
thofe tbai sko$M 4^b^'^ I Awodusct lu^; huL liik I xm maat^ 
tbete mauj jem Es^^btMi wsstifd uijewtir frnfaesah^ &rwmUL 
not Tety loi^ hisag i^m^jssgtm'iodi wm MttxtmuM » wai*s 
talk eilber wttesl tn wxumfil «r gmttasi m psMr^r ^ smI 
although jour Imdda^ Seata^ft^ hv y&ta wrm^mm to W 
esteemed for the oms. Mid im wmtkf i^ jmix p^&^sem to 
be the other^ yet for the So«« 1 hem ytm m k w^m wtj 
greateft joy to aee jgu m rerr Sutd. he hoth -^ miikwtf 
daily wish to hear yon m wew^stiilk he »eeo«aitad neither^ 
whereanto, when, or whete wy word am aerre. I help 
with all ny heart; httitheflN»»ofyof yoiirfoodfiMaHihath 
carried me to h^;her ttatten Hum need is, aod therefore to 
irooble yoor lordship at this time 00 lot^er, I beseeeh 
yon take mine intent deehircd in this letter, as a sorety of 
the duty which I owe most ghkl^y* ^uid will pisy most 
readily unto your brdship. And thns the liriog Qod 
presenre yoor lordship, alwi^s. Tour lordship's always 
most bottnden, £L A%kau. 

To the Bt Hob. and Bt Scrcieod Fsthsr in Ood^ 
Btcphen, Lord Bbbop of WinchmUr, 
Lord Higli CbanoeUor of EngUod. 


On behalf of Domma B. T. petitioning for the relcsM of her 

husband. [London], Not. 8, 1654. 

Jugostissime rex, domine dementissime. Diu roul- 

tumque ego jam laboraviapud msjestatem tuani, 

pro coDJuge meo D. Amb. D. Beliqui fratres 

toa bonitate atque gratia et conjugum labore 

atque opera in libertatem restituti sunt. Tu» 

m^jestati banc laudem et sororibus meis banc feUcitateni 

420 ascham's litters. [1664, 

Tf hementer gratulor ; meam tamen meique mariti miseram 
sortcm non satis deplorare queo. Ex meis laboribos sola 
ego hunc cepi fniciam, ut mihi nunc laborandum sit, non 
quomodo maritum in libertatem sed meipsam ab infamia 
▼indicare possim. Non enim ilium plus deliquisse nee te 
minus illi concessisse, sed me minus pro illo laborasse 
▼ulgo credibile erit. Age ergo, clementissime princeps, et 
perficc, ut maritus mens id tuo recipiat beneficio quod 
amisit delicto. Quo uno beneficio, et ilium a miseria et 
me ab infamia et utrumque a summa sollicitudine et cura, 
divina dementia tua misericord iter liberabit. Quam boni- 
tatem is, qui omnis boniiatis fons est et auctor, abunde 
largiterque compensabit. Deus tuam majestatem con- 
tervet et tueatur. VllI Novembris, 1564. 

On behalf of Thomas Hoi. asking the remlBaion of a debt. 

Nov. 20, 1554. 
^ff/ia; Majestati, — Fro D, Th. HoL — Illustrissime 
rex, domine clementissime. Emi nuper a re- 
ginea ninjestate eos fundos, pro quibus mihi 
Bolvcnda; sunt scrario vestro librae mille spp- 
tingentsc octoginta decern et octo, quatuor- 
dccim solidi, et duo denarii. Majestas sua, fidei mesc et 
observantiou in illam habita ratione, preBscntera pecuniam 
non cxcgit, sed ejus solutionem ita benigne rejecit, ut 
diniidia para solveretur ad hoc proximum Purificationis 
Festum ; pars altera ad festum jam proximum S. Michae- 
Lis, et Annuntiationem D. Viuginis. Si hsec pecunia, 
muniflcentissimc princeps, exigatur a me ad hos consti- 
tutes dies, non solum rustica mea prajdia sed bona etiara 
domestica mihi divendenda sunt. Multi mihi esse testes 
possunt, ([unm graves sumptus, domi militioeque, vita et 
f ulica et bcllica mihi his supcrioribus annis imposuit : quo 

1554.] AiKmUK^f LWmtOL. if I 

effectom ttit *^ igpa^ fiaamm 4tsbs£ist: arm vAxm rm^Bm 
majesUti icd makkk ctaan. «& fm» ok ^cKntttki jbuau 
Itaqae, n cRdi(U9o» nud futda ^isaotxsk «osie y t a cb icjea i 
hole meae pataaUi (owioaim^ «t ^teseDese babt ce^gicwt «mft 
infamia ei i{iuRfKfe aJisifli fiuai cvat flufiem </auMo 
coactus tmteoL, B<q^ i^^Exr ■BPaJkraritftf^wwwi reduoiai 
majestatem, at kuie ^lucfuossm ^^^ '^^ t^s^eiv ^^en^ctUtti, aau 
integram mibl odfkionet, svl «b^ paneBti cnskr^aiX, <^«ai 
▼eatne diwiam ckmrittir <t bowtsd 'uk>m» ul mddtutttr 
visa fuerii. Hoe I«k ■j je ct tfi »i ^cNMetkadttM ptuwwm 
qaiddam eit : mlki mo 9kqii$£ mgsm fortitiiae iu »^*g*uwt 
et neceuanum, ul abique eo nee diiittiai iii«enrtfe ia Imm 
aula sine aiiqoo dedwore, nee aliam fium cequi aiM 
magno meo ma^rofe, d»JbBe{» poUiero. lUqiie ttipplietkr 
peto a TesUa majeaUte, at liteias festn* ad haoe Eem 
requif itas, de renuMioiie L/jcu debili, ad D. ICardiioocm 
WiNTOViJB fommum Aogiijae tbeaaiuariiuii dif;Deliir ccri- 
bere. £t ego Bie pacatiiaimtttn temper ^d omoe fenrieodt 
muDiis oompajrabo, qoodetuiqueBiiluquIbtiftvii temporibua 
domi militueque majeataa tiiA demAndabit. Deaa Optinuu 
Maximm aacrain majettatem taam optatlwimis Uberia, 
loDguaimis aaiiia, &c. XK NovemlMric^ 1554. 


On behalf of the wife of Sir E«L So. for the releaae of her 
husband who ii in priion. Nor. 23, 1554. 

rHlastmsime prinoepa^ domine clementissime. 
Divina majettatia tus natura, ad oamem 
benignitatem et misericordiam proposita, me 
multia miseriifi depresaam et jacentem excitavit 
et in magnam spem erexit; ut mihi miaerai 
et afflictsB molieri opem ferre dignari velis. Pro me vero 
aeparatim nihil, sed pro carissimo meo conjuge Ed. Bo. 

422 ascham's letters. [1564. 

equite,misericordi8m tuam imploro : is enim longo jam tem- 
pore, et in caroerera iucluAUs, non solum fortunis et faculta- 
tibus exhaustus, sed gravi etiam infirmitate pene consump- 
tus est. Ego igitur, supplex projecta ad genua majestatis 
tusB, rogo obsecroque, ut tua solita dementia maritum 
meum solitse suielibertati restituere velit. £t hujuabene- 
ficii, ego precibus apud Deum, maritus observantia erga 
tuam majestatem, utcrque obedientia erga te clementissi- 
mum nostrum priacipem, neo immemores neo indignos 
1106 esse declarabimus. Deus saorosanctam majestatem 
tuam longissimis annis et amplissimis imperils majorem 
indies faciat. XXIII Novembris 1664. 

CLXXIX.— TO THE SAME, (4, 42). 
On behalf of Jo. Giild. for the restoration of hia pension and 
the repayment of monej spent in opposing Sir Thomas 
Wyatt's rebellion. Deo. 14, 1664. 

T^ffiiS Majeatati, — Pro D.Jo, Quid, — Serenissime 
rex, domine clementis8ime,H£NKicU8 Octayus 
clarissimffi memorisB princeps, pro meo ser- 
vitio, fide, et observantia illi praestita, annuum 
stipendium quadraginta marcarum mihi, quam- 
diu vivercm, et benigne concessit et liberaliter largitus 
est. lluec pecunia integre mihi pleneque persoluia est 
per thesaurarium regiae camera), usque ad quintum nnuum 
regni illustrissimi regis nostri Edvakdi Sexti : ex quo 
tempore nihil mihi ex ea summa solutum est. Praeterea, 
hoc proximo superiori anno, tot milites, talemque appara- 
tum militarera, contra Wyatum curavi, ut ilia solum ex- 
peditio duccntas mihi libras cxhnuserit, quemadmodum 
ex certa expensarum mearum ratione palam perspicueque 
consture possit. Postea ex jussu et mandato re^esB 
majestatis mihi injunctum fuit, ut certos homines rebel- 
lionia VVYATANiE conscios atquc participes in agro Canti- 

1654.] A8CUAM'8 LETTIR8. 423 

EDO perquirerem ; in quo negotio fideliter et diligenter 
obeundo, grandem sane sumptum sustinebam. Itaque 
supplioiter peto ab eequissima vestra mcgestatei primum ut 
oonoessio ilia et donatio quadraginta librarum quam diu 
vivam mibi rata et confirmata maneat ; utque ilia pecunia. 
quae mihi ex hac concessione debita ett, integre et plene 
persolvatur; deinde, ut sumptuum illorum, quos iUis 
Wyati temporibus libenter feci, ea babeatur ratio, qun 
vestrflB majestatis asquitati justa alque debita videri possit ; 
postremo supplioiter peto ut literas vestras, ques et oon* 
oessionem veteris mei stipendii oonfirment et pecunice mihi 
debitsB praesentem solutionem mandent, ad D. Marchionetn 
WiNTONiJB summum Angliae thesaurarium vestra mcges- 
tas dignetur soribere. Et ego me paratissimum semper 
ad omne serviendi munus comparabo, quodcunque mihi 
quibusvis temporibus domi militisBve m^jestas vestra mihi 
imponere voluerit. Deus sacram majestatem vestram op- 
tatissimis liberis, longissimis annis, maximis imperiis, et 
omnibus felicitatibus, perpetuo beare dignetur. XIV 
Decembris, 1664. 

CLXXX.— TO KING [PHILIP], (4, 46). 
On bshftlf of Domina Dor. St. liking lioenss for her husband 
William St, who is in debt, to remaiu abrosd. 

egia Mqfiitati. — Pro Domino Dor, Si, — Augus- 
tissimexex, clementissime domine. QuL. St. 
maritus meua abest in Gallia, et abest non 
propter delicti consoientiam neo propter peri- 
culi metum, sed quia eo eere alieno premebatur, 
ut vitam apud exteros cum miseria, quam domi apud suos 
cum infamia traduoere maluerit ; sperat enim in hac sua 
absentia, parce ac duriter vivendo, se posse ab hoc nre 
facilitts Uberari. Vitam traducit, non novis rebus impli- 

424 A8CHAX'8 LETTERS. [1555. 

citam, sed quieti et Uteris totam deditam. Et qaoin rex 
Oallorum ampla conditione largoqae stipeodio ei pro- 
posito in militiam vocaret, adduci nullo modo potuit at 
anna contra Caesaream majestatem ferret. Quod venia non 
petita bine discesserit, ego pro illo non facti excuaationem, 
sed offensae deprecationera ad tuam clementissimam majes- 
tatem adfero. Suppliciter igitur peto a tua divina de- 
mentia, ut per auctoritatem majestatis tusB Uteris patenti- 
bus decUratam ad aUquot annos abesse possit. Quo toto 
tempore eam vitse rationem sequuturus est, quam obedien- 
tissimus subditus suo principi, et fideUssimus senrus 
suo domino probare prsestareque debeat. Deus optimus 
maximus majestatem tuam diutissime servet incolumem. 


Oo behalf of lome one who had been engaged in Wyatt's rebd- 

lion " last jear ; ** asking remiiaion of eighty pounds oat of 

£100 fine that had been imposed on him, seeing that he 

had paid £20, and was now admitted into the king's eerrioe. 

f^fjfio! Majestati. — Potentissime rex, clementissime 
4omine. Sum ego unus ex ea hominum amen- 
tium coUuvie, qui proximo superiore anno 
furoresTHOMiE Wyati sequuti sumus. Et quan- 
quam hocilagitium,imperitia potiusquam volun- 
tate, et aliorum consilio non meo studio admiserim, justa 
tamen pcena banc injustam meam temeritatem jure quidem 
sequuta est. Nam in carceres et vincula conjectus, 
multum me metus prsesentis mortis, plus infamia reli- 
quse sequentis vitse, potissimum vero ipsa conscientia 
sceleris mei, noctes diesque cruciabat. Sed prudentissimi 
judices, non privatum sanguinem sed communem salutem 
queerentes, nostra non tarn contenti pcena quam commoti 
pcBuitentia, a mortis metu me cum multis aUis Uberarunt \ 

1666.] aschah's letters. 426 

hao tamcQ conditione mihi proposita, ut centum libra 
regio fisco persolverem. Postquatn ex hujus terapestatis 
fluctibus Dei Optimi Maximi et reginee clementissimaB 
immcnsa misericordia emerseram, ita me gessi, ut optimus 
▼ir dominus Joannes B. unus ex primariis secretariis 
migestatis tuae me in suum famulatum cooptaret ; qui earn 
de mea fide, officio, et obedientia concepit opinionem, ut 
curaret me ascisci in eum numerum qui majestati tuse 
inservirent : ubi Deo volente sic me comparabo, ut non 
solum praeteritam culpam sedulo officio corrigere, sed 
▼eteris flagitii memoriam nova obedientia abolere, ante 
omnia elaboraturus sum. Id quod quo melius prsestare 
queam, supplex projectus ad genua clementioe tuse, sum- 
mopeie rogo, ut m^'estas tua contenta viginti libris, quae 
jam solutae sunt fisco tuo, mihi egentissimo famulo tuo, 
quod reliquum est debiti condonare velit. Hoc tuse 
majestati ad concedendum exiguum quiddam est, mihi 
vero ad aocipiendum tarn amplum atque gratum, ut absque 
eo nee Ubi inservire nee mihi vivere in posterum queam. 
Si vero bonitas tua benigne mecum hoc modo actura est, 
earn vitam in regia tua solum sequar, quam obedientissi- 
mus subditus suo principi, et fidelissimus servus suo 
domino probare prsestareque semper debeat. Deus, &c. 

(3, 30.) 
OompUmentt John, JDominie, And Mabel Yahane, on tbeir leml 
for learning. 
\jpamn ei Danumico FaehanU, Frairihu, et i/a- 
belhe Faeiama, iilonm iorori iectisdma tir- 
gimiy ^. — Optimorum parentom felicissimi 
salvete HberL Non oblivioDe vestri, non ne- 
^ectione officii mei factum est, quod ad litems 

426 ascham's letters. [1555. 

▼estras mnltis nominibus mihi peijucundas nihil hactenns 
responderim. Scribendi materies ampla, mitteudi facol- 
tas opportona et quotidiana mihi oblata fait : ego solos 
his commoditatibus defui, non quia alienior a Yobis, sed 
qoia offensior nonnihil omnibus musis, his superioribus 
mensibus, mihi ipse esse videbar. Sed jam denuo reposi- 
tns in gratiam cum Uteris, arrepto calamo, preeteriti 
silentii mei, si non culpam omnem excusare, saltem veniam 
aliquam a vobis impetrare cogitabam. Culpam silentii 
fateor magnam, judicii vero sinistri mei de yobis, de quo 
me sic accusatis, penitus agnosoo nullam. Omnes enim 
mihi musse in perpetuum irascantur, si aliier unquam ex- 
istimavi de vobis, quam de rarissimis non solum nostrsB 
estatis, sed longe superioris memorise virtutis et literarum 
exemplis. Mirabar equidem, et non injuria mirabar, vos 
puellos in hac setate, te virginem in hoc sexu, intra do- 
mesticos parietes, sub quotidiana matris indulgentia, in 
prsesenti hac urbana licentia et luxu, aspirare potuisse ad 
cam literarum praestantiam, quam sequuti multi, asse- 
quuti sunt admodum pauci : et id quidem, facti jam viri 
in ipsis academiis, sub durissima disciplina, ubi ad lite- 
rarum impedimentum nihil, ad incrementum omnia com- 
parata esse videantur. Fallimini igitur si putatis meam 
admirationem ad ullam dubitationem de vestra facultate, 
et non ad summam commendationem vestri ingenii, doc- 
trinse et educationis omnino referri deberi : has enim tres 
res, ingenii vestri vim, doctrinas rationem, et educationis 
consilium, supra modum admirabar. Laus ingenii tota, 
quoniam eo sic utimini ad virtutem, solummodo vestra 
est; doctrinae, cum praeceptore communis; educationis, 
ad parentes referenda. Namque, iu vestro iugenio raram 
indolem, paratissimam voluntatem, et constantem indus- 
triam semper perspexi. In praeceptore, quum facultatem, 
quum diligeutiam, turn fidem probavi. In parentibus et 

1655.] ascram's lsitsbs. 4i7 

pradeotiam, et boniutem sammopae oommoidan ; ptu* 
dentuim proptar coiMilhun, quod de vobis sic edueandis 
MpieotiasuDum suscepenmt : boniUtem, propter sumptos. 
quos maumos in robis iU insUluendis sastinueniiit, in 
iUis inesse pnedptiain animad?eiti. £t his rationibus 
adductiu ^o, in initio literamm meanim, tos recte opti- 
morum parentum felidssimos nominabam liberos : quam 
felicitatem, et Tobis, et irestris parentibus ex animo con- 
gratulor ; vobis propter snmmnm usom, parentibas prop- 
ter maximam Isetitiam, quam illi ex vestra eruditione et 
studiis, V08 ex illomm bonitate atque oonsiliis capietis. 
Itaque quod ad me attinet, ero perpetuo, quomodo hac- 
tenus semper fui, et libens spectator vestri cursus, assi- 
duus hortator vestrse industriaB, et prsecipuus commen- 
dator atque admirator vestrse virtutis: imo etiam, pro 
meo de vobis judicio, ero quoque certus expectator illius 
honoris, quem talis cursus, tanta industria, tarn preeclara 
virtus jure commereri videantur. Ex hoc enim cursu tarn 
prudenter instituto, ex hac industria tarn constanter col- 
locata, ex hac virtute tarn feliciter jam comparata, nihil 
certe ego, nisi rarum, nisi amplum expeotare queo, id 
quod ut contingat, utque brevi etiam contingat, ille 
absque dubio, qui omnia est et fons prudentiss et auctor 
induetrisB et largitor felicitatis, effecturus est: qui vos 
vestraque studia indies promoveat, et optimorum vestro- 
rum pnrentum de vobis spem multo Iseto et longo gaudio 
perimpleat Deus, &c. 


For Sir William Paget^apeakt of a book that had been sent 
him from Nanniua, fait before Paget started on bii embafsj. 
PaUce at Westminster, Feb. 10, 1556. 

428 ASOHAU'S LITTERS. [1555 

)^etro Nannio, pro Domino Pagetto^ 8,P, — Simul 
tnihi traditi fuenint libri tui, humanissime 
Petri Nanni, et ego proficiscebar legatus 
orator in Drabantiam ad CeDiaream nifljes- 
tatcm. Qua nostra subita profectione factum 
est, quo minus ego turn libros eos, ea qua cupiebam op- 
portunitatc, ii« quibus dcstinati sunt tradere ipse atque 
oommendare potuerim. Hoc tamen negotium dedi, offe- 
rendi libros tuos altcri ex primariis secretariis, qui ad id 
prsBstandum quum esset non solum facultate valde ido- 
neus, sed voluntate ctiam admodum paratus, subita tamen 
et rcpentina infirmitate, ita fuit ab omni officio obeundo 
exclusus, ut libros tuos non redditos, sed ad reditum 
meum reservatos, ipse ad aulam reversus oiTenderem. 
Quos ego primo quoque tempore, ita commode, itaque ex 
arbitratu meo et ex sentcntia tua, iis quibus cupiebas tra- 
didi atque commendavi, ut non solum eos Iseto vultu et 
lubenti animo, sed cum magna tua laude tusoque doctrinas 
prmdicationo accipcrent atque perlegcrcnt. Itaque ex his 
lnbori))ii8 tuis fructum, ct laudio in prfuscnti ningnum, et 
utilitutis in posicrum ulicjuiMn, uti spcro, pcrccpturus es. 
Orutioncm ttinm, qua horuin supcriorum proxiniorum 
tcmporum apud nos turbas atque turnultus cxplicas, 
dilig(M)t(;r perlcgi ; conBilium tuum vuldo luudo, et studium 
etiairi erga hoc regnum vehementer probo. Tractatio ipsa 
penuMidita ; Bed inatericH omniH non ea fide ad tc com- 
portata vM qiiam res ipHa postulat. Itaque no hoc tuum 
lauda))ile iriHtitutum oareret ea laude, quu3 prima CMt cu- 
jusvis hiutoriie, ealainurn ipge sumam, et certiti quibusdom 
in lociH, ut res feret, addain aliquid et immutabo, si tu ita 
viH, aut b1 tu non aliter bIh per litcras mihi significaturus. 
Quod te lion accerBcrem, quum proximo essom in Hra- 
bantia, non tui o))livione id feci, sod temporis angustia, et 
rorum, quibus distincbar, niugnitudino itnpedicbar, post- 

U65.] ascham's lxttkrs. 429 

lidie enim OUos did, quo Bruxellaa veni, et aalvd et vak 
C^SAmi dixi, perendie in AngliaiD. Nam sic me totum 
oocupabant. et quum istic esaem, negotia publioa, ut nee 
priTaU meoram, nee mea, neque me curandi faeultas, Tel 
lenssima, mihi tum temporis conoessa fuerit. Sin aliter, 
nihil mihi oerte prius fiiisset, ant optatius tua doctrinfe et 
humanitatis plena oonsuetudine atque familiaritate : de 
qua sepe et crebris literis R. Brandisbjeus, multum et 
frequenti sermone Rogerus Aschamus libenter prolixe- 
que mecum egiU Itaque, mi Nanni, tibi de me meoque 
in te studio atque adeo judicio pollioeri poles, ut quicquid 
▼el tibi gratum, vel tuis rebus oommodum facere queam. 
id quando voles, paratissime semper prsestiturus aim. 
Vale! ex R^^ Westmonasterienai, X Februarii, 1555, 


On behalf of Domina B. T. — thanka the king for restoring her 
husband to liberty, and petitions that her estates may be 
teoured to her. Feb. 22, [1555.] 

i^renissime rex, et princeps clementissime. Quum 
libertatem marito meo, et meum maritum 
mihi restituisti, te vitam denuo utrique dedisse, 
ambo libenter preedicaraus. £t quum mortales 
omnes suos propterea venerantur parentes, quia 
dulcissimum lucis aspectum ab eis acceperunt : iu loco certa 
parentum ut tuam majestatem habeamus, arctissimo 
vinc'dlo non necessitatis nostra, sed paternn bonitatis 
tu8B, in perpetuum devincti et obligati sumus : quanqunra 
hoc etiam nomine plus tibi quam pareuti suo debent 
maritus, quia vitam ipsam, quam parentis offensa abstu- 

430 ASCHAM's LETTBB0. [IhH, 

lerat, tua reddidit booitat et indulgeoiit. Et quia h^e 
irita, quam iu aoliia dedisti, sine ricta TiiaUa etie mm 
queat, oerte, quum boc quod majus est atqoe adeo maxi- 
miun muout aocepimut, de miuori quidem beoefteio if 
dubitaremui, nimit aordida nimiaque maligiui de taa 
regia mooiftcentia nostra esset cogitatio. Poatulata nos* 
tra non sunt magna, neo majora qnam in praeaentia reti- 
nemus. Non plus requirimua quam nunc Imbemos, 
babendi autem alium modum solummodo postulanras* 
Modus autem hujusmodi est. Ego propter roariti offen- 
sam remota fui, et id quidem jure bujus regni, ab omni- 
bus prasdiis et bonis meis bsnmiitanis. Eegina tameo, 
pro sua divina dementia, quanquam Jns pmdionim ami* 
sissem, fructum tamen eomndem integrum mibi benigne 
eUrgita est et liberaliter concessit. Postulo igitur sup- 
pUciter, ut quemadmodum fructum meorum per regin» 
clementiam retineam, sic jus etiam eorundem per tuam 
reglam bonitatem recuperem. £t hoc quidem necessario 
postulo. Nam, dum hunc fructum sine jure veteri capio, 
vitam sine fide aliqua inter homines dego. Nemo mihi 
nee mutuuui dare, nee vendere quicquam, nee meeuin 
commercium uliuiu exercere libenter vuit, in hac mea 
meuruin rcrum incerta possesslone. Itaque, ut nos, qui 
quasi nova* vitoe usurara a tua dementia cepimus, veteris 
etium vitffi nostrtc iibertatem ut per tuam bonitatem re- 
cupcremus, suppiices prostrutique postulamus; id quod, 
ut per iiteras patentes rnHj^ni sigilii hujus regni consij^- 
nutus firnnnn rutumque habeatur, suppliciter etiiim roga- 
nms. XX 11 Februarii. 


lor the Umd flbif ■iTVii »i> aii 11>— » Btojuwialib |a<iliwi 
totlKKii««ri>mmMKk. Jk^;^l»k 

I jimdn^ Bjfide, Sanmitmmi JSUfia Jhrnim Omn 

fD. CkmoeiUn0y im fmfiam 1W> 

BmmiHt rL — lliustiis ci magniiioe nr. 

Jq SereaissiaBS lex nailer serenmiaiaque r^- 
ginm seripsaiint ambo naper ad iUustrem 
prindpem legoEk Duiis, in &vorem Thomjb Banutui 
dris Loodineosis : id quod uterque fecit et libenter ei 
stadiose, qmun propter lequitatem causae, tum propter 
probitatem viri. Ipse qaoque eadem de caussa eundem 
viniin TeBtrsB prudentis libenti animo et maguo studio 
oommendo. Itaque si Thomas Bjinistkrus vestro con* 
silio, vestraqae ope atque gratia, apud serenissimum 
regem Dnuis ad explicandam suam caussam, meo rogatu, 
uti possit, libenter ego vicissim, quioquid aut grati veatrua 
amplitudini, aut oommodi cuiquam, vestro nomine, faoere 
queam, prsestiturus sum. II Aprilis, 1656. 


Had heard of Duaren (who waa an eminent French lawyer), from 
Thomaa M[artin], and read his hooka — referi to the enquiry 
ahout foreigners on Marj'a coming to the throne—Thomas 
M[artin]'t firtuea and proapeot of further ad?anoement — 
Gardiner lord high obanoellor, 

Hprnino Franeiaco Duareno. — Salve plurimum, 
doctissime, bumanissime, amabilissime Fban- 
C18CB DuARKNE. Hauo te ignoti homiuis 
novam affandi rationem ratio et meriti tul et 
officii mei merito postulare videtur. Doc- 
trioa enim tua quam sit eximia, frequenter ex libris tuis 

482 A8CH All's LITTERS. [1655. 

editis oogDOTi: hamaniUtem rero erga onines, atque 
sioguUrem in me leorsim amorem, ex sermone onuk 
tissimi vir Teoum M[ABTiifi] tui studiosissimi, et md 
etiam amantis saepe quidem, magnaque semper mea cum 
Toluptate intellexi. Te igitur de hac tua singulari doc* 
trina, humanitate et benevoleniia, mi optaiissime FftAV* 
ciscE DuARENE, et impeiitus ego si non suspicerem, et 
inhumanus si non colerem, et peringratus si non reda- 
marem, jure Tideri debeam. 8ed doctrinsB tusB deinoeps, 
ut statuo, memoriam, et tecum saepe crebris mittendis 
Uteris, et mecum quotidie tuis periegendis libris, jucun- 
dam atque fnictuosam usurpabo. Humanitatem vero 
toam mutuo ego libenter subsequar studio atque grata 
Toluntate : semper laborabo, ut quum tui instituti con- 
suetudinem tantopere laudem, tui etiam exempli imita- 
tionem a me alienam esse non putem. In amore autem, 
quantus tu cunque fueris, tibi non concedam, ut tu me 
plus diligas quam ego te amem : nam, quamvis ipse tibi 
partes in amando sumpseris priores, ego tamen vendicabo 
justiorcs, quura tu opinione, ftgo judicio ad hunc amorera 
acctBHU Tu enim unius cpistob; satiH incultsc Icctione, 
uniuftque hominif), amici admoduiri quidern amantis nimiuiri 
foriaKsc, sermone te ad liominem ignotiirri atque ob^curum 
diligcndum tradidlhti : ego non ex Uteris privatim 8criptii», 
sed ex libris publicc editi«, neque ex uniua amici erga te 
studio, »ed ex univcrwai doctorum liominum nationis de 
le judicio, ad tc amandum me ipse dedi : adeo ut amor 
mens wjrtus, tuus cuicus esse vidcatur. Cajcura taracn 
tuuin amorcin ct nunc esse libenter fero, et in posteruin 
sic pcrmancrc admodum cupio, ne, si oculos rccipiat, mc 
dcscrat alioque avolarc velit. Vcrum, ut ingenue fatcor, 
et JoANNJS Stubmii facto, et T«om>« M[aiitini] 8cr- 
moni plurimum atque libenter debeo, quorum opera 
cfTcctum cat ut tu dc mc non vulgariter exitftimcs. Nul' 

f 1666.] abcham's lettess. 488 

lias eoixn rei qiuDBtiun m^onn fado, qunm dortcmini 
homiDum amioitie : pretertiin, quuni «a am Tirtutw (ip»- 
nioue, aut litenurum ergo lota sutcipi, dod pivftcnli aduia- 
tiooit aucupio, uon lordiJa luch s]ie, uho niodo insiitui 
ndeatar. Amavi diu, Tidi muiquam J oak n km bTi'E- 
MIDlf: aed quum eum Platonis, Aiu»ti>T£L1s, «t 
ClCBBOKlt doctrina ita cxeultum esae penpioerem, ut 
paud admodum in his uostxis, ue leiDporibu» quideiu 
longe ante •apehoribus, mea oerte opiiuane, cum eo ooih- 
ferri posaiut, llliut amore dod cakn- solum ted exardesoen* 
oopL Eadem ratio eaadoD fades miiii admovet, quibus 
inoeDdor ut te peraimili modo amem : quem meum erga 
te aninmm, mi optatiaaime FEAVCiacz VvAUZhL, si tibi 
gratum esse ex litens tuis iutelligam, otrte vel cuiu dus- 
tro TuoMA M[abtimo] ooDtoDdam, ut in uiuni uiutuie 
beneTolentiB ratione atque ofUciorum geuere, liret me 
oommodamii facultate TiDcal, gralifiuaudi tameD voluDtate 
nunquam auperaturus ait. £t lamen, cum gratiore ho* 
minOi aut tibi, ut aepe ex igua aermoue iuteliigo, aut 
mihi, ut indiea ex qua humauitate aentio, aut ouivia, ut 
qootidie ex oonaestiente houiioum de ilio vooe exdpio, 
oontendere iu ullo Uumaoitatia certamiDe dod queo. £t 
quantum amandua eat de hac humanitate, tantum oerie 
oongratulaudum eat ei« quod ad illiua tam gratam naturam 
tam digna aooeaaerit fortuna ; quum ei, ad benigne faci- 
endum omnibua non voluntaa aolum parata atque propo- 
aita, aed facultaa etiam et opportuna et ampla tribuatur. 
Aat ego non recte quidem, qui fortune et oommuoi felici- 
tati tnbuo, quaa virtutia prsmia, pnideutiaa munera et 
aunt et exiatimari debeut. Et quia heo dariaaimi viri 
reoordatio mentem ado utriuaque noatrum, et meam in 
acribendo et tuam in legendo, magna auavitate profundit, 
non aedea aolum ad quaa pervenit, aed gradua ipaoa per 
quoa aaoendit, breviter deaignabo. Quum aumma rerum 


434 ASCHAX'S LBTT1B8. [1556. 

jure hsereditario, illustrisrimn prindpi nostrse Mabijs 
reniret, ut in exordio cajusque prindpis apud nos de 
more fit, lustratio ratioque habita est externoram homi* 
nam; quorum tantus hue confluxerat numema, ut his 
passim urbs Londini redundaret. Thomjb M[abtiko] 
impositum fuit hoc munus decemendi, quinam dvitate et 
patria nostra donandi, et qui ad suos amandandi essent. 
Hoc tempore fui snpe una cum M. quum ille frequenter 
atque suaviter arridens ad me, " Abchahe, (inquit) multi 
Oalii hodie multum debent Duakeno nostro : nihil enim 
prius mihi existit in hoc munere obeundo; quam bene- 
volentiam, quam Duabeno absenti debeo, hominibus 
Gallids repreesentare, ut vel hoc modo summi amid 
jucundissimam memoriam suaviter usurparem." In hoc 
munere, tarn moderate cum summa fide, et tam drcum- 
specte cum maxima diligentia se gessit, ut hsec panra 
initia majora statim consequuta sint : nam paulo post, 
propter juris insignem et suam singularem prudentiam, 
cooptatus est in numerum r^v irpokSpuv, qui una cum 
summo AngliflB cancellario, maximas hominum controver- 
sias cognoscunt, et decidunt. Ubi illius et doctrine 
prsestantia, et rerum usus, et ingenii moderatio, prime 
tempore, tam perspecta probataque fuit prudentiasirao 
preesuli Domino Stephano Wintoniensi, summo Angliae 
cancellario, ut non solum in communi illo judicio, sed in 
8U0 etiam privato domicilio, ad res maximas et mature 
explicandas et feliciter expediendas, ejus solius fere opera 
uti consueverit. Propter hoc munus, ab eo tam fideliter 
gestum, et prudenter moderateque perfunctum, tanta jam 
de eo excitata est, quum optimae principis nostrse existi- 
matio, turn prudentissimi concilii judicium, turn universi 
populi expectatio, ut ex his gradibus, in quibus sua virtus 
et doctrina aliorumque judicium atque prudentia eum 
collocavit, creberrimus jam sermo sit, ilium brevi ad aliam 

1665.J ascham's letters. 435 

deiuceps atque aliam dignitatis sedem, cum maxima om- 
nium voluntate atque congratulatione aspiraturum. Imo, 
ego in hac prsesenti jam sum spe, ut antequam istie ad te 
perveniant litene, ad mtgora reipublicse munera perven- 
turus sit M[artinu8] noster, adeo ut nova amici dignitas 
novam mihi ad te scribendi opportunitatem et commode 
et brevi oblatura sit. 8ed ecce dulcis hsec amici memoria 
ita me mei immemorem facit, ut nee tui rationem. habere, 
nee epistolsB modum tenere, tibi videri possim, et te qui- 
dem ita de hoc meo facto existimare credam, nisi longitudo 
tuarum literarum hano nimis invereoundam meam scribendi 
prolixitatem excusaverit. Yale. 

Presents him with a copy of Arif tes8*s work about the Seventy 
two Interpreters. 

IJpotQfi ColOt quum offerret lUiAmtaam de HttarUa 
due interpreii, — Tantum ego et communi om- 
nium voci de tua eruditione, et frequenti 
M0BT8INI sermoni de tua humanitate, semper 
tribui, doctissime humanissimeque Cole, ut 
imperitus ipse si te non colerem, et inhumanus si non 
amarem, merito videri possim. Hunc igitur libellum, 
mei in te studii et si vis sique id aliquid esset judicii 
etiam testem, tibi libenter offero. Hie auctor, quia et 
tempore priscus, et lingua Grsecus, et usu rarus, et insti* 
tuto pius, et consilio prudens existit, gratus tibi et ac- 
ceptus, atque etiam propter ipsam linguam, in quam nunc 
felicissime versus est, jucundus, spero, futurus sit. Hoc 
itaque rounus, pro mea quidem in te voluntate sane pusil- 
lum, reipsa taroen nliquid, si grato animo acceperis, te 
mihi pergratam rem fecisse existimabo. Vale. 

iS6 auouau'm ivni^M, [1566, 

CLKXXVllL-^TO 8ia WILL, PETBE. (3, l«). 
About OnoriiM, tmiior of • book Ds NobUUaU oMU CirUtUma 
wbiob b« Mnda io Potr«, VU bo(NW to g»(t MHiMtbing §tHm, 
for, aa be bM ap^t 40 pomida during tb« 0r« monUui tb«v 
b« bM baen in London, be o»niiot lir« 18 montb« on £90, 
Two-tbirda of thia lfitt«r ara ▼•rbatim tb« aamo m tb« mf$, 
And tbiNwfora boib w«m probablj written at tb« nuiM data, 

[AprU 7, I666r] 
[^m^M^ QulUlmo Fttrea^ Begia MaJ0$lati$ Shtere* 
Urio Priina/rw du Ottorio, — PrascUrg re« eftt, 
vel nobilibui nasci pareutibiu vel fe^uitU ia^ 
fmti famlUii, olariatime vir ; qui trero, una cum 
i»ti« bouia, rerum abundautiaoi et pr»«taatem 
auimi iudolam^eeum attulerit, ut non natures aolum eiof' 
netur muneribui, aed fortuues atiam commuoiatur pras^i* 
diia, babat bifl quidem ad eiusaLium diguitatia locum 
ioaignem aibi patcfactum aditum, Scd quum has com* 
moditatca oumea ad mujorum plcrumqua rcferaotur, ¥el 
laudem si erant probi, vel laborem ai erant divitea, faciuat 
ilii certa multo prudentiua, qui nou istia alienia aolum 
nituutur gradibub, eed doctriua crescere ad laudem, et 
virtute surgere ad gLoriam, ac suis pedibus, uoo auorum 
vestigiis, ad dignitatitt fastigium pervenire elaboraut, 
Hauc vero rectissiuiam veree nobilitatia viam quum tu, 
clarisaime vir, ducibus quidem virtuta ac doctriub, coml- 
tibus etiam natura ac fortuna, et prudeater ingreasua et 
feliciter sequuiub aib, buno librum tibi de NobilUale Civili 
Ghriitiana olt'erendum esse duxi. AucLorem bujus opens, 
tibi propter materiem valde gratuui, et propter tracts- 
tionem perjucuadum fore existiuavi : ea enim acribit 
quffi tu facis; et eo modo scribit quo tu exccUis; ut 
idem utriusque vestrum cousiiium, iilius in scribendo boc 
opere, tuum in institueuda vita fuisse videatur. Nam bie 
(iber, uon cogitatioues solum, et mentis tujoe consilia, sed 
actioues etiam et vitoi instituta, adeoque teipsum tibi, 

1555.] ASOHAU'S LETTERS. 437 

tanquam aliquod illustre speculum, osiendet et demon- 
strabit. Videbis etiam quam commodum semper omni 
populo fuerit, ut vel principis sese subjiciant imperio, vel 
ut prudentum tradant se gubernationi atque consilio, 
quam contra, non formidinem solum et periculum, sed 
vastitatem etiam et exitium, vulgi furores et Catilinarum 
libidines, omnibus et regnis et rebus publicis minitantur, 
prudenter, fuse, partite, et diserte narrat. Plebis etiam 
amentiam, et eorum mores atque consuetudinem, qui 
magis noti sunt propter scelera, quam nobiles propter 
virtutem, quique patfiss sues faciem saepe libertatis osten- 
tant, sed faces semper furorum ao licentiam scelerum 
intentant, stylo suo acriter pungii et exagitat. Praeterea 
rerumpublicarum et crebras confusiones propter injusti- 
tiam, et subitas conversiones propter impietatem, et Isetas 
ac longas felicitates, propter humaui divinique juris con- 
servationem, infinitasque alias perroemorabiles res, in qui- 
bus prudentiffi tusB consilia, cogitationes, et cures quotidi- 
ansB excubant et exercentur, in hoc opere persequitur: 
ut hie liber tibi non jucundus solum ad legendum, sed 
optatus etiam ad usum, spero, futurus sit. 

In tractanda vero hao tam praeclara materia, earn 
eloquentisB facultatem et vim adhibet, qua nemo, mea 
certe opiuioue, post ilia AuousTi Casakis tempora, aut 
puriore aut prsestantiore usus est. Est enim in verbis 
deligendis tam peritus, in sententiis conciuuandis tam 
politus, ita proprietate castus, ita perspicuitate illustris, 
ita aptus et verecundus in tfanslatis, ita frequens et felix 
in contrariis, suavis ubique sine fastidio, gravis semper 
sine molestia, sic fluens ut nunquam redundet, sic sonans 
ut nunquam perstrepat, sic plenus ut nunquam turgescat, 
sio omnibus perfectus numeris, ut nee addi illi aliquid nee 
demi quicquam, mea opinione, possit. Imo, tam prsestana 
artifex est, ut neo Italia in Sadoleto, nee Gallia in 

488 ^MUflAlf'f MtfBMr ptH. 

Xovoouo, jm Ommmfa {ii JoAims Sttnufi^ flm^ 
qiiam dam Hitptni* in 0§omio gMarf poMil. Qiml 
rioqii09tfai tnmm to Mdnbriot asitttt, qitiii lAid tolm 

bomioom opinionet ridnmfaii tt eienrriti tad imifanNn, 
•d f$nm Ckriiti glorimii prmUetiuiftm «l MrtiMfami 
•itinii immofttlUAtofli propoflMHidirai gwimt 6l pbcMs 

MUnnno UuDiD, qiunn oontrt Mieoii^vic UAomurwiUJOU 
VUnmUmm Mortfan Mripiitt potiufBitiii ubIM ti dtoeil. 
liiosuTSLUJf 6ii{m magno fampar ingMiiOf tad mb 
iano Mvpa aonfUio, Cbriati optimi nuofmi laUgioBan fi 
iiiproba akfaia al fmpia atiam Mdaaa oniltia booia fMa 
viauaaat. Hia igitwr Oaoviva tfbit pioplar Hbii iatfw 

tnatilniiim attorn, TaUa piiia fiilaUliirf qui aaaa Ipaaia 
gravem pbiioaopbiUD, traatatfona diaartum (mtoiam, rali* 
gionii ttudio farum CbriatiaDttm mue omnino daetoral. 
Et boo porro nomiDe, opiatna tibi aa pereania aaaa dabei, 
quia DOD torn monumenta ingeaii aui qiiam ornamaota 
virtutis i\m, nee tarn laudem UUua eloquaiitia», qoam 
commendatioDem tu» prudantua oontinara et declaraia 
videatur. Et beec de te at OaoEXO. 

De me vero nibil alliid niai quod, dum maa univeiia 
upea, tua udiu« bonitAta mibi aeie et bumauitar offarenta et 
•uaviter pollicente nitatur, juati buuc Ubrum, ut aeaa in 
conspectum tuum nunquam intruderet, led aliquando oflfar- 
ret, ut esiet apud te non flagitator importuuua, aed pro 
me meUque rebua poatutotor pudena atque yerecundua. 
81 vero nunc, prudentiaaime vlr, ? el propter Domini Win* 
TONiENBia, Domini Paostti, et Domini CiacitLZ da ma 
judicium, vel propter aliquod mediocria meie fooultatit 
specimen, quod ex literia meia, vel privatim ad te, et 

1566.] asgham's letters. 489 

publice pro regia majeatate scriptis, jam potes oapere, 
ita de me existimas, ut non omnino ineptus videri possim, 
qui hoc munus literas scribendi subeam, me ad tuam 
voluntatem, nutum, uaum, et omnem etiam opportuDitatem 
libenter reservabo. Sin vero aliter sentiaa, in locum non- 
nulli beneficii deputarem, si illud mihi significare velit, ne 
uimis diu hie et spem alam et tempus teram, et ipse mihi 
alieno sere gra? ior meisque diurno sumptu molestior indies 
iiam. Nam viginti libris non aulicam sed Londinensem 
vitam quomodo integrum annum sustinere queam, quum 
hi proiimi quiuque superiores menses, mihi parce restric- 
teque fiventi, quadraginta libras exhauserintP Itaque, 
quemadmodum omnino statui, perpetuam tusB in me bene- 
volentiss memoriam, perpetuo meo studio, officio, et ob« 
senrantia colere atque conservare : sic nonnihil etiam 
vereor, ne nsum beneficentise tusB hie diu' expectare non 
queam. Sed hsBc cura minus me soUicitat et perturbat, 
quum cogito te eum esse, cui ego fortunseque mess non 
tiuu traditi sumus necessario, quam a te libenter suscepti 
et benevole: ci\jus bonitati, omnium consensu et voce, 
tantum tribuendum est, ut minime ego dubitem, quia, 
quarum rerum spe ad aulicam vitam me ? ocasti, harum 
maturo fructu alacriorem me ad omne officium facturus 
sis : ut, quantam nunc voluptatem ex hac tua peroptata 
mihi benevolcntia oapio, tantam brevi commoditaiem ex 
aliquo tuo grato beneficio, peroepturus sim. Quam meam 
spem in te hoc modo repositam expedies ; pro mea vero 
voluntate, cum qua mora volueris ; pro mea autem neces* 
iitate cum qua maturitate potueris; pro tua denique 
prudentia et bonitate, cum qua opportunitate commodis- 
sime esse duxeris* Vale. 


440 AtCHAM*! LBTTBE0. {ttit. 

86Dt with ft oop7 of Omint't book D» WMUtaiteivm OM^ 

]«i;y/ifitiio ObnKMiZi Pofe.— Prndara iw est, 
dariwiine oardinalis Pole, Tel nobiUbos naed 
parentibot, ?el Tetustit ineeri fSuniUis: qd 
?ero una cum btie bonis leniin abundantiam 
et prattantem animi indoleni aecom attokril, 
ut non fertnn» aolom oommnniator pnesidiUy aed natom 
eiiam exornetur mnneribut^ habet hie qnidem ad exoeliimi 
dignitatu locum intignein iibi patefaetam aditnin. 8ed 
quum h» oommoditates omnes ad mi^rum plemmque 
raferantur, ?el laudem, ti erant nobilesi lA laborem ai 
erant dirites t f aciunt illi certe multo prudentuta, qui bob 
latia alienit aoium nituntur gradubut aed dooMna oreaeeie 
ad laudem» et Tirtilte turgere ad gloriam, ac enii pedibna, 
non anorum fettigiis, ad dignitatia fattigium penrenife 

Hano vero rectissimam verse nobilitatis mm quum tu, 
nobilissime vir, ducibus quidem yirtute ac doctrine, oomi- 
tibua etiam natura et fortuna, quum prudeoter ingressua, 
tum feliciter sequutus sis, hunc librum tibi, de NobUitak 
civili et Christiana, offerendum esse duxi. Auctorem 
htguB opens, tibi propter materiem valde gratum, propter 
tractationem peijucundum esse existimo. Ea enim scribit 
qusB tu facis ; et eo modo scribit, quem tu ipse sequeris ; 
ut idem utriusque vestrum consilium atque judicium, 
illius iu scribendo hoc opere, tuum in instituenda yita, 
fuisse videatur. Nam hie liber, non oogitationea solum 
et mentis tuss consilia, sed actiones etiam et vitsB insti- 
tute, adeoque teipsum tibi tanquam aliquod illustre specu- 
lum, ostendet et declarabit. Docet enim quam oommodum 
semper fuerit omni populo, ut vel principis sese subjiciant 
imperio, vel prudentum tradant sese gubemationi atque 

1555.] ASOHAM*a LBTT£RS« 441 

oonsilio. Contra, quam, non fbrmidinem solum atqutt 
periculom, sed vastitatem etiam et exitium, vulgi farotM 
et Catilinarum libidines, omnibus quum regnis tum r«bua« 
publids important, prudenter, fuse, partite et diserie 
narrat. Prseterea, regnorum ao rerumpublicarum, et ore* 
brasconfiisiones propter iiyu8titiam,et subitas conversionea 
propter impietatem, et lastas ao longas felicitates propter 
human! divinique juris conservationem, inHnitasque alias 
permemorabiles res, in quibus prudenties tues cogitationes, 
oonsilia, et cures quotidianas excubant et exercentur, i& 
hoc opere persequitur, ut hie jam liber tibi, non juoundus 
solum ad legendum, sed optatus etiam ad usum, spero, 
futurus sit. 

In tractanda vero hac tam prasolara materia, earn elo- 
quentias facultatem adhibet, qua, pauci quidem, mea oerte 
opinione, post ilia Augusti C^saris tempers, aut pu- 
riore, aut prsestantiore usi sunt. Est enim in verbis 
deligendis tam peritus, in sententiis concinnandis tam 
politus, ita proprietate castus, ita perspicuitate illustris } 
ita aptus et verecundus in translatis, ita frequens et felix 
in contrariis, suavis ubique sine fastidio, gravis semper 
sine molestia, sic fluens ut nunquam redundet, sic ionaaii 
ut nunquam peratrepat, sic plenus, ut nunquam turgesoati 
sic omnibus perfectus numeris, ut nee addi aliquid, nee 
demi ei quicquam, mea opinione« potsit* Xmo, tarn 
praestans artifex eat, ut nee Italia in Saholsto, um 
Gallia in Lohoolio, nee Germania to JoAKirt BirUKMiOi 
pins quam nnoc Uispania in Otomio, gkiriari d«beat« 

Quod eloqueoUas flnmen eo salobriiii e%Ufiiif qdn 
illud tofcum, HOD ad isaiiea rtntm Uf¥iUU» et nuffftuUm 
hominum opinionea leduodai et €%§umt, sed ttniverMim 
ad venun Cumim fgiomm ei p rw d k aodaai ei pf^p^* 
nandam, emaoat ae plaeide flifii. 

449 ASOUAM'iI LKTTKR8. [1665. 

quam per lingulot Ebrot nqoabiliter fusa tit, in extnmo 
Uunen, quern contra Nioolaum Machxatblum Floren* 
iiuum seortim scripsit, maxime qnidem abundat. Ma- 
GHIAVILU8 enim magno semper, ut sda, ingenio, aed noo 
anno seepe consilio, Ghristi Optimi Maximi religionem 
et improbe elevare, et impie eiiam irridere, multia bonis 
viris visus est. 

Uio igitur OsoRiui tibi, propter libri istiua materiem 
gratus, propter eloquentiam juoundas, propter institutnm 
etiam valde plus videbitur: qui sese, ipsa re gra?em 
pliilosoplium, tractatione disertum oratorem» religionis 
studio ferum Cbristianum esse deolarat. Et base de 
(JsoHio : quern jussi, ut sese in conspeotum tuum nun- 
quam quidem importune intruderet, sed prudenter ali- 
quando offerret : ubique esset apud te, meo nomine, 
meaque absentia, non auceps oommodi et utilitatia, sed 
testis studii atque voluntatis, qua tuam r[e?erendam] 
d[ominRtionem] et nunc colo, et perpetuo obseryaturus 
sum. Deus tuam r[everendam] d[oroinationem] semper 
servet incolumem. Londini, 7 Aprilis, MDLV. Domina- 
tionis tuee studiosissimus, R. Asohamus. 

CXC— TO KING [PHILIP], (4, 38.) 

On behalf of a poor Uurgundian, formerly seryant to the em- 
peror's axnbasBadorB, Eustace Chapp and Franois Dilph. 

July 15. 
}Ygia Majedati — Pro paupere Bergundo. — Cle- 
ment issime princeps. Servivi bic in Anglin 
uiultos anuoH duobus CffisuresB majeatatia om- 
toribus, D. Eubtathio Chappio, et D. 
Francisco Dilpuo. Uterque in patriam re- 
versus intcstato nioritur ; quo fit, ut ad me ex longn 
servitute nihil prajter sciicctutera ct inopiam pervcniret. 


i0Q,«Bd a fsttb fit W«iwtli t«i» fuQ^ftU 

BDwm mgnn a nhrmm rndknUz propterea qsMUm 
egaraici iddik whditiif 9b opdao pmeqw «ao expoe* 
taie qmai, tantum afta inopi ten, ex tiia cteMftliti 
poUiflBor. XV Jain. 

CXCL— TO 8TUEM. (1, U), 

Styt he hif not written to him for two Teuv, pwilj owing to 
hit kte ibernafe, wfaidi tome man had tried to rerertd tt 
kw. Sendf the letter bj the hande of John lieteUue, who 
if on hie w^ beds to Italy, having oome to England la«( 
jear in eompaoj with Pope Pine III*a Nunoio, Antonj 
ikngoftinL Saji he haa been made Latin Seoretarj to Philip 
and Marj, with double emolument, by the aid of Gardiner 
and Paget Sajs bia wife, whose name is Margaret, and 
whom he married June 1, 1564, if nieoe to B. Walop's wife, 
and Tery much like her. Names a Venetian noble IMulus, 
who haa been elected bishop of Brescia. Sends Itis remem- 
brances to Christopher Mount, whose cau»e he will help iU 
he can in England. Greenwich, Sep. 14, 1556. 

^\ogeru8 Jsciamui, Joanni Siurmio, 8.F. — Pactum 
est hoc longum et duorum annorum seribendi 
intervallum, non voluntate mea, non oblivione 
tui, non neglectione officii, clarissime J. 8tue» 
MI. Nee 8ane uila defuit mihi vel fcribendi 
'materies yel mittendi facultaa; aed rerum, non quidem 

444 AiORAM'f lARBM. [IBM. 

pnbuomuB ooDTonioiiis 0t oobuduiiia tsmpofiy §t piifi* 
tAfoin difflonlttiM 0t propriA Mgotiti impodiniMito nun 
•olttmniodo ftiere. NnptLw meM intdUgo, de qufinif ii 
to tllaliiiii 6tt s quas homo turboleotiis ifriiit fimre ton- 
mopere oontendebai. Bed leiiteiitia Juris at m|iifiUite 
oaiia« man hie homo fraoiua aai) at onnia mat fte aB» 
pUoata, at as animi mai aantantia aonatititta aimt. Itaqnai 
qnod oommiaaiim aat haa nimia longa aaribandi istariiia- 
nonai litararani aiabritato daioaapa libaotar fapooani* It 
aaaa iibi paiaommoda loAyyia Ua HBTiLLoa, vir doatfa^ 
afnnia at tui atodiojiaaimiia, inatat at turgat ot aaribam ad 
ta« Nam vapatana Italiam« Argantoratiim aogitat, td 
aoUna aalataadi at aoDTaniandi gratia. In Ang^iam ? aBtt» 
aomaa itinaria at aociua aonailiornm AnToyii AvovamiXf 
qnam papa luLiua III ad raginam noatnun anpariori anno 
mmdnm lagarit. Hi duo AvTquiva AvwwnniVB at 1. 
MiTBLLva intarloquutoraa annt in ao Ubro, qwm Hxbbo* 
MYMua OaoBiua Lusitanna Cioaroniana, id aat pradantar 
at diiarta, conicriptit 'de Oloria. Ut amplactaria Join- 
KBM Mbtillum, tarn araditum Tirum, tam attidioanm titi 
et mei valde amantam, non opus ast ut ta rogam. Scio 
anim quod humanitat tua effioiat, ut mihi MBTBLLUa 
litaras et loDgaa at graiiarum plenas scribat* 

Ex •armone Joan. Mbtblli omnem rerum Aoglicannn 
atatum intalliges, ab eo qualia tit nobiliatima domina maa 
D. Elizabbtha, quam ipia inea opera alloquutua eat. 
Quantum ilia praettat, Oraeca, Latina, Italica, et Oalliea 
lingua, imo qua rerum cognitione, et quam docto et in- 
talligente judicio precdita tit, ipie tibi fute enarrabit ; ot 
vel Mbtello teste plane cognotcat, nihil unquam a ma 
afAxum fuitte ejus laudibut. Sed htBO et multa alia ab 
ipso Mbtbllo. Nunc pauca da me meitque rebua* 
Quantum debeo tibi, mi Stubmi, mi optatittime JoABBBa 
Stubmi, pro illit Uteria quaa Pagetto in meam gratiam 

1555.] ISCAAX'b LSTTXK8. 445 

Bcriptifiiy Don pnnenteB literae dedarare, non fortuiue 

meae oompenBare poteruDt. Effidam tamen, Deo Tolenie, 

nt posteritas inteliigat amicum ftuMe et Stubmium valde 

gratam et Abchamdm hod immemorem. Quse mihi 

saperiores reges Hxkbicub et Edtabdub eoneeBteront, 

ea non solam Integra reBtituta Bed condaplicata omDia 

Bant. FactoB Bum etiam regi et regmse BecxetahuB pro 

lingua Latina. Quod iDunus, ut me Chbibtub ainat, doq 

oommutarem^ bI quaevifi mihi alia pro arbitratu meo vlveodi 

optio proponeretur. 8t£ph anus episcopuB WiDtouienBi« 

BnmmoB AngUae canoellariuB Bumma humaniiate aU)u« 

favore me coroplexuB est ; ut, paratior fuerit Paoettub — 

ne in me commendando an WintonieuBiB in me luendo atqu*; 

omando, fiaciie dijudicare non queam. Non defueruut, 

qui curBum benerolentiae illiuB in me couati Bunt impedire 

religionia cauBBa, Bed nihil profuerunt. Itaque plurimum 

debeo Wintonienbib humaoitati et libenter debeo. Nequt^ 

ego BoluB, Bed multi etiam alii experti Bunt iiUuB Itumaui- 

tatem. Ck)gitabam et id sa^pe, agere cum eo de tuo \)rm* 

daro opere analytico. 8do enim eum ita favere BtudilB 

literarum, ut plurimum poUioear mihi de illiuB laigitat«« 

Et Bi tu ita velia ad meque BcripBeriB meutem tuBiii, r«iM 

lilienter et uti Bpero felidter tentabo. Nihil iucointuodi 

erit in hac re, mea certe opinione. Gratiai ago tibi vuiii' 

maB pro tuis ad Paoettum literiB, in quibuB tan grututri 

mihi fuit, tui de me judicii testimonium, ut longe oplnliur 

mihi Bit voluptaB, quam capio ex tua benevoleutia, qunm 

esse poBBit ulla commoditas, quas profidBcitur ex PAUBTri 

benefido : sed de his alias et fusius. 

ReverendisBimus cardinalls Polub valde humanus oBt, 
et hand sdo an quisquam Italus eloquentias laude ciun go 
oomparari queat. Me utitur valde familiariter. II oo 
SBBtate quum apud eum pranderem, inddens in scrmonom 
de eruditia yiris higuB setatis, honorificam tui mentioncm 

446 ASCUAM'i LETTERS. [1555. 

fedt. Turn ego, de tuo analytico opere, de rhetorico 
Arittotelico, pro nostro amore et meo de te judicio libenter 
et eopioM: ille vero probaTit Talde inAtitutom tuam. 
I'Oftquam ego loquutus auin de ratione hac et facoliate 
analytica, quee non in conqtdrito literarum ordine, ted 
tinturali renim compage oerneretur, et palam et ingenue 
aifirmabat in te fuitee, non solnm magnam doctrinam, et 
raram tioquentiam, sed moderationem etiam atque Judi- 
cium. Quffirebat porro a me, an quicquam ego nnquam 
?idi de libria Cioeeovis de republioa. Aiebat ae semel 
millia duo aureorum consumpaitie, mittendo certo quodam 
homine in Poloniam, qui eoa librot perquireret, quorum 
illic inTeniendorum ipem qtddam ei fecerat. Ego ttatim 
narraTi, quid tu ad me olim de illis libris. Et rogavit ut 
ad te teriberem, nt tciremut ecquidne certi de illia libm. 
Valde soUicitua sum de quinque rbetoricis libris quos 
Verteri frates, uti scribis, secum in Italiam deportarunt. 
Eo sum securior, quo amantiores tui eos esse scio ; valde 
tamen avidus sum sciendi, quid fit illis libris et quo pro- 
gressus ee in reliquis, et an mutares consilium introducendi 
me in cum sermonem : quod amanter potius quam pru- 
denter a te factum esse judico. Bed nihil optatius mihi 
accidere potest, quam nostri inter nos amoris tarn prse- 
clarum posteris etiam exstare testimonium. Omnia prse* 
clara in primo et secundo libro ; eos tantum vidi : sed te 
ipsum superas, quando digrederis, ut in illis insignibus 
locis, de vitSB brevitate et temporis habenda ratione. Quuni- 
que ego tres dies permansi Argentinee, valde credibile erit 
nos incidisse in varies sermones, de aula Caesari, de belli 
pacisque temporibus, de ratione studiorum, et non con- 
sum psisse totum illud tempus in subtilibus de ipsa arte 
disputationibus. Et ilia apud Platonem potissimum et 
(/icKiioNEM etiam rd, rrapipya superaiit, mea opinione, ipsa 
rd TTpbc ipyov. Sed ineptus ego qui hsBC ad te ; ast omnia 

1555.] ▲SCHiLV'S LETTKIS. 447 

assignabis libetv nostne amidtaa. De nxore quod copia 
aoire, Tulta Talde rrfeit mateitaram aiiaiii Domini R. 
Walopi uxorem. Et habeo takni oxorem qnalem Joaii* 
KB8 SruKMica RoGBKO AacHAMo libenter optaret: 
nomen eat Makgakbta; diea nuptiamm fdit primua 
Jonii menaia 1554 ; ai quid vel in illo nomine Tel illo die 
IflBti ominia inait. Si area adie, quidnam renim ago in 
Aula, intelligaa nonquam mihi magia optatam otiom ooo- 
oeaaum faiaae in Academia, qoam nunc eat in regia. 
Domina Elizabetha et ego una legimna Gneoe orationea 
^acHiNiaetDBMoaTHBNia wtpi Zrt^vov. lUa prolegit 
mihi et primo aapecta tam acienter intelligit, non aolum 
proprietatem iingun et oratoria aeoaum, aed totam caiiaan 
contentionem, popnli adta, conaoetadinem, et morea illiaa 
urbia, ut anmmopere admirareria. Bed hsBc meliua a 
Mbtello noatro, qui aiebat ae pluria facere ridisse iUam 
quam vidiaae Angliam. Si quia amiona tims, optatisaime 
8TUKMi,quidquam negotii habuerit expediendum in Anglia, 
vel apud regiam majeatatem vel apud Dominum Cancel- 
larium, acribe tu ad me ; et intelliget amicna tuus, quan* 
tum AaoHAifua Stubiito and tribuendum eaaejudioat. 
Si unquam enim vel tibi gratum quidquam vel tuia com- 
modum uUum facere poasum; ai non dixeria, jusaeria, 
mandaveria, ingratum te ease judicabo. Sed oblitua sum 
pene illiua rei, de qua in primia ad te acribere volui. Liber 
Cardinalia PoLi de unilaU ecclesiat hoc anno impreaaua 
Argentines, pervenit ad manua illiua. Hie ipae oatendit 
mihi librum. Eat hie cum cardinale quidam patriciua 
Venetua Dominua Pbiulub electua episcopua BrixisB, valde 
<loctua in omni genere literarum et vir perhumanua, cujua 
frequentem mentionem faciunt in auia epiatolia BEMBua et 
SADOLETua. Hicperquiaivit a me, an non putarem prsa- 
fationem Ybboeeii preafixam libro PoLi a te fuiaae scrip- 
tam. Aperte affirmabam, non aolum ilium atylum longia- 

448 asgham's letters. [1556. 

sime discrepRre a tua scriptione ; sed tale etiam factum 
▼aide abhorrere a tuo animo et cogitatione. Nolui hocte 
ignorare. Si non tertiana febre jam correptua esaem, in- 
tenrallum acribendi duorum annorum harum literaram 
prolixitate compeusarem. Sed huic bre?itati ignosces. 
Metior enim tuam voluntatem meis cogitationibua. Nam 
omnea literaa quaa tu acribis nimia brevea esse puto. 
Saluta omnes nostratea, et integerrimam vinim D. 
Ghbistophorum Montium, cujus caassa, si aliquid poi- 
Bum in Anglia, sentiet me et amicum et diligentem. Est 
ArgentinaB juvenis quidam Anglua Thomas Laein, quem 
ego diu amavi ; saluta quaBSO et complectere mea caussa. 
Saluta D. Sleidanum, D. Ebtthb^um, et in primis 
meum suavissimum Michaelem Toxitem, cujus longum 
silentium summam admirationem mihi attulit. Si deest 
materies 'scribendi, nihil prius cupio quam scire ex illius 
Uteris cursum studiorum et scriptorum Joannis Stubmu 
hoc superiore biennio. De thalassio tuo in Angliam mit- 
tendo, vel toga Komana vel Attico pallio vel Dorica veste 
induto, saepe cogito et libenter expecto. Fostremo ego te, 
et mea tuam uxorem salutat. Vale et rescribe. Greno- 
vici, Septembris XIV, 1555. 


(5, 48). 

Informs her of his final adherence to the true Catholic Doctrine. 

Tower of London, July 15, [1556.] 

^effina, — Finem contentionum non disputatio, 

sed submissio facit. Ego ex celsitudinis ves- 

^ OT^ trse consilio et auctoritate, a varietate doctorum 

^^J^JS) ad ecclesise unitatem accedo. In quo, et cel- 

situdini vestrse de consilio gratias ago et de 

j»uccessu Deo. Precor a celsitudine vestra ut haec mea 

1S56.] ASCfiAir's iXTTTja;, 44^ 

senteirda, guain rir dontus ra pius «wl«u«r PuK^JiiriJir ^MkY)>ii|t 
eelsitudiiii Tesirse xradiO, qucmadinoduni c$a « tn^ 9)^ 4id 
tempuF ficta, sic sii Bekitiidiiii Tcstnr iKwpuvx cl ^Ntnw 
reliqiiff de me quesDonis finis, Mnpruiin lu^h^^ ^ vm^i^^ 
tibus tuis, df pkfuods el ckaDcuiiir kud^^ dr d^vn-in* 
humiliutis, fiduoam. TeUcan w* rod, ex jiUl^xiK e\ \i\t^ 
raruiD, etiam aliqna ex parte stndiosi, u«n tjuIUw t^Iv^ww 
habere. Hdiqnum spero viisp mcjrcuTsuw talrm futurtiw, 
ut gratia tua el favore Don iudiirnus vidojiT, l^n,-^ «c<y»** 
sariae sunt mcap boc tempore petilionesi, o^s d<>minui» d<^ 
canus oelsitudini tuie cxponeu In qwibvis cti;iw» atqw<^ 
supplex peto, nl me jures. Dominus celi^itiulinon^ vc*tmm 
senet. Londini, e Turn, XV Julii, 1556, CVUituduu 
tuser addictissimus Joannes Checis. 


On behalf of Lord Lumley and other Englinh nohlon --ooniplnint 
that the earl of Arundel has b«on ilUtrt*ntml nt i^adun 
bj Daniel Foscarini and others. 

Palaco, London, Not. 2, J fiRfl. 
llusirissimo principi D, Jlieronymo Prioli^ f/ucf 
reneiiarum, el magnificia dominit itintyli Sftiatut 
Venetif amicis noalrU caristiimi/i, — Pro Domino 
Lomleio et aliis jinglia nobUibuH, — 1 lliiNlriMitrin 
princeps, magnifici domini, niniri mriMMiini. 
Quum singularis vestra liumanitaH, nc bencvolf^iitiii; M.u- 
dium in gen tern Anglicam, pniscipuc vcro in OTnn<;rri v]\\n 
nobilitatera, perspectum diu jarn ct nccupturn M^mpff 
valde nobis fuerit : magis graturn tam«ri ttit\m o|)|iorf iiritmi 
visum non est, quam qutinri nobili»fiimum AhtipttKUM 
comiteni,pro vwjtro honorir, pro iWhn tUi/^utinittft^uttm utuu'f, 
ct laut<:, turn spkndide ac maguifice in ntnUh huy.r ur\,t, 


430 ASCHAM's LETTEB8. [1556. 

accepi»ti9. Usee grata vcstra official in tantam virnm 
(h'clarntn, qui nol)i», et ordinc codem, et intima amicitia, 
et cuncti.i arrtiiffimrn propinquitatis vinculis conjunctisfi- 
mwn c«jt, in rjos ipuos «tudio»c a vobiu ac ccrtatim confcrri, 
pifinc c;xijitinininu». Vobis igitur pro hac vcstra humani- 
tntc mngnas no.s gratins ct libcnter habcmus et studiosc 
flgimtiA, et cumulate etinm ffumun rclaturi, quum usun, ant 
vcstrarum rr riirri aut vcstrorum hominum, quod nonnun* 
qiiam apud non nccidit, commodam ullam nobis in tilla 
humanitntl't parte vobis rcspondendi opportunitatem attu- 
lent. At vcro, quo jiicundior nobis hicc est vcstnu hn- 
nianitnti*i rccordatio, eo quidcm acerbius nobis accidit, 
quod, non ita pridem, Danielus Foscarinus; homo 
Venctufi,eundem nobilissimum comitcm,alio quidem m^o, 
et magia alicno animo tractarc Patavii, quam restraj mag- 
nificcntittj Venctiis occcpistis, attentaverit. Tolerabite 
quidcm forct, si Fosca kinds, ct sure, et communis et 
Vcnctff; hurnanitatis oblitus fulHSct, modo ejus hoc facto 
iioinon ct dif^nitaH tanti viri non violarctur. Sed facinu« 
illud ru)\)\H jam visum chI ct novturi in ilia rcgionc, ct 
grave ipMO facto, ui lantuH vir in re non Icvi, scd nidlius 
quidem moment i, primum inhumaniter, turn inju«tc i«tic 
vexaretur, qui ftic domi et dignitate, ct fortuni«, ct opibu<» 
floret, ut totiuH An;^liearia; nohilitatis, ct fidcm ad fgui 
(lij^nitatem, et fortunan ad ejus u.sum, pro ftuo nrbitratuct 
voluntate paratJHHimas liaheat. Atque in Italia quidem 
non incogTjitum, et Venetiin potiHsimum hand obftcurum 
CHse poiuit, quod Am: no KM a: comeH, nui ordifu's in An- 
glia, non Holum genere et nobilitate prineipcm locum 
ohtineat, ned quod ea prudentia atquc aueioritatc ctiam 
fioileat, ut liin illu«<tril)UH ornamentifl, et multiM ante 
hupcriorihu^ A n:^'li;x; principibuH, et nunc huic nobi!i»»ima; 
rejoin;/', et eunetiH hujuH regni Ht,atii)UH, cum 8umroo ejus 
liDnfjre jori^^e caris.sinju.i exi taf. Kt hoc porro nomine 

li-H.^ ..^errA \r^ .zrzzzsu -ii 

fCi r .n fl i Tzg : .ainuior .:auer..:a. -^l ..i-.n .' /.:'::...i:.'» ...*.*.- 
maa Inaort^nria. jaoa air^e tr.Ptrr. aat jum.. .i..iu, 

miiiiirare.tii^dcana-muiLia iiu nnu-. .i:iii:mttu -::i.K:ust^ 

«aiiiihii» amd :id3 .tai^s. t rrP!!5Trr..a '• :ift£u Urfuilt, 
^mm iiic JobiiisaimTia ij. ouii. ^a .oIjiT-l .6:.--J- ftfi 

^EDOit act. iiane .Tin yerti^io.t, .a'j?t x: . ._istuiiu ..»-::.. : »> ii: — ^ 

nen, nii xun lia j:i.*:-..ui. ;i?:i :..n -t c/iiiia: iri-^'i, ic 
ciniie& nuiniL =suaii -z *K'j?rjr.:^rj.^::r lir:t^fi^.;UlaiL^■::v iii-^jiier 
fBgramur .mwe Ymaiz.:j. : •'ajJL-a. --rr:. sjii: ';'Li: liunuaii 
aStpia fidaiiii&iiam iavrrsji *£;:. r.i:LiTiia- uit: tMiiin u 
nn» lie jaiiiiitiiiis^ -i;::^:!:!^-*-- •ru-nirjiiifc Uxtnt-zi iTaiii!ii>im 
cwfr jiutiaiiniis:. jLa/Ukr-, Ujji tiUiii^jiniii-, nun :fa::r Jiin 
cx^^iamnim xuiw^mx uuja rvii:-:!: iii?!- imiit-. >imuit. ic 
wsaa. oiicrannue: / iMi.v,ir.:.:t iiiiiilupir. ru ^in. niam 
ii^iriam aiir.uerrr ?r uaim '-'.iau '.x»t nueliifiiit. uiiu. m* 
d«iruam» iniriiiim }A»ci5uniit d lk ia*i iiijirra, tz. ii-i lutrai 
F©**txac:j"i._. ^n jm tiipuum .iimiiiiiJimL riuiii:^. awit 
bfiOktirniift I. ■»'\ii)it ^jur-ianu',. l:i ijui l'i^Ht'". iicr..:. :l"]is 
ifat juaimiiiKo iU'jriuii ^Tajirmi «»nun;un. rjuuiiUL:? b* u.- 

el conaiiCiCiiaB juv»:ij* jtisl a'/iir-Lift tc .li,tth;i. urn rj.ij:c:»?s 

omneiu ftuidxalMD ecmcibdid. LoinJIni, ex lY-^lit s«£-ire-L'i«&j« 
mac nwAJst priitripii, II XoT«iibri&, 1556. 

452 asciiam's letters. [1657. 

CXCIV.— TO POPE PAUL IV, (4, 75). 

For King Philip and Quwn Mary — ipcaks of their attempt to 
rottoro the old roligion — Cardinal Polo legate. 

Palace at WostminBter, Maj 21, 1567. 
lanctissimo patri ac domino nosiro D. Paulo 
Quario, divina provideniia pontijlci maximo, 
PhUijipm et Maria Dei gratia rex et regina 
Angl'uc, /fi^paniarum, Francia, uiriusr/ue Si' 
cilifp, JlitruHalefft, ei Jlilferniafjldei de/en«ore9, 
^c, (cternnm Balutem^ et humillimam nostram obedientiam, 
— Qtiuin cxcclkiiii Del honitnlo ad impcriuin putcrnum 
atquc uvitum venisBcmus, nihil antiquius habuimus, (juain 
ut rcli^Ionis Hiaiuui, hominum ct tcinporum improbitate 
non soluiu collapsuii), scd pcnitus dcformatum, et scdis 
apoHiolicu) rcvcrcniiam ad pristinam dignitatem ac splcn- 
dorcm, quod in nobis crat, restitucrcnius. Qua in re 
quos laborcs, (puc rogni, ci htatUH, atquc adco vitOD nostree 
discriniina Bubiviiuus: sanctitatcm vcstram multorum 
scrinoiiil)UH, alquo adco orbis ('hristiaui voco iutclligcrc 
putanuims, vm^vX nobin d(; vx) pur has litcras phiribuH cx- 
puiiciidutii. I Hud v.vxU) ina^na; nobis oonHolationi i'uit, 
quod in r(;i)us iiostris arduis, (!l tcnq)oribu8 illis dillicilli- 
mis, scdiH apoMtoli(;ai non Hobiiu gratia (;l favoro, scd 
(itlain auxilio m\ HUimiH. AccMJpimua cniiri ab ca Icgatum 
rcvcnuidlMHiiinitn paircni el eonbanguincum nostrum, Ke- 
niNALDUM PoLUM Cardliuilcin, (pii quum subditos nosiros 
ad Hodis ai)Oslolica3 obedieuiiam rc(hixiHMci, niagnam 
post t;a tenipora, vX vohcmcuiter utilcui in rebus (;c(!lesiu) 
eonipoiiendis et eonfirinandis semper operani eoljoeavit. 
CujuH ut legati auetoritate et ut viri sapientissinii cousilio, 
magna ad pietatem (5Ht facta acccjssio, et major quotidie, 
nisi quid aliunde sit, ftitura spcratur. 

lta(|ue justis do caunsis, magiio dolorc aileeti sumus, 
quuni Uteris (piibuudam et multorum sermonibus ad uos 

1557.] ascham's letters. 453 

perlatum esset, legati auctoritatein, semper uUIen)> his 
vero temporibus etiam necessariam, qua pietas ia Deiuu, 
et in sedem apostolicam obedientia augetur, e regno 
nostro, quod nondum satis coufirmatum est, revocari ; at- 
que ita revocari, ut legationem sedi Cautuariensi inuatam 
et penitus annexam, multorum retro summorum poutiti- 
eum actis confirmatam, multorum qui ante nos fueruui 
Angliae regum prterogativa usurpatum, vestm sanctitas 
non exciperet. Quod, quia aJiorum, qui rem nou satit* 
intelligebant, consilio et impulsu, non vestne sanctitatis 
judicio et sententia factum existimamus, si nos ad pieta- 
tem et religionem confirmandam, omnes nostros couatus, 
ita ut Christianos principes decet, semper contulimus, si 
erga sedem apostolicam ea qua debemus religione et ob- 
servantia et ante regnum susceptum et in regno fuimus ; 
si vestram sanctitatem omnibus pietatis et obediential 
officiis prosequuti sumus, rogamus, ne nobis paternam 
pietatem et regno nostro justa privilegia, ne popuiq 
nostro, qui gregis vestri et ecclesise catliolica3 portio est 
non contemuenda, auxilia ad pietatem negare velit : ue 
earn nobis sine nostro merito notam inurat, quae a vcstra 
et sedis Apostolicse dementia, et nostra iu cam pietatc 
et obedientia, vehementer alieua est. Atquc banc postu- 
lationem, quoniam religione et pietate nititur, et ad populi 
Christiani, cujus vobis curam Deus commendavit, profec- 
tum et salutem pertinet, vestramque ad sanctitatem 
orbis Christiani parentem destinatur, et audieudani 
libenter et facile concedendam non dubitamus. Deus 
vestram sanctitatem diutissime conservet. £x regia 
nostra, Westmonasterii, XXI Maii, 1557. Vestraj sanc- 
titatis humillimi et obedientissimi filii. 

Countersigned, R. Asghah.* 

* *' Hano epistolam nunquam antehao impreasam, accepi ipM 
• reyerendo viro Joanne Strype, amioo meo humanlMimo, auti- 

45i AlCUAli's LZTTXfiS. [U&7« 

CXCV.— TO ANTONY BUEN, (8, 81). 

Tor John Burn hii father— reprimand! hii ion for not writbi 
to him often enough { teUs him he knowe too well how to 
turn hie mother round his finder } urges him to fulfil his 
promise of sticking to his studies, &o. 

St. James's Palaoe, Sep. 22, 1S67. 
i]fo Dom. Joanne Bumot ad Antoniumjilium. 8.P. 
— AcoeptsB mihi fuerunt litersB tuse, Antoki 
fill, fuissent quoque pergratsp, si ills gratis 
tuffi, quas pro vestitu agis, paulo maturias ad 
DOS venissent : venerunt enim tardiores, quam 
nostra de ea re expectatio, aut tui erga nos officii ratio 
postulabat. Silentium hoc tuum, aHquam sollicitudinem 
mihi, magnum moerorem matri apportavit; quomodo 
ageres, quid faoeres, ubi esses, omnino ignoravimns. 
Cogitabamus ambo, et id quidem anxie, potuisse fieri, ut 
tu, vel morbo oorreptus, vel ab academia et studiis absens, 
vel, quod nos magis coramovebat, negligens tuee erga nos 
observantiee, vel obiiviscens nosiroD in te benevolentiee, 
nihil ad nos tanto tempore scriberes ; ita ut tu culpara, 
vel officii negligenter a te precteriii, vel pietatis erga nos 
parentes ingrate violatte effugere non potueris. Sed bono 
animo sis, Antoni fili, liano eniin ciilpam facillime rediraes, 
facileque et quando et quam primum volueris, in gratiam 
mecum redieris ; si in iuis ad me Uteris posthac scriben- 
dis crebritatem, mittendis opportunitatem, sedulo studu- 
eris adhibere. De matre, credo, minus sollicitus es : banc 
enim in te oifensionem ante ilia deposuit, quam suscepit, 
et tu propterea artem tenes matrem tractandi pro tuo 
arbitratu ; hie doctior es, quam vellem, aut quam par est : 

quitatis, voterumque Boriptorura, earum prsecipue rerum quro 
ad historiam religiouis in Anglia reformats speotant, literate 
perito." — Elstod. 

i»"r:r.irr -nts. (ii.wn. -vtif^ ih h«M? '!?*/v?}'] f^rtf*. So*. ;'^n H 

f!U''T*.'.i:Ai. t'.-'^iii:^^ fiii?f- MmJ^'Trs, ifi «<»rip*i'>rrr lifor:!n'r"», 
#i:«.r-.".rif.. Tirr/jr/* f]ijM>^i siiTJt, n<^Ti /Teijotn. ot er?«'*:V?i 

|v^1rft. YHtcvi \frn^rM\or\cm^ \fi\\<{ev^ in Vx*^ ht^hci 1^.0- 
<lc*ti>. TVo 5»c foTTi* Tio^iisr<^titi?\m, oii^nom vivtiiti nxltum, 
omnom <lortrinac viam obstnu'l^ ft sibi ip«i\ nwUwm Nri^in\ 
nullum cxcu5i«tioni loonm wlinquit. 8t^\ \w9, rtinin 
crroros tibi conciono lihonlcr, Anton t fili\ M\b i^nvi tnmm 
oonditiono, quam tihi ego anto in nolatione npi^lrrli v^\\]v\\ 
tui prcsrnp^i. Et quia to unice atno, rt prrprtno nnmin 
volo : orrorcs nntrm omnra, onnioniqiin n»^iflii;f»t»tint\i »'x 
aninjo acnipcr odi: slntui, non to virion, spil pirori's ttuH 
v(MU (mam in'imum vorberandof? nlqMK jtii»;nlM!Hlr)fl vn^v : 
rrniitto i^(itur tibi, primuin nnitirs tiias et ntilpn«? vi 
vTYOYvn J (Icindo ipsas litrra'^ tiin^, ltd nccti9rtti-|ff«<, tffe 
illai ip»o ox nnirni tui sontriitia ensllgps. Iti ftlf-pml«» 
JiU ri» tui«i, quod scribis, te ctim mith rpqfibtf«f lui^um 
indurrc iittidrndi studium, tnm milii a^ruhtin f'l'fuUutifyif', 
flit, ut omncs stiperiorea et cidpas !••*»«:, f-t l:*'r*rr*'frt 
* :./i ;»im rrrorrs, pcnilH^ fix finim.'/ m^^> effjyrf/f/^ h^ff*^ 
t^r*, ANToyi fni ; b^r eiiim tw, et f/^re •^/.^fr.*" v'-', t^frr- 

•«i*'.;x*v ...V A»M«'>r.v.;v 'li*'*-'?:, *'»♦'? ii'^-r!?^ "-s-ri v.**.' ; 

^';si» ••*•«*?'•» 1»^ ••"'W''.V :**'^ ;i»>«'*.*i«**^*vvV., *• 1 ■."■' • ''»■ ■*. 

^r •".M.'ii.iiu uuv . V *C'\'. •*. V ■■'*■.* yv*r"^. ■••*;« ;•»••%•• -^j - . >••*.. 

466 AtCnAV's LETTBKS. [1 

tais conatibut libenier conjangemus. Vides, quAm h 
literaf in hoe concnna pnbliconim negotiorum a 
■cripsi; ridere ettfim tu debes, ut ego videam, et v 
intdligant, haa literaa ab amante parenie ad mem 
el obedientem filhim pervenitse. I)eu8 te, ut anni 
pietate, rirtute, et doctrina adaugeat. Ex regis 
D. Jacob. f8 Septembria, 1667. 



This letter ocourt in the Lanadowno MS. iii, paj^o 61. It !■ in 
p«rt the same aa CXLIX, but Taries ao much that it has 
been deemed better to print it liere vorbatim. 

' matissimo tiro Dom, GnUelrno CWillo — Ex 
literis tuis, quns ad Doininum Mokisinum 
dedisti, oruatissimc vir, magna cum voi\iplate 
intellexi quanta animi propensione eiiitcris ut' 
me tibi bcneficio tuo in pcrpctuum dcvincias. 
Spes, quam proponis, est mihi admodum ccTtn : et res 
quam ego expecto abs tc erit valde grata : srd oiimino tua 
▼oluntas, quam tandem suscipis, est longc jucuiKiissima ; 
quae ita expedita est et sic emissa avolat nd bone dc mc 
merendum, ut non solum earn ullo mco ofFicio coiisequcndi 
spem, sed omnemetinin grat las agon di tibi dignns prsccur- 
rat facultatem. Itaque, quum gratis qnns tibi roferrem 
sunt penitus nulla;, et quas tibi jnm mens liabco, sunt 
etiam perexigusB, ego supcrntus re et dcstitiitus oratione 
referam me ad earn qiine sola mihi r<^li<|Ha est compeiisandi 
rationem. Subsequar eiiiin te vohmtnte, studio et per- 
petua observantia. Non est cnim mos horum temi)onmi, 
clarissime vir, non consuctudo horum hominum, non t\ii 
loci sic descendere ad usnin hominis nici ordiiiis : imo 
non est humanitatis, sod divimc cujusdnm naturnp, tarn 
esse paratum, sic esse propositum ad bencfaciendum om- 
nibus, atque id etiam his, qui nullo oflioio nee antea pro- 
mereri,neo postca compcnynrc tain pnvclnraHi tuam bene- 
volentiam queunt. Et hoc ipsum est quod initio dixi, mihi 


proponi quidein certain spcin, et expectari etiam gratam 
rem, tuam tamen tan tarn benevolentiam longe esse jucun- 
(iissimam : nullum euim aba re profectum beneficium 
talcm in te insitam benevolentiam square meo judicio 
potest. Attamen, ut ingenue dicam, non tantum gratulor 
luihi illaro ipsam tuam benevolentiam, quantum tibi gra- 
tidor tunm praclaram naturaro, imo non tibi tantum tuam 
naturam, quantum universee Anglioe suam felicitatem, 
cujus rem et publicam et literariam et Christianam tuo 
tarn prudenti consilio, excellenti doctrina, incenso studio, 
sic qtiotidie juvare, promovere et amplificare laboras. Sed 
dum ex animo et patrioQ gratulari et tibi gratus esse 
studeo, vereor ne intempestivus et ineptus fiam. Gratas 
(|uidem literas scribere volui, jucundas autem his tempori- 
bu9, his rumoribus non potui. Et dum ego Isetus non 
sum, liters lautee esse voluerunt; dumque ego iotas 
gcmo, illao, ut vides, factsB sunt lugubres. Ast adhibebo 
et mcntera et iijianum, ut literas laetiori quum voce, turn 
voste recipias, quam primum loctiorem nuncium de ilia 
illius salute acceperimus, qua uostronim temporum, nos- 
Ironim hominum, nostraruni rerum salus continetur. 

Mitto ad te cartaiii MiiiANDULii-:, cum maxima parte 
totius LongobardioB et lonjijo volumine Padi fluvii : credo 
te antea habere, sed quid impedit diversis in locis eandem 
affigere ? Sed niraius sum in re tarn levi, proesertim ad 
talcm virum : et memor tunc Immanitatis, imprudens ob- 
liviscor auctoritatis et oceupatiomim quibus distineris. 
At nisi tua singularis in me honevolentia explorata mihi 
csset, nee res tain leves, nee literas tarn inanes ad te mitterc 
aiiderem. Vale, ornatissime vir, et me, quod faeis, ama. 
Bruxellis, 9 Julii, 1553. Dignitatis tua3 studiosissimus, 





Afore, 286. 

Aggletts, 286. 

Be, the houses bo, 280, &o. 

Bid the emperor basse, 261. 

Bolden mTself, 361. 

Brant rooks, 266. 

Bruit, 813. 

Chapiter, 312, 314. 

Chop in things, 288. 

Oonauote,/or conduit, 264. 

Orimosim, 286. 

Demi saca, 264. 

])inner*whilo, 268. 

Dure,/or endure, 86, 

Elsewhen, 330. 

Fair fawdome, 258. 

Foreoasting, 279. 

Fro, 283. 

Gentle, 85, gentle drinks, 278. 

Gentilly, 200-280. 

Gontlv, 831, 893, 406. 

Gentilnesn, or gentleness, 261, 

308, 406. 
Gobbets, 309. 
Goodly (for well), 279. 
Goodness hand, 395. 
Hapt, 328. 

ITatli, some hath been, 284. 
Importune, adj, 396, 807. 
Is, Irionds is content, 201. 
Kept in mew, 245. 
Killcs,/or kilns, 251. 
Knnok*, 215. 
Loful, 249. 
Ijeose (lone), 248. 
Lewdly, 246. 

Marrs, 287. 

Matiers, or mattiert, 283, 284, 

Mette, meet ? 286. 
Misorder, 329, 896. 
More stouter, 279. 
News are come, 284. 
Nouje, 315. 

Of a'barrow,/or on, 317. 
Of frersche, /or afresh, 311. 
Olds, opposed to news, 249. 
Overthwarting the seas, 312. 
Overgrow, 194*, 
Pistle,/or epistle, 260. 
Pitcher-meat, 287. 
Peratly, 280. 
Prick {point)^ 287, prick-song, 

Shenting, 830. 
Sithence, 331, 332. 
Stands, mills stands, 219. 
Stead, 194. 

Think,/or thing, 285. 
Than,/or then, 329. 
Tosses and toures, 343. 
Unoonstant, 244, 356. 
Unhonesty, 249. 
Unwinable, 256. 
Yengeable, 284. 
Ware, /or wary, 329. 
Was : here was justs, 280 : was 

oomnanies, 285. 
Who ttej took, 279. 
Witty, /or wise, 193*. 
Worst, /or wrist, 268. 
Ye and you, indifferently. 

B E B A T A. 

VOL. T. 

Page 17, Une 28, /or VIII 
„ 62 „ 6 „ quidam „ 

„ 62 „ 21 „ proteotionem 

62 „ 83 „ qui 





99 0» 99 4"' 

„ 26 „ fuinus 
86 „ 13 „ A, 18 

„ 167 „ 7 „ iniquiorum 

„ 167 „ 18 „ ai&maret 

„ 169 „ 29 „ quantum 

„ 213 „ 14 „ quoa 

„ 807 „ 10 „ 1661 

„ 860 „ 24 „ June 


Page 38, line 9, read Lubecensium. 

„ 77, lino 14, for 98 read 98. 
Part II, page 66, last line, read Arminiua. 


Page 106, line 21, for priyate 
„ 186 „ 18 „ gentleneai 
„ 281 „ 29 „ fallaoj 
„ 286 „ 1 „ mere 

286 •*" r...K..i 




„ 1 „ mere 

„ 22 „ fetolied 

17 „ tettioari 

„ 85 „ ozeroiia 

818 „ 20 „ Laslia 

„ 20O „ sa ,1 leranea 
„ 816 „ 17 „ tettioari 
816 ^"^ ••- 

read privr. 

„ ffentleahip. 

„ lallaoion. 

„ more. 

„ fet. 

„ teatiflcari. 

„ ezeroitiia. 

„ Laslii.